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Aṅguttara Nikāya - The Numerical Discourses

5: The Book of the Fives

180. Gavesī

1On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering on tour among the Kosalans together with a large Saṅgha of bhikkhus. Then, while traveling along the highway, the Blessed One saw a large sal-tree grove in a certain place. He left the highway, entered the sal-tree grove, and smiled when he reached a certain place.

2Then it occurred to the Venerable Ānanda: "Why did the Blessed One smile? Tathāgatas do not smile without a reason." Then the Venerable Ānanda said to the Blessed One: "Why, Bhante, did the Blessed One smile? Tathāgatas do not smile without a reason."

3"In the past, Ānanda, in this place there was an affluent, prosperous, well-populated city, one teeming with people. Now the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One Kassapa lived in dependence on that city. The Blessed One Kassapa had a lay follower named Gavesī who had not fulfilled virtuous behavior. And Gavesī taught and guided five hundred lay followers who had not fulfilled virtuous behavior.

(1) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to Gavesī: ‘I am the benefactor, the leader, and the guide of these five hundred lay followers, yet neither I myself nor these five hundred lay followers have fulfilled virtuous behavior. Thus we are on the same level, and I am not the least bit better. Let me surpass them.’

4"Then Gavesī approached the five hundred lay followers and said to them: ‘From today on, you should consider me to be one fulfilling virtuous behavior.’ Then it occurred to those five hundred lay followers: ‘Master Gavesī is our benefactor, leader, and guide. Now Master Gavesī will fulfill virtuous behavior. Why shouldn’t we do so too?’

"Then those five hundred lay followers approached Gavesī and said to him: ‘From today onward let Master Gavesī consider us to be fulfilling virtuous behavior.’

(2) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to the lay follower Gavesī: ‘I am the benefactor, leader, and guide of these five hundred lay followers. Now I am fulfilling virtuous behavior, and so too are these five hundred lay followers. Thus we are on the same level, and I am not the least bit better. Let me surpass them.’

5"Then Gavesī approached the five hundred lay followers and said to them: ‘From today on, you should consider me to be celibate, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice.’ Then it occurred to those five hundred lay followers: ‘Master Gavesī is our benefactor, leader, and guide. Now Master Gavesī will be celibate, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice. Why shouldn’t we do so too?’

"Then those five hundred lay followers approached Gavesī and said to him: ‘From today onward let Master Gavesī consider us to be celibate, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice.’

(3) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to the lay follower Gavesī: ‘I am the benefactor, leader, and guide of these five hundred lay followers. Now I am fulfilling virtuous behavior, and so too are these five hundred lay followers. I am celibate, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice, and so too are these five hundred lay followers. Thus we are on the same level, and I am not the least bit better. Let me surpass them.’

6"Then Gavesī approached the five hundred lay followers and said to them: ‘From today on, you should consider me to be eating once a day, refraining from a night meal, abstaining from eating outside the proper time.’ Then it occurred to those five hundred lay followers: ‘Master Gavesī is our benefactor, leader, and guide. Now Master Gavesī eats once a day, refraining from a night meal, abstaining from eating outside the proper time. Why shouldn’t we do so too?’

"Then those five hundred lay followers approached Gavesī and said to him: ‘From today onward let Master Gavesī consider us to be eating once a day, refraining from a night meal, abstaining from eating outside the proper time.’

(4) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to the lay follower Gavesī: ‘I am the benefactor, leader, and guide of these five hundred lay followers. Now I am fulfilling virtuous behavior, and so too are these five hundred lay followers. I am celibate, living apart, abstaining from sexual intercourse, the common person's practice, and so too are these five hundred lay followers. I eat once a day, refraining from a night meal, abstaining from eating outside the proper time, and so too do these five hundred lay followers. Thus we are on the same level, and I am not the least bit better. Let me surpass them.’

7"Then Gavesī approached the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One Kassapa, and said to him: ‘Bhante, may I obtain the going forth and full ordination under the Blessed One?’ The lay follower Gavesī obtained the going forth and full ordination under the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One Kassapa. Soon after his full ordination, dwelling alone, withdrawn, heedful, ardent, and resolute, the bhikkhu Gavesī realized for himself with direct knowledge, in this very life, that unsurpassed consummation of the spiritual life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into homelessness, and having entered upon it, he dwelled in it. He directly knew: ‘Destroyed is birth, the spiritual life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being.’ And the bhikkhu Gavesī became one of the arahants.


8"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to those five hundred lay followers: ‘Master Gavesī is our benefactor, leader, and guide. Now Master Gavesī, having shaved off his hair and beard and put on ochre robes, has gone forth from the household life into homelessness. Why shouldn’t we do so too?’

