Light/Dark

Majjhima Nikāya

MN43: Mahāvedallasutta - The Great Classification

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Then, when it was evening, the venerable Mahā Koṭṭhita rose from meditation, went to the venerable Sāriputta, and exchanged greetings with him.[n.428] Ven. Mahā Koṭṭhita was declared by the Buddha the foremost disciple of those who have attained the analytical knowledges (paṭisambhidā) When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said to the venerable Sāriputta:

Wisdom

2"‘One who is unwise, one who is unwise’ is said, friend. With reference to what is this said, ‘one who is unwise’?"

3" ‘One does not wisely understand, one does not wisely understand,’ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is unwise.’ And what doesn’t one wisely understand? One does not wisely understand: ‘This is suffering’; one does not wisely understand: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; one does not wisely understand: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; one does not wisely understand: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.’ ‘One does not wisely understand, one does not wisely understand,’ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is unwise.’ "

4Saying, "Good, friend," the venerable Mahā Koṭṭhita delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Sāriputta′s words. Then he asked him a further question:


5"‘One who is wise, one who is wise,’ is said, friend. With reference to what is this said, ‘one who is wise’?"

6"‘One wisely understands, one wisely understands,’ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is wise.’ What does one wisely understand? One wisely understands: ‘This is suffering’; one wisely understands: ‘This is the origin of suffering’; one wisely understands: ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; one wisely understands: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering. ’ ‘One wisely understands, one wisely understands,’ friend; that is why it is said, ‘one who is wise.′"[n.429] According to MA, the understanding of the Four Noble Truths being discussed here is penetration by the supramundane path. Thus the lowest type of person to be described as "one who is wise" (paññavā) is the person on the path of stream-entry. The rendering of paññā as "wisdom" (which I substituted for Ñm's "understanding") has the disadvantage of severing the tie, evident in the Pali, with the verb pajānāti. To preserve the connection, here and in the preceding paragraph, the verb has been rendered "wisely understand."

Consciousness

7" ‘Consciousness, consciousness’ is said, friend. With reference to what is ‘consciousness’ said?"

8" ‘It cognizes, it cognizes,’ friend; that is why ‘consciousness’ is said.[n.430] The Pali phrase defining consciousness uses only the verb, vijānāti vijānāti, and this could as well be understood to mean "One cognizes, one cognizes." Although Ñm had translated this phrase without any pronoun, the pronoun has been inserted for greater intelligibility. The renderings of the verb definitions of feeling and perception at ¶11 and ¶13 have been similarly augmented by the addition of the pronoun. What does it cognize? It cognizes: ‘This is pleasant’; it cognizes: ‘This is painful’; it cognizes: ‘This is neither-painful-nor-pleasant.’ ‘It cognizes, it cognizes,’ friend; that is why ‘consciousness’ is said."[n.431] MA: The question concerns the consciousness with which the person described as "one who is wise" examines formations; that is, the consciousness of insight by which that person arrived at his attainment, the mind which does the work of meditation. Ven. Sāriputta answers by explaining the meditation subject of feeling, in the way it has come down in the Discourse on the Foundations of Mindfulness (MN10.32). The Pali construction, sukhan ti pi vijānāti, indicates that the feeling is being treated as a direct object of consciousness rather than as an affective tone of the experience; to show this the words "this is" have been supplied in brackets and the entire phrase set in quotation marks.

9"Wisdom and consciousness, friend — are these states conjoined or disjoined? And is it possible to separate each of these states from the other in order to describe the difference between them?"

"Wisdom and consciousness, friend — these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the other in order to describe the difference between them. For what one wisely understands, that one cognizes, and what one cognizes, that one wisely understands. That is why these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the other in order to describe the difference between them."[n.432] MA: This statement refers to the wisdom and consciousness on the occasions of both insight and the supramundane path. The two are conjoined in that they arise and cease simultaneously and share a single sense base and object. However, the two are not inseparably conjoined since, while wisdom always requires consciousness, consciousness can occur without wisdom.

10"What is the difference, friend, between wisdom and consciousness, these states that are conjoined, not disjoined?"

"The difference, friend, between wisdom and consciousness, these states that are conjoined, not disjoined, is this: wisdom is to be developed, consciousness is to be fully understood."[n.433] Wisdom, being the path factor of right view, is to be developed as a factor of the path. Consciousness, being included among the five aggregates that pertain to the noble truth of suffering, is to be fully understood — as impermanent, suffering, and not self.

