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Aṅguttara Nikāya - The Numerical Discourses

9: The Book of the Nines

41. Tapussa

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling among the Mallas near the Mallan town named Uruvelakappa.[n.1942] With Be and Ee, I read mallesu, as against Ce malatesu. SN 42:11 is also set at Uruvelakappa, which is said to be a town of the Mallas (see CDB 1348). Then, in the morning, the Blessed One dressed, took his bowl and robe, and entered Uruvelakappa for alms. When he had walked for alms in Uruvelakappa, after his meal, on returning from his alms round, he addressed the Venerable Ānanda: "You stay right here, Ānanda, while I enter the Great Wood to pass the day."

"Yes, Bhante," the Venerable Ānanda replied. Then the Blessed One entered the Great Wood and sat down to pass the day at the foot of a tree.


2Then the householder Tapussa approached the Venerable Ānanda, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him:

3"Bhante Ānanda, we laymen enjoy sensual pleasures, delight in sensual pleasures, take delight in sensual pleasures, and rejoice in sensual pleasures. Renunciation seems like a precipice to us. I have heard that in this Dhamma and discipline there are very young bhikkhus, whose minds launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it,[n.1943] Mp glosses vimuccati here as "liberated from the opposing qualities" (paccanīkadhammehi ca vimuccati). Since all three editions, with the support of Mp, have vimuccati, I translate in conformity with this reading, but I think it likely that the original reading was adhimuccati, "resolved upon" or "focused on." As the text unfolds with respect to the successive meditative attainments, in each case the bodhisatta is vimuccati/adhimuccati upon the attainment before he actually achieves it. In such a context being "focused on" rather than "liberated in" makes better sense. seeing[n.1944] Ce has the genitive plural passataṁ, while Be and Ee have the genitive singular passato. Mp Be has passato in the lemma and a genitive plural in the gloss: Etaṁ santan ti passato ti etaṁ nekkhammaṁ santaṁ vigatadarathapariḷāhan ti evaṁ passantānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ. Passato is also found in an older Sinhala edition. Possibly passato entered the text through an erroneous transposition from the Buddha’s account below, where the singular is appropriate. it as peaceful. Renunciation, Bhante, is the dividing line between the multitude and the bhikkhus in this Dhamma and discipline."[n.1945] Mp interprets renunciation (nekkhamma) here as "going forth" (pabbajjā) into homelessness. But the text itself seems to allow renunciation as an internal quality, implicitly identified with firm attainment of the first jhāna.

4"This, householder, is a subject that we should see the Blessed One about. Come, let's go to the Blessed One and report this matter to him. We should retain the Blessed One's explanation in mind."


5"Yes, Bhante," the householder Tapussa replied.


6Then the Venerable Ānanda, together with the householder Tapussa, went to the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said: "Bhante, this householder Tapussa says: ‘Bhante Ānanda, we laymen enjoy sensual pleasures … and renunciation seems like a precipice to us …. But there are very young bhikkhus whose minds … are liberated in it, seeing it as peaceful. Renunciation, Bhante, is the dividing line between the multitude and the bhikkhus in this Dhamma and discipline.’"


7"So it is, Ānanda! So it is, Ānanda![n.1946] I follow the section divisions of Ee, which conform to the paragraph divisions in Be and show the transitions in the discourse better than the divisions in Ce.

(1) "Before my enlightenment, while I was just a bodhisatta, not yet fully enlightened, it occurred to me too: ‘Good is renunciation, good is solitude.’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in sensual pleasures and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in renunciation and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in sensual pleasures, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in renunciation, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon renunciation and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Sometime later, having seen the danger in sensual pleasures, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in renunciation, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon renunciation and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, secluded from sensual pleasures … I entered and dwelled in the first jhāna. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by sensuality occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too, when perception and attention accompanied by sensuality occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.


8(2) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘With the subsiding of thought and examination, let me enter and dwell in the second jhāna ….’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in thoughts and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the absence of thought and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in thoughts, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the absence of thought, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the absence of thought and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in thoughts, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in the absence of thought, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the absence of thought and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later,[n.1947] I follow Ee in reading aparena samayena here and in each of the corresponding sections to come. Ce and Be omit it in later sections. Ānanda, with the subsiding of thought and examination … I entered and dwelled in the second jhāna …. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by thought occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too when that perception and attention accompanied by thought occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

9(3) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘With the fading away as well of rapture … let me enter and dwell in the third jhāna ….’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the absence of rapture and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the absence of rapture and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in rapture and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the absence of rapture and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the absence of rapture and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in rapture, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the absence of rapture, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the absence of rapture and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in rapture, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in the absence of rapture, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the absence of rapture and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, with the fading away as well of rapture … I entered and dwelled in the third jhāna …. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by rapture occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too, when that perception and attention accompanied by rapture occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.


