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Majjhima Nikāya

MN110: Cūḷapuṇṇamasutta - The Shorter Discourse on the Full-Moon Night

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in the Eastern Park, in the Palace of Migāra's Mother.

On that occasion — the Uposatha day of the fifteenth, on the full-moon night — the Blessed One was seated in the open surrounded by the Saṅgha of bhikkhus.13 Then, surveying the silent Saṅgha of bhikkhus, he addressed them thus:

"Bhikkhus, would an untrue man[n.1045] Asappurisa. MA glosses by pāpapurisa, an evil man. know of an untrue man: ‘This person is an untrue man’?" — "No, venerable sir."

2"Good, bhikkhus. It is impossible, it cannot be, that an untrue man should know of an untrue man: ‘This person is an untrue man.’ But would an untrue man know of a true man: ‘This person is a true man’?" — "No, venerable sir."

3"Good, bhikkhus. It is impossible, it cannot be, that an untrue man should know of a true man: ‘This person is a true man.’

"Bhikkhus, an untrue man is possessed of bad qualities; he associates as an untrue man, he wills as an untrue man, he counsels as an untrue man, he speaks as an untrue man, he acts as an untrue man, he holds views as an untrue man, and he gives gifts as an untrue man.

4"And how is an untrue man possessed of bad qualities? Here an untrue man has no faith, no shame, no fear of wrongdoing; he is unlearned, lazy, forgetful, and unwise. That is how an untrue man is possessed of bad qualities.

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5"And how does an untrue man associate as an untrue man? Here an untrue man has for friends and companions those recluses and brahmins who have no faith, no shame, no fear of wrongdoing; who are unlearned, lazy, forgetful, and unwise. That is how an untrue man associates as an untrue man.

6"And how does an untrue man will as an untrue man? Here an untrue man wills for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both. That is how an untrue man wills as an untrue man.

7"And how does an untrue man counsel as an untrue man? Here an untrue man counsels for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, and for the affliction of both. That is how an untrue man counsels as an untrue man.

8"And how does an untrue man speak as an untrue man? Here an untrue man speaks false speech, malicious speech, harsh speech, and gossip. That is how an untrue man speaks as an untrue man.

9"And how does an untrue man act as an untrue man? Here an untrue man kills living beings, takes what is not given, and misconducts himself in sensual pleasures. That is how an untrue man acts as an untrue man.

10"And how does an untrue man hold views as an untrue man? Here an untrue man holds such a view as this: ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed; no fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn spontaneously; no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have realised for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ That is how an untrue man holds views as an untrue man.

11"And how does an untrue man give gifts as an untrue man? Here an untrue man gives a gift carelessly, gives it not with his own hand, gives it without showing respect, gives what is to be discarded, gives it with the view that nothing will come of it. That is how an untrue man gives gifts as an untrue man.

12"That untrue man — thus possessed of bad qualities, who thus associates as an untrue man, wills as an untrue man, counsels as an untrue man, speaks as an untrue man, acts as an untrue man, holds views as an untrue man, and gives gifts as an untrue man — on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappears in the destination of untrue men. And what is the destination of untrue men? It is hell or the animal world.


13"Bhikkhus, would a true man know of a true man: ‘This person is a true man’?" — "Yes, venerable sir."

14"Good, bhikkhus. It is possible that a true man would know of a true man: ‘This person is a true man.’ But would a true man know of an untrue man: ‘This person is an untrue man’?" — "Yes, venerable sir." 13— "Good, bhikkhus. It is possible that a true man would know of an untrue man: ‘This person is an untrue man.’

15"Bhikkhus, a true man is possessed of good qualities; he associates as a true man, he wills as a true man, he counsels as a true man, he speaks as a true man, he acts as a true man, he holds views as a true man, and he gives gifts as a true man.

16"And how is a true man possessed of good qualities? Here a true man has faith, shame, and fear of wrongdoing; he is learned, energetic, mindful, and wise. That is how a true man is possessed of good qualities.

17"And how does a true man associate as a true man? Here a true man has for his friends and companions those recluses and brahmins who have faith, shame, and fear of wrongdoing; who are learned, energetic, mindful, and wise. That is how a true man associates as a true man.

