Light/Dark

Majjhima Nikāya

MN39: Mahāassapura Sutta - The Longer Discourse at Assapura

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Angan country at a town of the Angans named Assapura. There the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus." — "Venerable sir," they replied. The Blessed One said this:

2"‘Recluses, recluses,’ bhikkhus, that is how people perceive you. And when you are asked, ‘What are you?’, you claim that you are recluses. Since that is what you are designated and what you claim to be, you should train thus: ‘We will undertake and practise those things that make one a recluse, that make one a brahmin,[n.415] "Brahmin" should be understood in the sense explained below, ¶24. so that our designations may be true and our claims genuine, and so that the services of those whose robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites we use shall bring them great fruit and benefit, and so that our going forth shall not be in vain but fruitful and fertile.’

Conduct and Livelihood

3"And what, bhikkhus, are the things that make one a recluse, that make one a brahmin? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing.’[n.416] Shame (hiri) and fear of wrongdoing (ottappa) are two complementary qualities designated by the Buddha "the guardians of the world" (AN i.51) because they serve as the foundation for morality. Shame has the characteristic of disgust with evil, is dominated by a sense of self-respect, and manifests itself as conscience. Fear of wrongdoing has the characteristic of dread of evil, is dominated by a concern for the opinions of others, and manifests itself as fear of doing evil. See Vsm XIV, 142. Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing. That much is enough, that much has been done, the goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for us to do’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.[n.417] MA quotes SN 45:3536/v.25: "What, bhikkhus, is recluseship (sāmañña)? The Noble Eightfold Path … — this is called recluseship. And what, bhikkhus, is the goal of recluseship (sāmaññattho)? The destruction of greed, hate, and delusion — this is called the goal of recluseship."

4"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our bodily conduct shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified bodily conduct.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing and our bodily conduct has been purified. That much is enough, that much has been done, the goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for us to do’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

5"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our verbal conduct shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified verbal conduct.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct has been purified, and our verbal conduct has been purified. That much is enough … ’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

6"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our mental conduct shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified mental conduct.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct and verbal conduct have been purified, and our mental conduct has been purified. That much is enough … ’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

7"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘Our livelihood shall be purified, clear and open, flawless and restrained, and we will not laud ourselves and disparage others on account of that purified livelihood.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, and mental conduct have been purified, and our livelihood has been purified. That much is enough … ’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

Restraint of the Senses

8"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will guard the doors of our sense faculties. On seeing a form with the eye, we will not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if we left the eye faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade us, we will practise the way of its restraint, we will guard the eye faculty, we will undertake the restraint of the eye faculty. On hearing a sound with the ear … On smelling an odour with the nose … On tasting a flavour with the tongue … On touching a tangible with the body … On cognizing a mind-object with the mind, we will not grasp at its signs and features. Since, if we left the mind faculty unguarded, evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief might invade us, we will practise the way of its restraint, we will guard the mind faculty, we will undertake the restraint of the mind faculty.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, and we guard the doors of our sense faculties. That much is enough … ’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

Moderation in Eating

9"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be moderate in eating. Reflecting wisely, we will take food neither for amusement nor for intoxication nor for the sake of physical beauty and attractiveness, but only for the endurance and continuance of this body, for ending discomfort, and for assisting the holy life, considering: "Thus I shall terminate old feelings without arousing new feelings and I shall be healthy and blameless and shall live in comfort."’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors of our sense faculties, and we are moderate in eating. That much is enough … ’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

Wakefulness

10"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be devoted to wakefulness. During the day, while walking back and forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of obstructive states. In the first watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of obstructive states. In the middle watch of the night we will lie down on the right side in the lion's pose with one foot overlapping the other, mindful and fully aware, after noting in our minds the time for rising. After rising, in the third watch of the night, while walking back and forth and sitting, we will purify our minds of obstructive states.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors of our sense faculties, we are moderate in eating, and we are devoted to wakefulness. That much is enough … ’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

Mindfulness and Full Awareness

11"What more is to be done? Bhikkhus, you should train thus: ‘We will be possessed of mindfulness and full awareness. We will act in full awareness when going forward and returning; we will act in full awareness when looking ahead and looking away; we will act in full awareness when flexing and extending our limbs; we will act in full awareness when wearing our robes and carrying our outer robe and bowl; we will act in full awareness when eating, drinking, consuming food, and tasting; we will act in full awareness when defecating and urinating; we will act in full awareness when walking, standing, sitting, falling asleep, waking up, talking, and keeping silent.’ Now, bhikkhus, you may think thus: ‘We are possessed of shame and fear of wrongdoing, our bodily conduct, verbal conduct, mental conduct, and livelihood have been purified, we guard the doors of our sense faculties, we are moderate in eating, we are devoted to wakefulness, and we are possessed of mindfulness and full awareness. That much is enough, that much has been done, the goal of recluseship has been reached, there is nothing more for us to do’; and you may rest content with that much. Bhikkhus, I inform you, I declare to you: You who seek the recluse's status, do not fall short of the goal of recluseship while there is more to be done.