10(4) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘With the abandoning of pleasure and pain … let me enter and dwell in the fourth jhāna ….’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in the pleasure connected with equanimity and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the absence of pleasure and pain and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in the pleasure connected with equanimity, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the absence of pleasure and pain, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the pleasure connected with equanimity, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in the absence of pleasure and pain, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the absence of pleasure and pain and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain … I entered and dwelled in the fourth jhāna …. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by pleasure connected with equanimity occurred in me[n.1948] Here I follow the manuscripts referred to in the note to Ee, which read upekhāsukhasahagatā ("accompanied by the pleasure (connected with) equanimity"). This fits the exposition better than the reading upe(k)khāsahagatā found in all three printed editions. and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too, when that perception and attention accompanied by pleasure connected with equanimity occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.


11(5) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘With the complete surmounting of perceptions of forms, with the passing away of perceptions of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, perceiving "space is infinite," let me enter and dwell in the base of the infinity of space.’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the base of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the base of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in forms and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the base of the infinity of space and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the base of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in forms, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the base of the infinity of space, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the base of the infinity of space and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in forms, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in the base of the infinity of space, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the base of the infinity of space and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, with the complete surmounting of perceptions of forms, with the passing away of perceptions of sensory impingement, with non-attention to perceptions of diversity, perceiving ‘space is infinite,’ I entered and dwelled in the base of the infinity of space. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by forms occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too, when that perception and attention accompanied by forms occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

12(6) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘By completely surmounting the base of the infinity of space, perceiving "consciousness is infinite," let me enter and dwell in the base of the infinity of consciousness.’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the base of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the base of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in the base of the infinity of space and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the base of the infinity of consciousness and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the base of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in the base of the infinity of space, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the base of the infinity of consciousness, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the base of the infinity of consciousness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the base of the infinity of space, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in the base of the infinity of consciousness, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the base of the infinity of consciousness and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of space, perceiving ‘consciousness is infinite,’ I entered and dwelled in the base of the infinity of consciousness. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by the base of the infinity of space occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too, when that perception and attention accompanied by the base of the infinity of space occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

13(7) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘By completely surmounting the base of the infinity of consciousness, perceiving "there is nothing," let me enter and dwell in the base of nothingness.’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the base of nothingness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the base of nothingness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in the base of the infinity of consciousness and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the base of nothingness and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the base of nothingness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in the base of the infinity of consciousness, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the base of nothingness, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the base of nothingness and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the base of the infinity of consciousness, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in the base of nothingness, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the base of nothingness and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, by completely surmounting the base of the infinity of consciousness, perceiving ‘there is nothing,’ I entered and dwelled in the base of nothingness. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by the base of the infinity of consciousness occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too, when that perception and attention accompanied by the base of the infinity of consciousness occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.

14(8) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘By completely surmounting the base of nothingness, let me enter and dwell in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the base of neither-perceptionnor-non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in the base of nothingness and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in the base of nothingness, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the base of neither-perceptionnor-non-perception, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the base of neither-perceptionnor-non-perception and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the base of nothingness, I cultivated that insight, and having achieved the benefit in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, by completely surmounting the base of nothingness, I entered and dwelled in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. While I was dwelling in this state, perception and attention accompanied by the base of nothingness occurred in me and I felt it as an affliction. Just as pain might arise for one feeling pleasure only to afflict him, so too, when that perception and attention accompanied by the base of nothingness occurred in me, I felt it as an affliction.


15(9) "Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘By completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, let me enter and dwell in the cessation of perception and feeling.’ Yet my mind did not launch out upon the cessation of perception and feeling and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I saw it as peaceful. It occurred to me: ‘Why is it that my mind does not launch out upon the cessation of perception and feeling and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful?’ Then it occurred to me: ‘I have not seen the danger in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception and have not cultivated that insight; I have not achieved the benefit in the cessation of perception and feeling and have not pursued it. Therefore my mind does not launch out upon the cessation of perception and feeling and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, though I see it as peaceful.’