18"And how does a true man will as a true man? Here a true man does not will for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. That is how a true man wills as a true man.

19"And how does a true man counsel as a true man? Here a true man does not counsel for his own affliction, for the affliction of others, or for the affliction of both. That is how a true man counsels as a true man.

20"And how does a true man speak as a true man? Here a true man abstains from false speech, from malicious speech, from harsh speech, and from gossip. That is how a true man speaks as a true man.

21"And how does a true man act as a true man? Here a true man abstains from killing living beings, from taking what is not given, and from misconduct in sensual pleasures. That is how a true man acts as a true man.

22"And how does a true man hold views as a true man? Here a true man holds such a view as this: ‘There is what is given and what is offered and what is sacrificed; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings who are reborn spontaneously; there are good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have realised for themselves by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world.’ That is how a true man holds views as a true man.

23"And how does a true man give gifts as a true man? Here a true man gives a gift carefully, gives it with his own hand, gives it showing respect, gives a valuable gift, gives it with the view that something will come of it. That is how a true man gives gifts as a true man.

24"That true man — thus possessed of good qualities, who thus associates as a true man, wills as a true man, counsels as a true man, speaks as a true man, acts as a true man, holds views as a true man, and gives gifts as a true man — on the dissolution of the body, after death, reappears in the destination of true men. And what is the destination of true men? It is greatness among the gods or greatness among human beings."


25That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words.

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati pubbārāme migāramātupāsāde.

Tena kho pana samayena bhagavā tadahuposathe pannarase puṇṇāya puṇṇamāya rattiyā bhikkhusaṅghaparivuto abbhokāse nisinno hoti. Atha kho bhagavā tuṇhībhūtaṁ tuṇhībhūtaṁ bhikkhusaṅghaṁ anuviloketvā bhikkhū āmantesi:

"jāneyya nu kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisaṁ: ‘asappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante".

2"Sādhu, bhikkhave; aṭṭhānametaṁ, bhikkhave, anavakāso yaṁ asappuriso asappurisaṁ jāneyya: ‘asappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’ti. Jāneyya pana, bhikkhave, asappuriso sappurisaṁ: ‘sappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante".

3"Sādhu, bhikkhave; etampi kho, bhikkhave, aṭṭhānaṁ anavakāso yaṁ asappuriso sappurisaṁ jāneyya: ‘sappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’ti.

Asappuriso, bhikkhave, assaddhammasamannāgato hoti, asappurisabhatti hoti, asappurisacintī hoti, asappurisamantī hoti, asappurisavāco hoti, asappurisakammanto hoti, asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti; asappurisadānaṁ deti.

4Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddhammasamannāgato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, appassuto hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti, duppañño hoti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso assaddhammasamannāgato hoti. (1)

5Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisabhatti hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappurisassa ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā assaddhā ahirikā anottappino appassutā kusītā muṭṭhassatino duppaññā tyāssa mittā honti te sahāyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisabhatti hoti. (2)

6Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisacintī hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso attabyābādhāyapi ceteti, parabyābādhāyapi ceteti, ubhayabyābādhāyapi ceteti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisacintī hoti. (3)

7Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisamantī hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso attabyābādhāyapi manteti, parabyābādhāyapi manteti, ubhayabyābādhāyapi manteti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisamantī hoti. (4)

8Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisavāco hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso musāvādī hoti, pisuṇavāco hoti, pharusavāco hoti, samphappalāpī hoti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisavāco hoti. (5)

9Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisakammanto hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso pāṇātipātī hoti, adinnādāyī hoti, kāmesumicchācārī hoti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisakammanto hoti. (6)

10Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso evaṁdiṭṭhi hoti: ‘Natthi dinnaṁ, natthi yiṭṭhaṁ, natthi hutaṁ, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, natthi ayaṁ loko, natthi paro loko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā, ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadiṭṭhi hoti. (7)

11Kathañca, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadānaṁ deti? Idha, bhikkhave, asappuriso asakkaccaṁ dānaṁ deti, asahatthā dānaṁ deti, acittīkatvā dānaṁ deti, apaviṭṭhaṁ dānaṁ deti anāgamanadiṭṭhiko dānaṁ deti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, asappuriso asappurisadānaṁ deti.