Abandoning of the Hindrances

12"What more is to be done? Here, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw.

"On returning from his almsround, after his meal he sits down, folding his legs crosswise, setting his body erect and establishing mindfulness before him. Abandoning covetousness for the world, he abides with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. Abandoning ill will and hatred, he abides with a mind free from ill will, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Abandoning sloth and torpor, he abides free from sloth and torpor, percipient of light, mindful and fully aware; he purifies his mind from sloth and torpor. Abandoning restlessness and remorse, he abides unagitated with a mind inwardly peaceful; he purifies his mind from restlessness and remorse. Abandoning doubt, he abides having gone beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.


13"Bhikkhus, suppose a man were to take a loan and undertake business and his business were to succeed so that he could repay all the money of the old loan and there would remain enough extra to maintain a wife; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy.

14Or suppose a man were afflicted, suffering and gravely ill, and his food would not agree with him and his body had no strength, but later he would recover from the affliction and his food would agree with him and his body would regain strength; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy.

15Or suppose a man were imprisoned in a prisonhouse, but later he would be released from prison, safe and secure, with no loss to his property; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy.

16Or suppose a man were a slave, not self-dependent but dependent on others, unable to go where he wants, but later on he would be released from slavery, self-dependent, independent of others, a freed man able to go where he wants; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy.

17Or suppose a man with wealth and property were to enter a road across a desert, but later on he would cross over the desert, safe and secure, with no loss to his property; then on considering this, he would be glad and full of joy.

18So too, bhikkhus, when these five hindrances are unabandoned in himself, a bhikkhu sees them respectively as a debt, a disease, a prisonhouse, slavery, and a road across a desert. But when these five hindrances have been abandoned in himself, he sees that as freedom from debt, healthiness, release from prison, freedom from slavery, and a land of safety.[n.418] MA gives a detailed elaboration of each of the five similes. An English translation can be found in Nyanaponika Thera, The Five Mental Hindrances, pp. 27–34.

The Four Jhānas

19"Having abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. Just as a skilled bath man or a bath man's apprentice heaps bath powder in a metal basin and, sprinkling it gradually with water, kneads it until the moisture wets his ball of bath powder, soaks it, and pervades it inside and out, yet the ball itself does not ooze; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.

20"Again, bhikkhus, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhāna, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. He makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of concentration. Just as though there were a lake whose waters welled up from below and it had no inflow from east, west, north, or south, and would not be replenished from time to time by showers of rain, then the cool fount of water welling up in the lake would make the cool water drench, steep, fill, and pervade the lake, so that there would be no part of the whole lake unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the rapture and pleasure born of concentration drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

21"Again, bhikkhus, with the fading away as well of rapture, a bhikkhu abides in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’ He makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture. Just as, in a pond of blue or red or white lotuses, some lotuses that are born and grow in the water thrive immersed in the water without rising out of it, and cool water drenches, steeps, fills, and pervades them to their tips and their roots, so that there is no part of all those lotuses unpervaded by cool water; so too, a bhikkhu makes the pleasure divested of rapture drench, steep, fill, and pervade this body, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pleasure divested of rapture.

22"Again, bhikkhus, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. He sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind. Just as though a man were sitting covered from the head down with a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his whole body unpervaded by the white cloth; so too, a bhikkhu sits pervading this body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his whole body unpervaded by the pure bright mind.

The Three True Knowledges

23"When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. Just as a man might go from his own village to another village and then back again to his own village, he might think: ‘I went from my own village to that village, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, kept silent in such a way; and from that village I went to that other village, and there I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, kept silent in such a way; and from that village I came back again to my own village.’ So too, a bhikkhu recollects his manifold past lives … Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.

24"When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings.Explained in detail at Vsm XIII, 72–101. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. I understood how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’ Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings pass on according to their actions.