"Then, Ānanda, it occurred to me: ‘If, having seen the danger in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, I would cultivate that insight, and if, having achieved the benefit in the cessation of perception and feeling, I would pursue it, it is then possible that my mind would launch out upon the cessation of perception and feeling and become placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I see it as peaceful.’ Then, sometime later, having seen the danger in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, I cultivated that insight; and having achieved the benefit in the cessation of perception and feeling, I pursued it. My mind then launched out upon the cessation of perception and feeling and became placid, settled, and liberated in it, since I saw it as peaceful.

"Sometime later, Ānanda, by completely surmounting the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, I entered and dwelled in the cessation of perception and feeling, and having seen with wisdom, my taints were utterly destroyed.


16"So long, Ānanda, as I did not attain and emerge from these nine attainments of progressive dwellings in direct order and reverse order, I did not claim to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with its devas, Māra, and Brahmā, in this population with its ascetics and brahmins, its devas and humans. But when I attained and emerged from these nine attainments of progressive dwellings in direct order and reverse order, then I claimed to have awakened to the unsurpassed perfect enlightenment in this world with … its devas and humans. The knowledge and vision arose in me: ‘Unshakable is my liberation of mind; this is my last birth; now there is no more renewed existence.’"

1Ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā mallesu viharati uruvelakappaṁ nāma mallānaṁ nigamo. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya uruvelakappaṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Uruvelakappe piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi:  "idheva tāva tvaṁ, ānanda, hohi, yāvāhaṁ mahāvanaṁ ajjhogāhāmi divāvihārāyā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahāvanaṁ ajjhogāhetvā aññatarasmiṁ rukkhamūle divāvihāraṁ nisīdi.


2Atha kho tapusso gahapati yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho tapusso gahapati āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: 

3"Mayaṁ, bhante ānanda, gihī kāmabhogino kāmārāmā kāmaratā kāmasammuditā. Tesaṁ no, bhante, amhākaṁ gihīnaṁ kāmabhogīnaṁ kāmārāmānaṁ kāmaratānaṁ kāmasammuditānaṁ papāto viya khāyati, yadidaṁ nekkhammaṁ. Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante, ‘imasmiṁ dhammavinaye daharānaṁ daharānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’. Tayidaṁ, bhante, imasmiṁ dhammavinaye bhikkhūnaṁ bahunā janena visabhāgo, yadidaṁ nekkhamman"ti.

4"Atthi kho etaṁ, gahapati, kathāpābhataṁ bhagavantaṁ dassanāya. Āyāma, gahapati, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamissāma; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavato etamatthaṁ ārocessāma. Yathā no bhagavā byākarissati tathā naṁ dhāressāmā"ti.


5"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho tapusso gahapati āyasmato ānandassa paccassosi. Atha kho āyasmā ānando tapussena gahapatinā saddhiṁ yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: 


6"Ayaṁ, bhante, tapusso gahapati evamāha:  ‘Mayaṁ, bhante ānanda, gihī kāmabhogino kāmārāmā kāmaratā kāmasammuditā, tesaṁ no, bhante, amhākaṁ gihīnaṁ kāmabhogīnaṁ kāmārāmānaṁ kāmaratānaṁ kāmasammuditānaṁ papāto viya khāyati, yadidaṁ nekkhammaṁ’. Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante, ‘imasmiṁ dhammavinaye daharānaṁ daharānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tayidaṁ, bhante, imasmiṁ dhammavinaye bhikkhūnaṁ bahunā janena visabhāgo yadidaṁ nekkhamman’"ti.


7"Evametaṁ, ānanda, evametaṁ, ānanda.

Mayhampi kho, ānanda, pubbeva sambodhā anabhisambuddhassa bodhisattasseva sato etadahosi:  ‘sādhu nekkhammaṁ, sādhu paviveko’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, nekkhamme cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me nekkhamme cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘kāmesu kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, nekkhamme ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me nekkhamme cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ kāmesu ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, nekkhamme ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena kāmesu ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, nekkhamme ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato kāmasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me kāmasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.


8Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā … pe … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, avitakke cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me avitakke cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘vitakkesu kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, avitakke ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me avitakke cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ vitakkesu ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, avitakke ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me avitakke cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena vitakkesu ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, avitakke ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, avitakke cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā … pe … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato vitakkasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me vitakkasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.

9Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca vihareyyaṁ sato ca sampajāno sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeyyaṁ yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti – upekkhako satimā sukhavihārīti tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, nippītike cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me nippītike cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘pītiyā kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, nippītike ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me nippītike cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ pītiyā ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, nippītike ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me nippītike cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena pītiyā ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, nippītike ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, nippītike cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, pītiyā ca virāgā … pe … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato pītisahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me pītisahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.


10Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, adukkhamasukhe cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me adukkhamasukhe cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘upekkhāsukhe kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, adukkhamasukhe ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me adukkhamasukhe cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ upekkhāsukhe ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, adukkhamasukhe ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me adukkhamasukhe cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena upekkhāsukhe ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ adukkhamasukhe ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, adukkhamasukhe cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, sukhassa ca pahānā … pe … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me upekkhāsahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.


11Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā "ananto ākāso"ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, ākāsānañcāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me ākāsānañcāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘rūpesu kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca abahulīkato, ākāsānañcāyatane ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me ākāsānañcāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ rūpesu ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, ākāsānañcāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me ākāsānañcāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena rūpesu ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, ākāsānañcāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, ākāsānañcāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato rūpasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me rūpasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.

12Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma "anantaṁ viññāṇan"ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, viññāṇañcāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me viññāṇañcāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ākāsānañcāyatane kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca abahulīkato, viññāṇañcāyatane ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me viññāṇañcāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ ākāsānañcāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, viññāṇañcāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me viññāṇañcāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena ākāsānañcāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, viññāṇañcāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, viññāṇañcāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma ‘anantaṁ viññāṇan’ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato ākāsānañcāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me ākāsānañcāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.

13Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma "natthi kiñcī"ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, ākiñcaññāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me ākiñcaññāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘viññāṇañcāyatane kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, ākiñcaññāyatane ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me ākiñcaññāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ viññāṇañcāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, ākiñcaññāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me ākiñcaññāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena viññāṇañcāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, ākiñcaññāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, ākiñcaññāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma ‘Natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato viññāṇañcāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me viññāṇañcāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.

14Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, nevasaññānāsaññāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo, yena me nevasaññānāsaññāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ākiñcaññāyatane kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, nevasaññānāsaññāyatane ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me nevasaññānāsaññāyatane cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ ākiñcaññāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, nevasaññānāsaññāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me nevasaññānāsaññāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena ākiñcaññāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, nevasaññānāsaññāyatane ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, nevasaññānāsaññāyatane cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, iminā vihārena viharato ākiñcaññāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho. Seyyathāpi, ānanda, sukhino dukkhaṁ uppajjeyya yāvadeva ābādhāya; evamevassa me ākiñcaññāyatanasahagatā saññāmanasikārā samudācaranti. Svassa me hoti ābādho.


15Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘yannūnāhaṁ nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, saññāvedayitanirodhe cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘ko nu kho hetu, ko paccayo, yena me saññāvedayitanirodhe cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’? Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘nevasaññānāsaññāyatane kho me ādīnavo adiṭṭho, so ca me abahulīkato, saññāvedayitanirodhe ca ānisaṁso anadhigato, so ca me anāsevito. Tasmā me saññāvedayitanirodhe cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato’.

Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, etadahosi:  ‘sace kho ahaṁ nevasaññānāsaññāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulaṁ kareyyaṁ, saññāvedayitanirodhe ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseveyyaṁ, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me saññāvedayitanirodhe cittaṁ pakkhandeyya pasīdeyya santiṭṭheyya vimucceyya etaṁ santanti passato’. So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, aparena samayena nevasaññānāsaññāyatane ādīnavaṁ disvā taṁ bahulamakāsiṁ, saññāvedayitanirodhe ānisaṁsaṁ adhigamma tamāseviṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, ānanda, saññāvedayitanirodhe cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati etaṁ santanti passato.

So kho ahaṁ, ānanda, sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ upasampajja viharāmi, paññāya ca me disvā āsavā parikkhayaṁ agamaṁsu.


16Yāvakīvañcāhaṁ, ānanda, imā nava anupubbavihārasamāpattiyo na evaṁ anulomapaṭilomaṁ samāpajjimpi vuṭṭhahimpi, neva tāvāhaṁ, ānanda, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṁ. Yato ca kho ahaṁ, ānanda, imā nava anupubbavihārasamāpattiyo evaṁ anulomapaṭilomaṁ samāpajjimpi vuṭṭhahimpi, athāhaṁ, ānanda, sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya ‘anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho’ti paccaññāsiṁ. Ñāṇañca pana me dassanaṁ udapādi:  ‘akuppā me cetovimutti, ayamantimā jāti, natthi dāni punabbhavo’"ti.

Dasamaṁ.
Mahāvaggo catuttho.

17Dve vihārā ca nibbānaṁ,
gāvī jhānena pañcamaṁ;
Ānando brāhmaṇā devo,
nāgena tapussena cāti.