Feeling

11"‘Feeling, feeling’ is said, friend. With reference to what is ‘feeling’ said?"

12"‘It feels, it feels,’ friend; that is why ‘feeling’ is said. What does it feel? It feels pleasure, it feels pain, it feels neither-pain-nor-pleasure. ‘It feels, it feels,’ friend, that is why ‘feeling’ is said."[n.434] MA says that the question and reply refer to mundane feelings that are the objective range of insight. The Pali construction here, sukham pi vedeti, etc., shows feeling as simultaneously a quality of the object and an affective tone of the experience by which it is apprehended. MA points out that feeling itself feels; there is no other (separate) feeler.

Perception

13"‘Perception, perception,’ is said, friend. With reference to what is ‘perception’ said?"

14"‘It perceives, it perceives,’ friend; that is why ‘perception’ is said. What does it perceive? It perceives blue, it perceives yellow, it perceives red, and it perceives white. ‘It perceives, it perceives, ’ friend; that is why ‘perception’ is said."[n.435] MA: The question and reply refer to mundane perceptions that are the objective range of insight.

"Feeling, perception, and consciousness, friend — are these states conjoined or disjoined? And is it possible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them?"

15"Feeling, perception, and consciousness, friend — these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them. For what one feels, that one perceives; and what one perceives, that one cognizes. That is why these states are conjoined, not disjoined, and it is impossible to separate each of these states from the others in order to describe the difference between them."[n.436] MA: Wisdom has been excluded from this exchange because the intention is to show only the states that are conjoined on every occasion of consciousness.

Knowable by Mind Alone

16"Friend, what can be known by purified mind-consciousness released from the five faculties?"

17"Friend, by purified mind-consciousness released from the five faculties the base of infinite space can be known thus: ‘Space is infinite’; the base of infinite consciousness can be known thus: ‘Consciousness is infinite’; and the base of nothingness can be known thus: ‘There is nothing.′"[n.437] MA: Purified mind-consciousness (parisuddha manoviññāṇa ) is the consciousness of the fourth jhāna. It can know the immaterial attainments insofar as one established in the fourth jhāna is capable of reaching them. The base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception is excluded here because, owing to its subtlety, it does not come into the direct range of contemplation for the attainment of insight.

18"Friend, with what does one understand a state that can be known?"

19"Friend, one understands a state that can be known with the eye of wisdom."[n.438] MA: The eye of wisdom (paññ̄ācakkhu) is wisdom itself, called an eye in the sense that it is an organ of spiritual vision.

20"Friend, what is the purpose of wisdom?"

21"The purpose of wisdom, friend, is direct knowledge, its purpose is full understanding, its purpose is abandoning."[n.439] For the distinction between direct knowledge (abhiññā) and full understanding (pariññā), see n.23.

Right View

22"Friend, how many conditions are there for the arising of right view?"

23"Friend, there are two conditions for the arising of right view: the voice of another and wise attention. These are the two conditions for the arising of right view."[n.440] MA: "The voice of another" (parato ghosa) is the teaching of beneficial Dhamma. These two conditions are necessary for disciples to arrive at the right view of insight and the right view of the supramundane path. But paccekabuddhas arrive at their enlightenment and fully enlightened Buddhas at omniscience solely in dependence on wise attention without "the voice of another."

24"Friend, by how many factors is right view assisted when it has deliverance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit, when it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit?"

25"Friend, right view is assisted by five factors when it has deliverance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit, when it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit. Here, friend, right view is assisted by virtue, learning, discussion, serenity, and insight. Right view assisted by these five factors has deliverance of mind for its fruit, deliverance of mind for its fruit and benefit; it has deliverance by wisdom for its fruit, deliverance by wisdom for its fruit and benefit."[n.441] MA: Right view here is the right view pertaining to the path of arahantship. "Deliverance of mind" and "deliverance by wisdom" both refer to the fruit of arahantship; see n.83. When one fulfils these five factors, the path of arahantship arises and yields its fruit.

Being

26"Friend, how many kinds of being are there?"

27"There are these three kinds of being, friend: sense-sphere being, fine-material being, and immaterial being."

28"Friend, how is renewal of being in the future generated?"