25"When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’; … ‘This is the origin of suffering’; … ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; … ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering’; … ‘These are the taints’; … ‘This is the origin of the taints’; … ‘This is the cessation of the taints’; … ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’

"When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

26"Just as if there were a lake in a mountain recess, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, so that a man with good sight standing on the bank could see shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also shoals of fish swimming about and resting, he might think: ‘There is this lake, clear, limpid, and undisturbed, and there are these shells, gravel, and pebbles, and also these shoals of fish swimming about and resting.’ So too, a bhikkhu understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering.’ … He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

The Arahant

27"Bhikkhus, a bhikkhu such as this is called a recluse, a brahmin, one who has been washed, one who has attained to knowledge, a holy scholar, a noble one, an arahant.[n.419] Each of the explanations to follow involves a word play that cannot be reproduced in English, e.g., a bhikkhu is a recluse (saṁaṇa) because he has quieted down (samita) evil states, a brahmin because he has expelled (bāhita) evil states, etc.

"And how is a bhikkhu a recluse? He has quieted down evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is a recluse.

28"And how is a bhikkhu a brahmin? He has expelled evil unwholesome states that defile … and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is a brahmin.

29"And how is a bhikkhu one who has been washed?[n.420] The term "washed" (nahātaka) refers to a brahmin who, at the end of his discipleship under his teacher, has taken a ceremonial bath marking the end of his training. See Sn 521. He has washed off evil unwholesome states that defile … and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is one who has been washed.

30"And how is a bhikkhu one who has attained to knowledge? He has known evil unwholesome states that defile … and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. That is how a bhikkhu is one who has attained to knowledge.

31"And how is a bhikkhu a holy scholar?[n.421] The Pali word sotthiya (Skt, śrotriya) means a brahmin well versed in the Vedas, one conversant with sacred knowledge. The evil unwholesome states that defile … and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, have streamed away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is a holy scholar.

32"And how is a bhikkhu a noble one? Evil unwholesome states that defile … and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, are far away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is a noble one.

33"And how is a bhikkhu an arahant? Evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death, are far away from him. That is how a bhikkhu is an arahant."

34That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words.

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā aṅgesu viharati assapuraṁ nāma aṅgānaṁ nigamo. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "bhikkhavo"ti. "Bhadante"ti te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca: 

2"Samaṇā samaṇāti vo, bhikkhave, jano sañjānāti. Tumhe ca pana ‘ke tumhe’ti puṭṭhā samānā ‘samaṇāmhā’ti paṭijānātha; tesaṁ vo, bhikkhave, evaṁsamaññānaṁ sataṁ evaṁpaṭiññānaṁ sataṁ ‘ye dhammā samaṇakaraṇā ca brāhmaṇakaraṇā ca te dhamme samādāya vattissāma, evaṁ no ayaṁ amhākaṁ samaññā ca saccā bhavissati paṭiññā ca bhūtā. Yesañca mayaṁ cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhāraṁ paribhuñjāma, tesaṁ te kārā amhesu mahapphalā bhavissanti mahānisaṁsā, amhākañcevāyaṁ pabbajjā avañjhā bhavissati saphalā saudrayā’ti. Evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ.

 

3Katame ca, bhikkhave, dhammā samaṇakaraṇā ca brāhmaṇakaraṇā ca? ‘Hirottappena samannāgatā bhavissāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

4Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Parisuddho no kāyasamācāro bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṁvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhakāyasamācāratāya nevattānukkaṁsessāma na paraṁ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

5Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Parisuddho no vacīsamācāro bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṁvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhavacīsamācāratāya nevattānukkaṁsessāma na paraṁ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

6Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Parisuddho no manosamācāro bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṁvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhamanosamācāratāya nevattānukkaṁsessāma na paraṁ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

7Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Parisuddho no ājīvo bhavissati uttāno vivaṭo na ca chiddavā saṁvuto ca. Tāya ca pana parisuddhājīvatāya nevattānukkaṁsessāma na paraṁ vambhessāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

 

8Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Indriyesu guttadvārā bhavissāma; cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā na nimittaggāhī nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ, tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjissāma, rakkhissāma cakkhundriyaṁ, cakkhundriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjissāma. Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … pe … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … pe … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya na nimittaggāhī nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ manindriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ, tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjissāma, rakkhissāma manindriyaṁ, manindriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjissāmā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi, sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

 

9Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Bhojane mattaññuno bhavissāma, paṭisaṅkhā yoniso āhāraṁ āharissāma, neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya yāvadeva imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya, vihiṁsūparatiyā, brahmacariyānuggahāya, iti purāṇañca vedanaṁ paṭihaṅkhāma navañca vedanaṁ na uppādessāma, yātrā ca no bhavissati, anavajjatā ca, phāsu vihāro cā’ti evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā, bhojane mattaññuno; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo, sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

