Light/Dark

Majjhima Nikāya

MN4: Bhayabherava Sutta - Fear and Dread

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Then the brahmin Janussoni[n.56] MA says that Jānussoni was not a given name but an honorific title meaning "royal chaplain"(purohita) bestowed on him by the king. MN 27 is also addressed to the brahmin Janussoni. went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said: "Master Gotama, when clansmen have gone forth from the home life into homelessness out of faith in Master Gotama, do they have Master Gotama for their leader, their helper, and their guide? And do these people follow the example of Master Gotama?"[n.57] Bhoto Gotamassa sā janatā diṭṭhānugatiṁ āpajjati. Ñm renders: "Do these people follow the implications of Master Gotama's view?" And Horner: "These people emulate the views of the honoured Gotama" (MLS 1:22). MA, too, glosses: "These people have the same view, opinion, outlook as Master Gotama." However, it makes much better sense in this context to read diṭṭha not as a sandhi form of diṭṭhi, but as the past participle, and to take this phrase as meaning "following what they have seen of him," i.e., his example. This meaning is clearly required by the phrase in its appearances at SN ii.203, AN i.126, AN iii.108, 251, 422.


"That is so, brahmin, that is so. When clansmen have gone forth from the home life into homelessness out of faith in me, they have me for their leader, their helper, and their guide. And these people follow my example."


"But, Master Gotama, remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to practise, and it is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration."

"That is so, brahmin, that is so. Remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure, seclusion is hard to practise, and it is hard to enjoy solitude. One would think the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration.

2"Before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhisatta, I too considered thus: ‘Remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest are hard to endure … the jungles must rob a bhikkhu of his mind, if he has no concentration.’

"I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins unpurified in bodily conduct resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their unpurified bodily conduct these good recluses and brahmins evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest unpurified in bodily conduct. I am purified in bodily conduct. I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones with bodily conduct purified.’ Seeing in myself this purity of bodily conduct, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.


3"I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins unpurified in verbal conduct … unpurified in mental conduct … unpurified in livelihood resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest … they evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But … I am purified in livelihood. I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones with livelihood purified.’ Seeing in myself this purity of livelihood, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.


4"I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins who are covetous and full of lust … I am uncovetous … ’


5"‘ … with a mind of ill will and intentions of hate … I have a mind of loving-kindness … ’


6"‘ … overcome by sloth and torpor … I am without sloth and torpor … ’


7"‘ … overcome with restlessness and unpeaceful in mind … I have a peaceful mind … ’


8"‘ … uncertain and doubting … I have gone beyond doubt … ’


9"‘ … given to self-praise and disparagement of others … I am not given to self-praise and disparagement of others … ’


10"‘ … subject to alarm and terror … I am free from trepidation … ’


11"‘ … desirous of gain, honour, and renown … I have few wishes … ’


12"‘ … lazy and wanting in energy … I am energetic … ’


13"‘ … unmindful and not fully aware … I am established in mindfulness … ’


14"‘ … unconcentrated and with straying minds … I am possessed of concentration … ’


15" I considered thus: ‘Whenever recluses or brahmins devoid of wisdom, drivellers, resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest, then owing to the defect of their being devoid of wisdom and drivellers these good recluses and brahmins evoke unwholesome fear and dread. But I do not resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest devoid of wisdom, a driveller. I am possessed of wisdom. [n.58] Ñm originally had rendered this phrase as "perfect in understanding," and the corresponding phrase in the preceding section as "perfect in concentration." However, since it seems inappropriate to ascribe perfection in samādhi and paññā to the Bodhisatta prior to his enlightenment, I have chosen to render the suffix sampanna throughout as "possessed of." MA explains that this is neither the wisdom of insight nor of the path, but the wisdom that defines the nature of its object (ārammaṇavavatthānapañña). I resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest as one of the noble ones possessed of wisdom.’ Seeing in myself this possession of wisdom, I found great solace in dwelling in the forest.