12So, bhikkhave, asappuriso evaṁ assaddhammasamannāgato, evaṁ asappurisabhatti, evaṁ asappurisacintī, evaṁ asappurisamantī, evaṁ asappurisavāco, evaṁ asappurisakammanto, evaṁ asappurisadiṭṭhi; evaṁ asappurisadānaṁ datvā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā yā asappurisānaṁ gati tattha upapajjati. Kā ca, bhikkhave, asappurisānaṁ gati? Nirayo vā tiracchānayoni vā.


13Jāneyya nu kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisaṁ: ‘sappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’"ti? "Evaṁ, bhante".

14"Sādhu, bhikkhave; ṭhānametaṁ, bhikkhave, vijjati yaṁ sappuriso sappurisaṁ jāneyya: ‘sappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’ti. Jāneyya pana, bhikkhave, sappuriso asappurisaṁ: ‘asappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’"ti? "Evaṁ, bhante".

15"Sādhu, bhikkhave; etampi kho, bhikkhave, ṭhānaṁ vijjati yaṁ sappuriso asappurisaṁ jāneyya: ‘asappuriso ayaṁ bhavan’ti. Sappuriso, bhikkhave, saddhammasamannāgato hoti, sappurisabhatti hoti, sappurisacintī hoti, sappurisamantī hoti, sappurisavāco hoti, sappurisakammanto hoti, sappurisadiṭṭhi hoti; sappurisadānaṁ deti.

16Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso saddhammasamannāgato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappuriso saddho hoti, hirimā hoti, ottappī hoti, bahussuto hoti, āraddhavīriyo hoti, upaṭṭhitassati hoti, paññavā hoti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso saddhammasamannāgato hoti. (1)

17Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisabhatti hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappurisassa ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhā hirimanto ottappino bahussutā āraddhavīriyā upaṭṭhitassatino paññavanto tyāssa mittā honti, te sahāyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisabhatti hoti. (2)

18Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisacintī hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappuriso nevattabyābādhāya ceteti, na parabyābādhāya ceteti, na ubhayabyābādhāya ceteti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisacintī hoti. (3)

19Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisamantī hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappuriso nevattabyābādhāya manteti, na parabyābādhāya manteti, na ubhayabyābādhāya manteti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisamantī hoti. (4)

20Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisavāco hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappuriso musāvādā paṭivirato hoti, pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti, pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti, samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisavāco hoti. (5)

21Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisakammanto hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappuriso pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti, kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato hoti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisakammanto hoti. (6)

22Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisadiṭṭhi hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappuriso evaṁdiṭṭhi hoti: ‘atthi dinnaṁ, atthi yiṭṭhaṁ, atthi hutaṁ, atthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, atthi ayaṁ loko, atthi paro loko, atthi mātā, atthi pitā, atthi sattā opapātikā, atthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisadiṭṭhi hoti. (7)

23Kathañca, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisadānaṁ deti? Idha, bhikkhave, sappuriso sakkaccaṁ dānaṁ deti, sahatthā dānaṁ deti, cittīkatvā dānaṁ deti, anapaviṭṭhaṁ dānaṁ deti, āgamanadiṭṭhiko dānaṁ deti. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, sappuriso sappurisadānaṁ deti. (8)

24So, bhikkhave, sappuriso evaṁ saddhammasamannāgato, evaṁ sappurisabhatti, evaṁ sappurisacintī, evaṁ sappurisamantī, evaṁ sappurisavāco, evaṁ sappurisakammanto, evaṁ sappurisadiṭṭhi; evaṁ sappurisadānaṁ datvā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā yā sappurisānaṁ gati tattha upapajjati. Kā ca, bhikkhave, sappurisānaṁ gati? Devamahattatā vā manussamahattatā vā"ti.


25Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

Cūḷapuṇṇamasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dasamaṁ.
Devadahavaggo niṭṭhito paṭhamo.

26Devadahaṁ pañcattayaṁ,
Kinti sāma sunakkhattaṁ;
Sappāya gaṇa gopaka — ​
Mahāpuṇṇa cūḷapuṇṇañcāti.