 

10Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Jāgariyaṁ anuyuttā bhavissāma, divasaṁ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṁ parisodhessāma. Rattiyā paṭhamaṁ yāmaṁ caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṁ parisodhessāma. Rattiyā majjhimaṁ yāmaṁ dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṁ kappessāma pāde pādaṁ accādhāya, sato sampajāno uṭṭhānasaññaṁ manasi karitvā. Rattiyā pacchimaṁ yāmaṁ paccuṭṭhāya caṅkamena nisajjāya āvaraṇīyehi dhammehi cittaṁ parisodhessāmā’ti, evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā, bhojane mattaññuno, jāgariyaṁ anuyuttā; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti, tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo, sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

 

11Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? ‘Satisampajaññena samannāgatā bhavissāma, abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī’ti, evañhi vo, bhikkhave, sikkhitabbaṁ. Siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘hirottappenamha samannāgatā, parisuddho no kāyasamācāro, parisuddho vacīsamācāro, parisuddho manosamācāro, parisuddho ājīvo, indriyesumha guttadvārā, bhojane mattaññuno, jāgariyaṁ anuyuttā, satisampajaññena samannāgatā; alamettāvatā katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttariṁ karaṇīyan’ti tāvatakeneva tuṭṭhiṁ āpajjeyyātha. Ārocayāmi vo, bhikkhave, paṭivedayāmi vo, bhikkhave: ‘mā vo, sāmaññatthikānaṁ sataṁ sāmaññattho parihāyi sati uttariṁ karaṇīye’.

 

12Kiñca, bhikkhave, uttariṁ karaṇīyaṁ? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati — araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanappatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ.

So pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. So abhijjhaṁ loke pahāya vigatābhijjhena cetasā viharati, abhijjhāya cittaṁ parisodheti; byāpādapadosaṁ pahāya abyāpannacitto viharati, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī, byāpādapadosā cittaṁ parisodheti; thinamiddhaṁ pahāya vigatathinamiddho viharati, ālokasaññī sato sampajāno, thinamiddhā cittaṁ parisodheti; uddhaccakukkuccaṁ pahāya anuddhato viharati, ajjhattaṁ vūpasantacitto, uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṁ parisodheti; vicikicchaṁ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati, akathaṁkathī kusalesu dhammesu, vicikicchāya cittaṁ parisodheti.


13Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso iṇaṁ ādāya kammante payojeyya. Tassa te kammantā samijjheyyuṁ. So yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni tāni ca byantī kareyya, siyā cassa uttariṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ dārabharaṇāya. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ahaṁ kho pubbe iṇaṁ ādāya kammante payojesiṁ, tassa me te kammantā samijjhiṁsu. Sohaṁ yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni tāni ca byantī akāsiṁ, atthi ca me uttariṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ dārabharaṇāyā’ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

14Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso ābādhiko assa dukkhito bāḷhagilāno, bhattañcassa nacchādeyya, na cassa kāye balamattā. So aparena samayena tamhā ābādhā mucceyya, bhattañcassa chādeyya, siyā cassa kāye balamattā. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ahaṁ kho pubbe ābādhiko ahosiṁ dukkhito bāḷhagilāno, bhattañca me nacchādesi, na ca me āsi kāye balamattā, somhi etarahi tamhā ābādhā mutto, bhattañca me chādeti, atthi ca me kāye balamattā’ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

15Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso bandhanāgāre baddho assa. So aparena samayena tamhā bandhanā mucceyya sotthinā abbhayena, na cassa kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ahaṁ kho pubbe bandhanāgāre baddho ahosiṁ, somhi etarahi tamhā bandhanā mutto, sotthinā abbhayena, natthi ca me kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo’ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

16Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso dāso assa anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṅgamo. So aparena samayena tamhā dāsabyā mucceyya attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṅgamo. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ahaṁ kho pubbe dāso ahosiṁ anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṅgamo, somhi etarahi tamhā dāsabyā mutto attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṅgamo’ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

17Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṁ paṭipajjeyya. So aparena samayena tamhā kantārā nitthareyya sotthinā abbhayena, na cassa kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ahaṁ kho pubbe sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṁ paṭipajjiṁ. Somhi etarahi tamhā kantārā nitthiṇṇo sotthinā abbhayena, natthi ca me kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo’ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

18Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu yathā iṇaṁ yathā rogaṁ yathā bandhanāgāraṁ yathā dāsabyaṁ yathā kantāraddhānamaggaṁ, ime pañca nīvaraṇe appahīne attani samanupassati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, āṇaṇyaṁ yathā ārogyaṁ yathā bandhanāmokkhaṁ yathā bhujissaṁ yathā khemantabhūmiṁ; evameva bhikkhu ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassati.