16"I considered thus: ‘There are the specially auspicious nights of the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fortnight. [n.59] The Indian year, according to the ancient system inherited by Buddhism, is divided into three seasons — the cold season, the hot season, and the rainy season — each lasting for four months. The four months are subdivided into eight fortnights (pakkha), the third and the seventh containing fourteen days and the others fifteen days. Within each fortnight, the nights of the full moon and the new moon (either the fourteenth or fifteenth) and the night of the half-moon (the eighth) are regarded as especially auspicious. Within Buddhism these days become the Uposatha, the days of religious observance. On the full moon and new moon days the bhikkhus recite their code of precepts and lay people visit the monasteries to listen to sermons and to practise meditation. Now what if, on such nights as these, I were to dwell in such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard shrines, woodland shrines, and tree shrines? Perhaps I might encounter that fear and dread.’ And later, on such specially auspicious nights as the fourteenth, the fifteenth, and the eighth of the fortnight, I dwelt in such awe-inspiring, horrifying abodes as orchard shrines, woodland shrines, and tree shrines. And while I dwelt there, a wild animal would come up to me, or a peacock would knock off a branch, or the wind would rustle the leaves. I thought: ‘What now if this is the fear and dread coming?’ I thought: ‘Why do I dwell always expecting fear and dread? What if I subdue that fear and dread while keeping the same posture that I am in when it comes upon me?’[n.60] The four postures (iriyāpatha) often mentioned in the Buddhist texts are walking, standing, sitting, and lying down.

"While I walked, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither stood nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I stood, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither walked nor sat nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I sat, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither walked nor stood nor lay down till I had subdued that fear and dread. While I lay down, the fear and dread came upon me; I neither walked nor stood nor sat down till I had subdued that fear and dread.


17"There are, brahmin, some recluses and brahmins who perceive day when it is night and night when it is day. I say that on their part this is an abiding in delusion. But I perceive night when it is night and day when it is day. Rightly speaking, were it to be said of anyone: ‘A being not subject to delusion has appeared in the world for the welfare and happiness of many, out of compassion for the world, for the good, welfare, and happiness of gods and humans,’ it is of me indeed that rightly speaking this should be said.


18"Tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was tranquil and untroubled, my mind concentrated and unified.[n.61] Beginning with this section, the Buddha shows the course of practice that led him to the peak of non-delusion.

Quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion.[n.62] MA says that the Bodhisatta developed the four jhānas using mindfulness of breathing as his meditation subject.

With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I entered upon and abided in the second jhana, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration.

With the fading away as well of rapture, I abided in equanimity, and mindful and fully aware, still feeling pleasure with the body, I entered upon and abided in the third jhāna, on account of which noble ones announce: ‘He has a pleasant abiding who has equanimity and is mindful.’

With the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, I entered upon and abided in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity".

19"When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives.[n.63] Explained in detail at Vsm XIII, 13–71. I recollected my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold past lives.

"This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

20"When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings.[n.64] Explained in detail at Vsm XIII, 72–101. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. I understood how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to right view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’ Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings pass on according to their actions.

"This was the second true knowledge attained by me in the middle watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

21"When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ I directly knew as it actually is: ‘These are the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the origin of the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the cessation of the taints’; I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’[n.65] MA: Having shown the Four Noble Truths in their own nature (that is, in terms of suffering), the passage on the taints is stated to show them indirectly by way of the defilements.

"When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it was liberated, there came the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’[n.66] According to MA, the phrase "When I knew and saw thus" refers to insight and the path, which reaches its climax in the path of arahantship; the phrase "my mind was liberated" shows the moment of the fruit; and the phrase "there came the knowledge: ‘It is liberated’" shows reviewing knowledge (see Vsm XXII, 20–21), as does the next sentence beginning "I directly knew." I directly knew: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’[n.67] This is the stock canonical announcement of final knowledge or arahantship. MA explains that the statement "Birth is destroyed" means that any type of birth that might have arisen if the path had not been developed has been rendered incapable of arising by the development of the path. The "holy life" that has been lived is the holy life of the path (maggabrahmacariya). The phrase "what had to be done has been done" (katȧ karaṇīyaṁ) indicates that the four tasks of the noble path — fully understanding suffering, abandoning its origin, realising its cessation, and developing the path — have now all been completed for each of the four supramundane paths. The fourth phrase, nāparaṁ itthattāya, is glossed by MA thus: "Now there is no need for me to develop the path again for ‘such a state,’ i.e., for the sixteenfold function (of the path) or for the destruction of the defilements. Or alternatively: after ‘such a state,’ i.e., the continuum of aggregates now occurring, there is no further continuum of aggregates for me. These five aggregates, having been fully understood, stand like trees that are cut at the root. With the cessation of the last consciousness, they will be extinguished like a fire without fuel." I have opted for the second of these interpretations, but take itthattāya as a dative. The word, which literally means "the state of this" or "the state of thus," implies manifestation in a concrete state of existence. Ñm had rendered: "There is no more of this beyond."