29"Friend, renewal of being in the future is generated through the delighting in this and that on the part of beings who are hindered by ignorance and fettered by craving."[n.442] "Renewal of being in the future" (āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti ) is rebirth, the continuation of the round. This question and the next may be regarded as synoptic approaches to the entire twelvefold formula of dependent origination laid out in MN 38.17 and 20.

30"Friend, how is renewal of being in the future not generated?"

31"Friend, with the fading away of ignorance, with the arising of true knowledge, and with the cessation of craving, renewal of being in the future is not generated."

The First Jhāna

32"Friend, what is the first jhāna?"

33"Here, friend, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This is called the first jhāna."


34"Friend, how many factors does the first jhāna have?"

35"Friend, the first jhāna has five factors. Here, when a bhikkhu has entered upon the first jhāna, there occur applied thought, sustained thought, rapture, pleasure, and unification of mind. That is how the first jhāna has five factors."

36"Friend, how many factors are abandoned in the first jhāna and how many factors are possessed?"

37"Friend, in the first jhāna five factors are abandoned and five factors are possessed. Here, when a bhikkhu has entered upon the first jhāna, sensual desire is abandoned, ill will is abandoned, sloth and torpor are abandoned, restlessness and remorse are abandoned, and doubt is abandoned; and there occur applied thought, sustained thought, rapture, pleasure, and unification of mind. That is how in the first jhāna five factors are abandoned and five factors are possessed."

The Five Faculties

38"Friend, these five faculties each have a separate field, a separate domain, and do not experience each other's field and domain, that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty. Now of these five faculties, each having a separate field, a separate domain, not experiencing each other's field and domain, what is their resort, what experiences their fields and domains?"[n.443] The five outer sense faculties each have their own unique object — forms for the eye, sounds for the ear, etc. — but the mind faculty is able to experience the objects of all five sense faculties as well as the mental objects exclusive to itself. Hence the other five faculties have mind as their resort (manopaṭisaraṇaṁ).

39"Friend, these five faculties each have a separate field, a separate domain, and do not experience each other's field and domain, that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty. Now these five faculties, each having a separate field, a separate domain, not experiencing each other's field and domain, have mind as their resort, and mind experiences their fields and domains."

40"Friend, as to these five faculties — that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty — what do these five faculties stand in dependence on?"

41"Friend, as to these five faculties — that is, the eye faculty, the ear faculty, the nose faculty, the tongue faculty, and the body faculty — these five faculties stand in dependence on vitality."[n.444] MA identifies vitality (āyu) with the life faculty (jıvitindriya), which has the function of maintaining and vitalising the other material phenomena of the living body.

42"Friend, what does vitality stand in dependence on?"

43"Vitality stands in dependence on heat."[n.445] Heat (usmā) is the kamma-born heat intrinsic to the living body.

44"Friend, what does heat stand in dependence on?"

45"Heat stands in dependence on vitality."

46"Just now, friend, we understood the venerable Sāriputta to have said: ‘Vitality stands in dependence on heat’; and now we understand him to say: ‘Heat stands in dependence on vitality.’ How should the meaning of these statements be regarded?"

47"In that case, friend, I shall give you a simile, for some wise men here understand the meaning of a statement by means of a simile. Just as when an oil-lamp is burning, its radiance is seen in dependence on its flame and its flame is seen in dependence on its radiance; so too, vitality stands in dependence on heat and heat stands in dependence on vitality."

Vital Formations

48"Friend, are vital formations things that can be felt or are vital formations one thing and things that can be felt another?"

49"Vital formations, friend, are not things that can be felt.[n.446] "Vital formations" (āyusaṅkhārā), according to MA, denotes vitality itself. They cannot be states of feeling because they are required to keep the body of a bhikkhu alive when he has attained to the cessation of perception and feeling. This special meditative attainment, in which all mental activity ceases, is accessible only to non-returners and arahants who also have mastery over the eight attainments on the side of serenity. For a brief discussion see the Introduction, p. 41, and for the full scholastic account, Vsm XXIII, 16–52. The cessation of perception and feeling will be taken up again in MN 44. If vital formations were things that can be felt, then a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling would not be seen to emerge from it. Because vital formations are one thing and things that can be felt another, a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling can be seen to emerge from it."

50"Friend, when this body is bereft of how many states is it then discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log?"[n.447] That is, dead. The departure of consciousness from the body is not sufficient to constitute death; vitality and the vital heat must also perish.