"Then those five hundred lay followers approached the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One Kassapa, and said to him: ‘Bhante, may we obtain the going forth and full ordination under the Blessed One?’ Then those five hundred lay followers obtained the going forth and full ordination under the Blessed One, the Arahant, the Perfectly Enlightened One Kassapa.

9(5) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to the bhikkhu Gavesī: ‘I obtain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the unsurpassed bliss of liberation. Oh, that these five hundred bhikkhus could obtain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the unsurpassed bliss of liberation!’ Then, Ānanda, dwelling each alone, withdrawn, heedful, ardent, and resolute, in no long time those five hundred bhikkhus realized for themselves with direct knowledge, in this very life, that unsurpassed consummation of the spiritual life for the sake of which clansmen rightly go forth from the household life into homelessness, and having entered upon it, they dwelled in it. They directly knew: ‘Destroyed is birth, the spiritual life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming back to any state of being.’

10"Thus, Ānanda, those five hundred bhikkhus headed by Gavesī, striving in successively higher and more sublime ways, realized the unsurpassed bliss of liberation.[n.1178] Here and just below I read with Ce anuttaraṁ vimuttisukhaṁ. Be and Ee have anuttaraṁ vimuttiṁ. Therefore, Ānanda, you should train yourselves thus: ‘Striving in successively higher and more sublime ways, we will realize the unsurpassed bliss of liberation.’ Thus, Ānanda, should you train yourselves."

1Ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā kosalesu cārikaṁ carati mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ. Addasā kho bhagavā addhānamaggappaṭipanno aññatarasmiṁ padese mahantaṁ sālavanaṁ; disvāna maggā okkamma yena taṁ sālavanaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṁ sālavanaṁ ajjhogāhetvā aññatarasmiṁ padese sitaṁ pātvākāsi.

2Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi:  "ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo bhagavato sitassa pātukammāya? Na akāraṇena tathāgatā sitaṁ pātukarontī"ti. Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:  "ko nu kho, bhante, hetu ko paccayo bhagavato sitassa pātukammāya? Na akāraṇena tathāgatā sitaṁ pātukarontī"ti.

3"Bhūtapubbaṁ, ānanda, imasmiṁ padese nagaraṁ ahosi iddhañceva phītañca bahujanaṁ ākiṇṇamanussaṁ. Taṁ kho panānanda, nagaraṁ kassapo bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho upanissāya vihāsi. Kassapassa kho panānanda, bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa gavesī nāma upāsako ahosi sīlesu aparipūrakārī. Gavesinā kho, ānanda, upāsakena pañcamattāni upāsakasatāni paṭidesitāni samādapitāni ahesuṁ sīlesu aparipūrakārino.

Atha kho, ānanda, gavesissa upāsakassa etadahosi:  ‘Ahaṁ kho imesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā, ahañcamhi sīlesu aparipūrakārī, imāni ca pañca upāsakasatāni sīlesu aparipūrakārino. Iccetaṁ samasamaṁ, natthi kiñci atirekaṁ; handāhaṁ atirekāyā’ti.

4Atha kho, ānanda, gavesī upāsako yena tāni pañca upāsakasatāni tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā tāni pañca upāsakasatāni etadavoca:  ‘ajjatagge maṁ āyasmanto sīlesu paripūrakāriṁ dhārethā’ti. Atha kho, ānanda, tesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ etadahosi:  ‘ayyo kho gavesī amhākaṁ bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā. Ayyo hi nāma gavesī sīlesu paripūrakārī bhavissati. Kimaṅgaṁ pana mayan’ti.

Atha kho, ānanda, tāni pañca upāsakasatāni yena gavesī upāsako tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā gavesiṁ upāsakaṁ etadavocuṁ:  ‘ajjatagge ayyo gavesī imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni sīlesu paripūrakārino dhāretū’ti.

Atha kho, ānanda, gavesissa upāsakassa etadahosi:  ‘Ahaṁ kho imesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā, ahañcamhi sīlesu paripūrakārī, imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni sīlesu paripūrakārino. Iccetaṁ samasamaṁ, natthi kiñci atirekaṁ; handāhaṁ atirekāyā’ti.

5Atha kho, ānanda, gavesī upāsako yena tāni pañca upāsakasatāni tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā tāni pañca upāsakasatāni etadavoca:  ‘ajjatagge maṁ āyasmanto brahmacāriṁ dhāretha ārācāriṁ virataṁ methunā gāmadhammā’ti. Atha kho, ānanda, tesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ etadahosi:  ‘ayyo kho gavesī amhākaṁ bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā. Ayyo hi nāma gavesī brahmacārī bhavissati ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. Kimaṅgaṁ pana mayan’ti.

Atha kho, ānanda, tāni pañca upāsakasatāni yena gavesī upāsako tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā gavesiṁ upāsakaṁ etadavocuṁ:  ‘ajjatagge ayyo gavesī imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni brahmacārino dhāretu ārācārino viratā methunā gāmadhammā’ti.