"This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the last watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

22"Now, brahmin, it might be that you think: ‘Perhaps the recluse Gotama is not free from lust, hate, and delusion even today, which is why he still resorts to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest.’ But you should not think thus. It is because I see two benefits that I still resort to remote jungle-thicket resting places in the forest: I see a pleasant abiding for myself here and now, and I have compassion for future generations."[n.68] MA: He has "compassion for future generations" insofar as later generations of monks, seeing that the Buddha resorted to forest dwellings, will follow his example and thus hasten their progress towards making an end of suffering.

23"Indeed, it is because Master Gotama is an Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One, that he has compassion for future generations. Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overthrown, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Saṅgha of bhikkhus. From today let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life."

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.

Atha kho jāṇussoṇi brāhmaṇo yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho jāṇussoṇi brāhmaṇo bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "yeme, bho gotama, kulaputtā bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ uddissa saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitā, bhavaṁ tesaṁ gotamo pubbaṅgamo, bhavaṁ tesaṁ gotamo bahukāro, bhavaṁ tesaṁ gotamo samādapetā; bhoto ca pana gotamassa sā janatā diṭṭhānugatiṁ āpajjatī"ti.


"Evametaṁ, brāhmaṇa, evametaṁ, brāhmaṇa. Ye te, brāhmaṇa, kulaputtā mamaṁ uddissa saddhā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitā, ahaṁ tesaṁ pubbaṅgamo, ahaṁ tesaṁ bahukāro, ahaṁ tesaṁ samādapetā; mama ca pana sā janatā diṭṭhānugatiṁ āpajjatī"ti.


"Durabhisambhavāni hi kho, bho gotama, araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni, dukkaraṁ pavivekaṁ, durabhiramaṁ ekatte, haranti maññe mano vanāni samādhiṁ alabhamānassa bhikkhuno"ti.

"Evametaṁ, brāhmaṇa, evametaṁ, brāhmaṇa. Durabhisambhavāni hi kho, brāhmaṇa, araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni, dukkaraṁ pavivekaṁ, durabhiramaṁ ekatte, haranti maññe mano vanāni samādhiṁ alabhamānassa bhikkhuno.

2Mayhampi kho, brāhmaṇa, pubbeva sambodhā anabhisambuddhassa bodhisattasseva sato etadahosi: ‘durabhisambhavāni hi kho araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni, dukkaraṁ pavivekaṁ, durabhiramaṁ ekatte, haranti maññe mano vanāni samādhiṁ alabhamānassa bhikkhuno’ti.

Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā aparisuddha-kāyakammantā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, aparisuddha-kāyakammanta-sandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ aparisuddha-kāyakammanto araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; parisuddhakāyakammantohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā parisuddhakāyakammantā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, parisuddhakāyakammataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (1)


3Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā aparisuddhavacīkammantā … pe … aparisuddhamanokammantā … pe … aparisuddhājīvā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, aparisuddhājīvasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ aparisuddhājīvo araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; parisuddhājīvohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā parisuddhājīvā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, parisuddhājīvataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (2–4.)


4Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā abhijjhālū kāmesu tibbasārāgā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, abhijjhālukāmesutibbasārāgasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ abhijjhālu kāmesu tibbasārāgo araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; anabhijjhālūhamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā anabhijjhālū araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, anabhijjhālutaṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (5)


5Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā byāpannacittā paduṭṭhamanasaṅkappā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, byāpannacittapaduṭṭhamanasaṅkappasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ byāpannacitto paduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; mettacittohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā mettacittā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, mettacittataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (6)


6Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhitā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhānasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhito araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; vigatathinamiddhohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā vigatathinamiddhā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, vigatathinamiddhataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (7)


7Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā uddhatā avūpasantacittā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, uddhataavūpasantacittasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ uddhato avūpasantacitto araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; vūpasantacittohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā vūpasantacittā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, vūpasantacittataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (8)


8Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā kaṅkhī vicikicchī araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, kaṅkhīvicikicchisandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ kaṅkhī vicikicchī araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; tiṇṇavicikicchohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā tiṇṇavicikicchā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, tiṇṇavicikicchataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (9)


9Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā attukkaṁsakā paravambhī araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, attukkaṁsanaparavambhanasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ attukkaṁsako paravambhī araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; anattukkaṁsako aparavambhīhamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā anattukkaṁsakā aparavambhī araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, anattukkaṁsakataṁ aparavambhitaṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (10)


10Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā chambhī bhīrukajātikā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, chambhibhīrukajātikasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ chambhī bhīrukajātiko araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; vigatalomahaṁsohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā vigatalomahaṁsā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, vigatalomahaṁsataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (11)


11Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā lābhasakkārasilokaṁ nikāmayamānā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, lābhasakkārasilokanikāmanasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ lābhasakkārasilokaṁ nikāmayamāno araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; appicchohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā appicchā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, appicchataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (12)


12Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā kusītā hīnavīriyā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, kusītahīnavīriyasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ kusīto hīnavīriyo araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; āraddhavīriyohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā āraddhavīriyā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, āraddhavīriyataṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (13)


13Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā muṭṭhassatī asampajānā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, muṭṭhassatiasampajānasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ muṭṭhassati asampajāno araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; upaṭṭhitassatihamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā upaṭṭhitassatī araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, upaṭṭhitassatitaṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (14)


14Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā asamāhitā vibbhantacittā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, asamāhitavibbhantacittasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ asamāhito vibbhantacitto araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; samādhisampannohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā samādhisampannā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, samādhisampadaṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (15)


15Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā duppaññā eḷamūgā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti, duppaññaeḷamūgasandosahetu have te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā akusalaṁ bhayabheravaṁ avhāyanti. Na kho panāhaṁ duppañño eḷamūgo araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi; paññāsampannohamasmi. Ye hi vo ariyā paññāsampannā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevanti tesamahaṁ aññataro’ti. Etamahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, paññāsampadaṁ attani sampassamāno bhiyyo pallomamāpādiṁ araññe vihārāya. (16)

Soḷasapariyāyaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.


16Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ yā tā rattiyo abhiññātā abhilakkhitā — cātuddasī pañcadasī aṭṭhamī ca pakkhassa — tathārūpāsu rattīsu yāni tāni ārāmacetiyāni vanacetiyāni rukkhacetiyāni bhiṁsanakāni salomahaṁsāni tathārūpesu senāsanesu vihareyyaṁ appeva nāmāhaṁ bhayabheravaṁ passeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, aparena samayena yā tā rattiyo abhiññātā abhilakkhitā –  cātuddasī pañcadasī aṭṭhamī ca pakkhassa — tathārūpāsu rattīsu yāni tāni ārāmacetiyāni vanacetiyāni rukkhacetiyāni bhiṁsanakāni salomahaṁsāni tathārūpesu senāsanesu viharāmi. Tattha ca me, brāhmaṇa, viharato mago vā āgacchati, moro vā kaṭṭhaṁ pāteti, vāto vā paṇṇakasaṭaṁ ereti; tassa mayhaṁ brāhmaṇa etadahosi: ‘etaṁ nūna taṁ bhayabheravaṁ āgacchatī’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etadahosi: ‘kiṁ nu kho ahaṁ aññadatthu bhayapaṭikaṅkhī viharāmi? Yannūnāhaṁ yathābhūtaṁ yathābhūtassa me taṁ bhayabheravaṁ āgacchati, tathābhūtaṁ tathābhūtova taṁ bhayabheravaṁ paṭivineyyan’ti.

Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, caṅkamantassa taṁ bhayabheravaṁ āgacchati. So kho ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, neva tāva tiṭṭhāmi na nisīdāmi na nipajjāmi, yāva caṅkamantova taṁ bhayabheravaṁ paṭivinemi. Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, ṭhitassa taṁ bhayabheravaṁ āgacchati. So kho ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, neva tāva caṅkamāmi na nisīdāmi na nipajjāmi. Yāva ṭhitova taṁ bhayabheravaṁ paṭivinemi. Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, nisinnassa taṁ bhayabheravaṁ āgacchati. So kho ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, neva tāva nipajjāmi na tiṭṭhāmi na caṅkamāmi, yāva nisinnova taṁ bhayabheravaṁ paṭivinemi. Tassa mayhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, nipannassa taṁ bhayabheravaṁ āgacchati. So kho ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, neva tāva nisīdāmi na tiṭṭhāmi na caṅkamāmi, yāva nipannova taṁ bhayabheravaṁ paṭivinemi.


17Santi kho pana, brāhmaṇa, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā rattiṁyeva samānaṁ divāti sañjānanti, divāyeva samānaṁ rattīti sañjānanti. Idamahaṁ tesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ sammohavihārasmiṁ vadāmi. Ahaṁ kho pana, brāhmaṇa, rattiṁyeva samānaṁ rattīti sañjānāmi, divāyeva samānaṁ divāti sañjānāmi. Yaṁ kho taṁ, brāhmaṇa, sammā vadamāno vadeyya: ‘asammohadhammo satto loke uppanno bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan’ti, mameva taṁ sammā vadamāno vadeyya: ‘asammohadhammo satto loke uppanno bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan’ti.


18Āraddhaṁ kho pana me, brāhmaṇa, vīriyaṁ ahosi asallīnaṁ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, passaddho kāyo asāraddho, samāhitaṁ cittaṁ ekaggaṁ.

So kho ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihāsiṁ.

Vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihāsiṁ.

Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca vihāsiṁ, sato ca sampajāno sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedesiṁ; yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti: ‘upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī’ti tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihāsiṁ.

Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihāsiṁ.

19So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi, seyyathidaṁ — ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṁsampi jātiyo cattālīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekepi saṁvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe: ‘amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno’ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi.

Ayaṁ kho me, brāhmaṇa, rattiyā paṭhame yāme paṭhamā vijjā adhigatā, avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā, tamo vihato āloko uppanno, yathā taṁ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.

20So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passāmi cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāmi: ‘ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā vacīduccaritena samannāgatā manoduccaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ upavādakā micchādiṭṭhikā micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānā; te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapannā. Ime vā pana bhonto sattā kāyasucaritena samannāgatā vacīsucaritena samannāgatā manosucaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ anupavādakā sammādiṭṭhikā sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānā; te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapannā’ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passāmi cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāmi.

Ayaṁ kho me, brāhmaṇa, rattiyā majjhime yāme dutiyā vijjā adhigatā, avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā, tamo vihato āloko uppanno, yathā taṁ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.

21So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ. So ‘idaṁ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ. ‘Ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ.

Tassa me evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccittha, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccittha, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccittha. Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṁ ahosi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññāsiṁ.

Ayaṁ kho me, brāhmaṇa, rattiyā pacchime yāme tatiyā vijjā adhigatā, avijjā vihatā vijjā uppannā, tamo vihato āloko uppanno, yathā taṁ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.

22Siyā kho pana te, brāhmaṇa, evamassa: ‘ajjāpi nūna samaṇo gotamo avītarāgo avītadoso avītamoho, tasmā araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevatī’ti. Na kho panetaṁ, brāhmaṇa, evaṁ daṭṭhabbaṁ. Dve kho ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, atthavase sampassamāno araññavanapatthāni pantāni senāsanāni paṭisevāmi — attano ca diṭṭhadhammasukhavihāraṁ sampassamāno, pacchimañca janataṁ anukampamāno"ti.

23"Anukampitarūpā vatāyaṁ bhotā gotamena pacchimā janatā, yathā taṁ arahatā sammāsambuddhena. Abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama. Abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama. Seyyathāpi, bho gotama, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṁ bhotā gotamena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhavaṁ gotamo dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gatan"ti.

Bhayabheravasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ catutthaṁ.