 

19So ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi, savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho nhāpako vā nhāpakantevāsī vā kaṁsathāle nhānīyacuṇṇāni ākiritvā udakena paripphosakaṁ paripphosakaṁ sanneyya. Sāyaṁ nhānīyapiṇḍi snehānugatā snehaparetā santarabāhirā, phuṭā snehena na ca pagghariṇī. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

20Puna caparaṁ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, udakarahado ubbhidodako. Tassa nevassa puratthimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na pacchimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na uttarāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na dakkhiṇāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, devo ca na kālena kālaṁ sammādhāraṁ anuppaveccheyya. Atha kho tamhāva udakarahadā sītā vāridhārā ubbhijjitvā tameva udakarahadaṁ sītena vārinā abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripūreyya paripphareyya, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato udakarahadassa sītena vārinā apphuṭaṁ assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

21Puna caparaṁ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati, sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, uppaliniyaṁ vā paduminiyaṁ vā puṇḍarīkiniyaṁ vā appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṁvaḍḍhāni udakānuggatāni antonimuggaposīni, tāni yāva caggā yāva ca mūlā sītena vārinā abhisannāni parisannāni paripūrāni paripphuṭāni, nāssa kiñci sabbāvataṁ uppalānaṁ vā padumānaṁ vā puṇḍarīkānaṁ vā sītena vārinā apphuṭaṁ assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

22Puna caparaṁ, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā, pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā, adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso odātena vatthena sasīsaṁ pārupetvā nisinno assa, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa odātena vatthena apphuṭaṁ assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

 

23So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, seyyathidaṁ — ekampi jātiṁ, dvepi jātiyo … pe … iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso sakamhā gāmā aññaṁ gāmaṁ gaccheyya, tamhāpi gāmā aññaṁ gāmaṁ gaccheyya, so tamhā gāmā sakaṁyeva gāmaṁ paccāgaccheyya. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ahaṁ kho sakamhā gāmā amuṁ gāmaṁ agacchiṁ, tatrapi evaṁ aṭṭhāsiṁ evaṁ nisīdiṁ evaṁ abhāsiṁ evaṁ tuṇhī ahosiṁ; tamhāpi gāmā amuṁ gāmaṁ agacchiṁ, tatrapi evaṁ aṭṭhāsiṁ evaṁ nisīdiṁ evaṁ abhāsiṁ evaṁ tuṇhī ahosiṁ; somhi tamhā gāmā sakaṁyeva gāmaṁ paccāgato’ti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, seyyathidaṁ — ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo … pe … iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati.

24So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti … pe … seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dve agārā sadvārā. Tattha cakkhumā puriso majjhe ṭhito passeyya manusse gehaṁ pavisantepi nikkhamantepi, anucaṅkamantepi anuvicarantepi. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti … pe … .

25So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmeti. So ‘idaṁ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. ‘Ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṁ hoti: ‘khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti.

26Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, pabbatasaṅkhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tattha cakkhumā puriso tīre ṭhito passeyya sippisambukampi sakkharakathalampi macchagumbampi, carantampi tiṭṭhantampi. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ayaṁ kho udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tatrime sippisambukāpi sakkharakathalāpi macchagumbāpi carantipi tiṭṭhantipī’ti’. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘idaṁ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti … pe … nāparaṁ itthattāyāti pajānāti.

 

27Ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ‘samaṇo’ itipi ‘brāhmaṇo’itipi ‘nhātako’itipi ‘vedagū’itipi ‘sottiyo’itipi ‘ariyo’itipi ‘arahaṁ’itipi.

Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu samaṇo hoti? Samitāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṅkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṁ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu samaṇo hoti.

28Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu brāhmaṇo hoti? Bāhitāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṅkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṁ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu brāhmaṇo hoti.

29Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu nhātako hoti? Nhātāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṁkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṁ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu nhātako hoti.

30Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedagū hoti? Viditāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṅkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṁ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vedagū hoti.

31Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sottiyo hoti? Nissutāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṅkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṁ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sottiyo hoti.

32Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo hoti? Ārakāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṅkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṁ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo hoti.

33Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṁ hoti? Ārakāssa honti pāpakā akusalā dhammā, saṅkilesikā, ponobbhavikā, sadarā, dukkhavipākā, āyatiṁ, jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu arahaṁ hotī"ti.

34Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

Mahāassapurasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ navamaṁ.