51"Friend, when this body is bereft of three states — vitality, heat, and consciousness — it is then discarded and forsaken, left lying senseless like a log."

52"Friend, what is the difference between one who is dead, who has completed his time, and a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling?"

53"Friend, in the case of one who is dead, who has completed his time, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his verbal formations have ceased and subsided, his mental formations have ceased and subsided, his vitality is exhausted, his heat has been dissipated, and his faculties are fully broken up. In the case of a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling, his bodily formations have ceased and subsided, his verbal formations have ceased and subsided, his mental formations have ceased and subsided, but his vitality is not exhausted, his heat has not been dissipated, and his faculties become exceptionally clear.[n.448] The bodily formations are in-and-out breathing, the verbal formations are applied thought and sustained thought, the mental formations are perception and feeling — see MN 44.14–15. MA says that the faculties during the ordinary course of life, being impinged upon by sense objects, are afflicted and soiled like a mirror set up at a crossroads; but the faculties of one in cessation become exceptionally clear like a mirror placed in a case and deposited in a box. This is the difference between one who is dead, who has completed his time, and a bhikkhu who has entered upon the cessation of perception and feeling."

Deliverance of Mind

54"Friend, how many conditions are there for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind?"

55"Friend, there are four conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind: here, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous disappearance of joy and grief, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. These are the four conditions for the attainment of the neither-painful-nor-pleasant deliverance of mind."

56"Friend, how many conditions are there for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind?"

57"Friend, there are two conditions for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind: non-attention to all signs and attention to the signless element. These are the two conditions for the attainment of the signless deliverance of mind."[n.449] MA: The "signless deliverance of mind" (animittā cetovimutti) is the attainment of fruition; the "signs" are objects such as forms, etc.; the "signless element" is Nibbāna, in which all signs of conditioned things are absent.

58"Friend, how many conditions are there for the persistence of the signless deliverance of mind?"

59"Friend, there are three conditions for the persistence of the signless deliverance of mind: non-attention to all signs, attention to the signless element, and the prior determination of its duration. These are the three conditions for the persistence of the signless deliverance of mind."

60"Friend, how many conditions are there for emergence from the signless deliverance of mind?"

61"Friend, there are two conditions for emergence from the signless deliverance of mind: attention to all signs and non-attention to the signless element. These are the two conditions for emergence from the signless deliverance of mind."

62"Friend, the immeasurable deliverance of mind, the deliverance of mind through nothingness, the deliverance of mind through voidness, and the signless deliverance of mind: are these states different in meaning and different in name, or are they one in meaning and different only in name?"

63"Friend, the immeasurable deliverance of mind, the deliverance of mind through nothingness, the deliverance of mind through voidness, and the signless deliverance of mind: there is a way in which these states are different in meaning and different in name, and there is a way in which they are one in meaning and different only in name.

64"What, friend, is the way in which these states are different in meaning and different in name?


65Here a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion … He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with altruistic joy … He abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with equanimity, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility and without ill will. This is called the immeasurable deliverance of mind.


66"And what, friend, is the deliverance of mind through nothingness?

67Here, with the complete surmounting of the base of infinite consciousness, aware that ‘there is nothing,’ a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the base of nothingness. This is called the deliverance of mind through nothingness.


68"And what, friend, is the deliverance of mind through voidness?

69Here a bhikkhu, gone to the forest or to the root of a tree or to an empty hut, reflects thus: ‘This is void of a self or of what belongs to a self.’ This is called the deliverance of mind through voidness.[n.450] MA identifies this suññatā cetovimutti with insight into the voidness of selfhood in persons and things.

70"And what, friend, is the signless deliverance of mind?

71Here, with non-attention to all signs, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the signless concentration of mind. This is called the signless deliverance of mind.[n.451] As above, the signless deliverance of mind is identified by MA with the attainment of fruition. Of the four deliverances of mind mentioned in verse 30, this one alone is supramundane. The first three — the brahmavihāras, the third immaterial attainment, and insight into the voidness of formations — all pertain to the mundane level. This is the way in which these states are different in meaning and different in name.

72"And what, friend, is the way in which these states are one in meaning and different only in name?