Atha kho, ānanda, gavesissa upāsakassa etadahosi:  ‘Ahaṁ kho imesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā. Ahañcamhi sīlesu paripūrakārī. Imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni sīlesu paripūrakārino. Ahañcamhi brahmacārī ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. Imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni brahmacārino ārācārino viratā methunā gāmadhammā. Iccetaṁ samasamaṁ, natthi kiñci atirekaṁ; handāhaṁ atirekāyā’ti.

6Atha kho, ānanda, gavesī upāsako yena tāni pañca upāsakasatāni tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā tāni pañca upāsakasatāni etadavoca:  ‘ajjatagge maṁ āyasmanto ekabhattikaṁ dhāretha rattūparataṁ virataṁ vikālabhojanā’ti. Atha kho, ānanda, tesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ etadahosi:  ‘ayyo kho gavesī bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā. Ayyo hi nāma gavesī ekabhattiko bhavissati rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā. Kimaṅgaṁ pana mayan’ti.

Atha kho, ānanda, tāni pañca upāsakasatāni yena gavesī upāsako tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā gavesiṁ upāsakaṁ etadavocuṁ:  ‘ajjatagge ayyo gavesī imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni ekabhattike dhāretu rattūparate virate vikālabhojanā’ti.

Atha kho, ānanda, gavesissa upāsakassa etadahosi:  ‘Ahaṁ kho imesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā. Ahañcamhi sīlesu paripūrakārī. Imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni sīlesu paripūrakārino. Ahañcamhi brahmacārī ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. Imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni brahmacārino ārācārino viratā methunā gāmadhammā. Ahañcamhi ekabhattiko rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā. Imānipi pañca upāsakasatāni ekabhattikā rattūparatā viratā vikālabhojanā. Iccetaṁ samasamaṁ, natthi kiñci atirekaṁ; handāhaṁ atirekāyā’ti.

7Atha kho, ānanda, gavesī upāsako yena kassapo bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā kassapaṁ bhagavantaṁ arahantaṁ sammāsambuddhaṁ etadavoca:  ‘labheyyāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṁ labheyyaṁ upasampadan’ti. Alattha kho, ānanda, gavesī upāsako kassapassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa santike pabbajjaṁ, alattha upasampadaṁ. Acirūpasampanno kho panānanda, gavesī bhikkhu eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto nacirasseva – yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṁ – brahmacariyapariyosānaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññāsi. Aññataro ca panānanda, gavesī bhikkhu arahataṁ ahosi.


8Atha kho, ānanda, tesaṁ pañcannaṁ upāsakasatānaṁ etadahosi:  ‘ayyo kho gavesī amhākaṁ bahūpakāro pubbaṅgamo samādapetā. Ayyo hi nāma gavesī kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissati. Kimaṅgaṁ pana mayan’ti.

Atha kho, ānanda, tāni pañca upāsakasatāni yena kassapo bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā kassapaṁ bhagavantaṁ arahantaṁ sammāsambuddhaṁ etadavocuṁ:  ‘labheyyāma mayaṁ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṁ, labheyyāma upasampadan’ti. Alabhiṁsu kho, ānanda, tāni pañca upāsakasatāni kassapassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa santike pabbajjaṁ, alabhiṁsu upasampadaṁ.

9Atha kho, ānanda, gavesissa bhikkhuno etadahosi:  ‘Ahaṁ kho imassa anuttarassa vimuttisukhassa nikāmalābhī homi akicchalābhī akasiralābhī. Aho vatimānipi pañca bhikkhusatāni imassa anuttarassa vimuttisukhassa nikāmalābhino assu akicchalābhino akasiralābhino’ti. Atha kho, ānanda, tāni pañca bhikkhusatāni vūpakaṭṭhā appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharantā nacirasseva – yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṁ – brahmacariyapariyosānaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihariṁsu. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññiṁsu.

10Iti kho, ānanda, tāni pañca bhikkhusatāni gavesīpamukhāni uttaruttari paṇītapaṇītaṁ vāyamamānā anuttaraṁ vimuttiṁ sacchākaṁsu. Tasmātiha, ānanda, evaṁ sikkhitabbaṁ:  ‘uttaruttari paṇītapaṇītaṁ vāyamamānā anuttaraṁ vimuttiṁ sacchikarissāmā’ti. Evañhi vo, ānanda, sikkhitabban"ti.

Dasamaṁ.
Upāsakavaggo tatiyo.

11Sārajjaṁ visārado nirayaṁ,
Veraṁ caṇḍālapañcamaṁ;
Pīti vaṇijjā rājāno,
Gihī ceva gavesināti.