73Lust is a maker of measurement, hate is a maker of measurement, delusion is a maker of measurement.[n.452] Lust, hate, and delusion may be understood as "makers of measurement" (pamāṇakaraṇa) in that they impose limitations upon the range and depths of the mind; MA, however, explains this phrase to mean that the defilements enable one to measure a person as a worldling, a stream-enterer, a once-returner, or a non-returner. In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of immeasurable deliverance of mind, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best. Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion.[n.453] MA: There are twelve immeasurable deliverances of mind: the four brahmavihāras, the four paths, and the four fruits. The unshakeable deliverance of mind is the fruit of arahantship. The statement that this unshakeable deliverance is void of lust, hate, and delusion — repeated at the end of [the next two paragraphs] — also identifies it as the supramundane deliverance of mind through voidness.

"Lust is a something, hate is a something, delusion is a something.[n.454] The word kiñcana is explained by MA as meaning "impediment" or "obstacle." Ñm rendered it as "owning." I have gone back to the original meaning "something" to maintain coherence with the statement that its abandonment issues in deliverance of mind through nothingness. In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of deliverance of mind through nothingness, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best.[n.455] MA: There are nine deliverances of mind through nothingness: the base of nothingness and the four paths and fruits. Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion.

"Lust is a maker of signs, hate is a maker of signs, delusion is a maker of signs.[n.456] MA interprets the phrase "maker of signs" (nimittakaraṇa ) to mean that lust, hate, and delusion brand a person as a worldling or a noble one, as lustful, hating, or deluded. But it may also mean that these defilements cause the mind to ascribe a false significance to things as being permanent, pleasurable, self, or beautiful. In a bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed, these are abandoned, cut off at the root, made like a palm stump, done away with so that they are no longer subject to future arising. Of all the kinds of signless deliverance of mind, the unshakeable deliverance of mind is pronounced the best.[n.457] MA: There are thirteen signless deliverances of mind: insight, because it removes the signs of permanence, pleasure, and self; the four immaterial attainments, because they lack the sign of material form; and the four paths and fruits, because of the absence of the sign of defilements. Now that unshakeable deliverance of mind is void of lust, void of hate, void of delusion. This is the way in which these states are one in meaning and different only in name."[n.458] All the four deliverances of mind are one in meaning in that they all refer to the fruition attainment of arahantship. MA also points out that the four deliverances are one in meaning because the terms — the immeasurable, nothingness, voidness, and the signless — are all names for Nibbāna, which is the object of the fruition attainment of arahantship.

74That is what the venerable Sāriputta said. The venerable Mahā Koṭṭhita was satisfied and delighted in the venerable Sāriputta's words.

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.

Atha kho āyasmā mahākoṭṭhiko sāyanhasamayaṁ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yenāyasmā sāriputto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmatā sāriputtena saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā mahākoṭṭhiko āyasmantaṁ sāriputtaṁ etadavoca: 

 

2"‘Duppañño duppañño’ti, āvuso, vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, duppaññoti vuccatī"ti?

3"‘Nappajānāti nappajānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā duppaññoti vuccati. Kiñca nappajānāti? ‘Idaṁ dukkhan’ti nappajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo’ti nappajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodho’ti nappajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti nappajānāti. ‘Nappajānāti nappajānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā duppaññoti vuccatī"ti.

4"Sādhāvuso"ti kho āyasmā mahākoṭṭhiko āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā āyasmantaṁ sāriputtaṁ uttariṁ pañhaṁ apucchi: 


5"‘Paññavā paññavā’ti, āvuso, vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, paññavāti vuccatī"ti?

6"‘Pajānāti pajānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā paññavāti vuccati. Kiñca pajānāti? ‘Idaṁ dukkhan’ti pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo’ti pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodho’ti pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti pajānāti. ‘Pajānāti pajānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā paññavāti vuccatī"ti.

 

7"‘Viññāṇaṁ viññāṇan’ti, āvuso, vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, viññāṇanti vuccatī"ti?

8"‘Vijānāti vijānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā viññāṇanti vuccati. Kiñca vijānāti? Sukhantipi vijānāti, dukkhantipi vijānāti, adukkhamasukhantipi vijānāti. ‘Vijānāti vijānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā viññāṇanti vuccatī"ti.

9"Yā cāvuso, paññā yañca viññāṇaṁ — ime dhammā saṁsaṭṭhā udāhu visaṁsaṭṭhā? Labbhā ca panimesaṁ dhammānaṁ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṁ paññāpetun"ti?

"Yā cāvuso, paññā yañca viññāṇaṁ — ime dhammā saṁsaṭṭhā, no visaṁsaṭṭhā. Na ca labbhā imesaṁ dhammānaṁ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṁ paññāpetuṁ. Yaṁ hāvuso, pajānāti taṁ vijānāti, yaṁ vijānāti taṁ pajānāti. Tasmā ime dhammā saṁsaṭṭhā, no visaṁsaṭṭhā. Na ca labbhā imesaṁ dhammānaṁ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṁ paññāpetun"ti.

10"Yā cāvuso, paññā yañca viññāṇaṁ — imesaṁ dhammānaṁ saṁsaṭṭhānaṁ no visaṁsaṭṭhānaṁ kiṁ nānākaraṇan"ti?

"Yā cāvuso, paññā yañca viññāṇaṁ — imesaṁ dhammānaṁ saṁsaṭṭhānaṁ no visaṁsaṭṭhānaṁ paññā bhāvetabbā, viññāṇaṁ pariññeyyaṁ. Idaṁ nesaṁ nānākaraṇan"ti.

 

11"‘Vedanā vedanā’ti, āvuso, vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, vedanāti vuccatī"ti?

12"‘Vedeti vedetī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā vedanāti vuccati. Kiñca vedeti? Sukhampi vedeti, dukkhampi vedeti, adukkhamasukhampi vedeti. ‘Vedeti vedetī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā vedanāti vuccatī"ti.

 

13"‘Saññā saññā’ti, āvuso, vuccati. Kittāvatā nu kho, āvuso, saññāti vuccatī"ti?

14"‘Sañjānāti sañjānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā saññāti vuccati. Kiñca sañjānāti? Nīlakampi sañjānāti, pītakampi sañjānāti, lohitakampi sañjānāti, odātampi sañjānāti. ‘Sañjānāti sañjānātī’ti kho, āvuso, tasmā saññāti vuccatī"ti.

"Yā cāvuso, vedanā yā ca saññā yañca viññāṇaṁ — ime dhammā saṁsaṭṭhā udāhu visaṁsaṭṭhā? Labbhā ca panimesaṁ dhammānaṁ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṁ paññāpetun"ti?

15"Yā cāvuso, vedanā yā ca saññā yañca viññāṇaṁ — ime dhammā saṁsaṭṭhā, no visaṁsaṭṭhā. Na ca labbhā imesaṁ dhammānaṁ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṁ paññāpetuṁ. Yaṁ hāvuso, vedeti taṁ sañjānāti, yaṁ sañjānāti taṁ vijānāti. Tasmā ime dhammā saṁsaṭṭhā no visaṁsaṭṭhā. Na ca labbhā imesaṁ dhammānaṁ vinibbhujitvā vinibbhujitvā nānākaraṇaṁ paññāpetun"ti.

 

16"Nissaṭṭhena hāvuso, pañcahi indriyehi parisuddhena manoviññāṇena kiṁ neyyan"ti?

17"Nissaṭṭhena, āvuso, pañcahi indriyehi parisuddhena manoviññāṇena ‘ananto ākāso’ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ neyyaṁ, ‘anantaṁ viññāṇan’ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ neyyaṁ, ‘Natthi kiñcī’ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ neyyan"ti.

18"Neyyaṁ panāvuso, dhammaṁ kena pajānātī"ti?

19"Neyyaṁ kho, āvuso, dhammaṁ paññācakkhunā pajānātī"ti.

20"Paññā panāvuso, kimatthiyā"ti?

21"Paññā kho, āvuso, abhiññatthā pariññatthā pahānatthā"ti.

 

22"Kati panāvuso, paccayā sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāyā"ti?

23"Dve kho, āvuso, paccayā sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāya — parato ca ghoso, yoniso ca manasikāro. Ime kho, āvuso, dve paccayā sammādiṭṭhiyā uppādāyā"ti.

24"Katihi panāvuso, aṅgehi anuggahitā sammādiṭṭhi cetovimuttiphalā ca hoti cetovimuttiphalānisaṁsā ca, paññāvimuttiphalā ca hoti paññāvimuttiphalānisaṁsā cā"ti?

25"Pañcahi kho, āvuso, aṅgehi anuggahitā sammādiṭṭhi cetovimuttiphalā ca hoti cetovimuttiphalānisaṁsā ca, paññāvimuttiphalā ca hoti paññāvimuttiphalānisaṁsā ca. Idhāvuso, sammādiṭṭhi sīlānuggahitā ca hoti, sutānuggahitā ca hoti, sākacchānuggahitā ca hoti, samathānuggahitā ca hoti, vipassanānuggahitā ca hoti. Imehi kho, āvuso, pañcahaṅgehi anuggahitā sammādiṭṭhi cetovimuttiphalā ca hoti cetovimuttiphalānisaṁsā ca, paññāvimuttiphalā ca hoti paññāvimuttiphalānisaṁsā cā"ti.

 

26"Kati panāvuso, bhavā"ti?

27"Tayome, āvuso, bhavā — kāmabhavo, rūpabhavo, arūpabhavo"ti.

28"Kathaṁ panāvuso, āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hotī"ti?

29"Avijjānīvaraṇānaṁ kho, āvuso, sattānaṁ taṇhāsaṁyojanānaṁ tatratatrābhinandanā — evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti hotī"ti.

30"Kathaṁ panāvuso, āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti na hotī"ti?

31"Avijjāvirāgā kho, āvuso, vijjuppādā taṇhānirodhā — evaṁ āyatiṁ punabbhavābhinibbatti na hotī"ti.

 

32"Katamaṁ panāvuso, paṭhamaṁ jhānan"ti?

33"Idhāvuso, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati — idaṁ vuccati, āvuso, paṭhamaṁ jhānan"ti.


34"Paṭhamaṁ panāvuso, jhānaṁ katiangikan"ti?

35"Paṭhamaṁ kho, āvuso, jhānaṁ pañcaṅgikaṁ. Idhāvuso, paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa bhikkhuno vitakko ca vattati, vicāro ca pīti ca sukhañca cittekaggatā ca. Paṭhamaṁ kho, āvuso, jhānaṁ evaṁ pañcaṅgikan"ti.

36"Paṭhamaṁ panāvuso, jhānaṁ kataṅgavippahīnaṁ kataṅgasamannāgatan"ti?

37"Paṭhamaṁ kho, āvuso, jhānaṁ pañcaṅgavippahīnaṁ, pañcaṅgasamannāgataṁ. Idhāvuso, paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa bhikkhuno kāmacchando pahīno hoti, byāpādo pahīno hoti, thinamiddhaṁ pahīnaṁ hoti, uddhaccakukkuccaṁ pahīnaṁ hoti, vicikicchā pahīnā hoti; vitakko ca vattati, vicāro ca pīti ca sukhañca cittekaggatā ca. Paṭhamaṁ kho, āvuso, jhānaṁ evaṁ pañcaṅgavippahīnaṁ pañcaṅgasamannāgatan"ti.

 

38"Pañcimāni, āvuso, indriyāni nānāvisayāni nānāgocarāni, na aññamaññassa gocaravisayaṁ paccanubhonti, seyyathidaṁ — cakkhundriyaṁ, sotindriyaṁ, ghānindriyaṁ, jivhindriyaṁ, kāyindriyaṁ. Imesaṁ kho, āvuso, pañcannaṁ indriyānaṁ nānāvisayānaṁ nānāgocarānaṁ, na aññamaññassa gocaravisayaṁ paccanubhontānaṁ, kiṁ paṭisaraṇaṁ, ko ca nesaṁ gocaravisayaṁ paccanubhotī"ti?

39"Pañcimāni, āvuso, indriyāni nānāvisayāni nānāgocarāni, na aññamaññassa gocaravisayaṁ paccanubhonti, seyyathidaṁ — cakkhundriyaṁ, sotindriyaṁ, ghānindriyaṁ, jivhindriyaṁ, kāyindriyaṁ. Imesaṁ kho, āvuso, pañcannaṁ indriyānaṁ nānāvisayānaṁ nānāgocarānaṁ, na aññamaññassa gocaravisayaṁ paccanubhontānaṁ, mano paṭisaraṇaṁ, mano ca nesaṁ gocaravisayaṁ paccanubhotī"ti.

40"Pañcimāni, āvuso, indriyāni, seyyathidaṁ — cakkhundriyaṁ, sotindriyaṁ, ghānindriyaṁ, jivhindriyaṁ, kāyindriyaṁ. Imāni kho, āvuso, pañcindriyāni kiṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhantī"ti?

41"Pañcimāni, āvuso, indriyāni, seyyathidaṁ — cakkhundriyaṁ, sotindriyaṁ, ghānindriyaṁ, jivhindriyaṁ, kāyindriyaṁ. Imāni kho, āvuso, pañcindriyāni āyuṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhantī"ti.

42"Āyu panāvuso, kiṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhatī"ti?

43"Āyu usmaṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhatī"ti.

44"Usmā panāvuso, kiṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhatī"ti?

45"Usmā āyuṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhatī"ti.

46"Idāneva kho mayaṁ, āvuso, āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṁ evaṁ ājānāma: ‘āyu usmaṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhatī’ti. Idāneva pana mayaṁ, āvuso, āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṁ evaṁ ājānāma: ‘usmā āyuṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhatī’ti. Yathā kathaṁ panāvuso, imassa bhāsitassa attho daṭṭhabbo"ti?

47"Tena hāvuso, upamaṁ te karissāmi; upamāyapidhekacce viññū purisā bhāsitassa atthaṁ ājānanti. Seyyathāpi, āvuso, telappadīpassa jhāyato acciṁ paṭicca ābhā paññāyati, ābhaṁ paṭicca acci paññāyati; evameva kho, āvuso, āyu usmaṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhati, usmā āyuṁ paṭicca tiṭṭhatī"ti.

 

48"Teva nu kho, āvuso, āyusaṅkhārā, te vedaniyā dhammā udāhu aññe āyusaṅkhārā aññe vedaniyā dhammā"ti?

49"Na kho, āvuso, teva āyusaṅkhārā te vedaniyā dhammā. Te ca hāvuso, āyusaṅkhārā abhaviṁsu te vedaniyā dhammā, na yidaṁ saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpannassa bhikkhuno vuṭṭhānaṁ paññāyetha. Yasmā ca kho, āvuso, aññe āyusaṅkhārā aññe vedaniyā dhammā, tasmā saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpannassa bhikkhuno vuṭṭhānaṁ paññāyatī"ti.

50"Yadā nu kho, āvuso, imaṁ kāyaṁ kati dhammā jahanti; athāyaṁ kāyo ujjhito avakkhitto seti, yathā kaṭṭhaṁ acetanan"ti?

51"Yadā kho, āvuso, imaṁ kāyaṁ tayo dhammā jahanti — āyu usmā ca viññāṇaṁ; athāyaṁ kāyo ujjhito avakkhitto seti, yathā kaṭṭhaṁ acetanan"ti.

52"Yvāyaṁ, āvuso, mato kālaṅkato, yo cāyaṁ bhikkhu saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpanno — imesaṁ kiṁ nānākaraṇan"ti?

53"Yvāyaṁ, āvuso, mato kālaṅkato tassa kāyasaṅkhārā niruddhā paṭippassaddhā, vacīsaṅkhārā niruddhā paṭippassaddhā, cittasaṅkhārā niruddhā paṭippassaddhā, āyu parikkhīṇo, usmā vūpasantā, indriyāni paribhinnāni. Yo cāyaṁ bhikkhu saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpanno tassapi kāyasaṅkhārā niruddhā paṭippassaddhā, vacīsaṅkhārā niruddhā paṭippassaddhā, cittasaṅkhārā niruddhā paṭippassaddhā, āyu na parikkhīṇo, usmā avūpasantā, indriyāni vippasannāni. Yvāyaṁ, āvuso, mato kālaṅkato, yo cāyaṁ bhikkhu saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpanno — idaṁ nesaṁ nānākaraṇan"ti.

 

54"Kati panāvuso, paccayā adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā"ti?

55"Cattāro kho, āvuso, paccayā adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ime kho, āvuso, cattāro paccayā adukkhamasukhāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā"ti.

56"Kati panāvuso, paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā"ti?

57"Dve kho, āvuso, paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā –  sabbanimittānañca amanasikāro, animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro. Ime kho, āvuso, dve paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā samāpattiyā"ti.

58"Kati panāvuso, paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā ṭhitiyā"ti?

59"Tayo kho, āvuso, paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā ṭhitiyā — sabbanimittānañca amanasikāro, animittāya ca dhātuyā manasikāro, pubbe ca abhisaṅkhāro. Ime kho, āvuso, tayo paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā ṭhitiyā"ti.

60"Kati panāvuso, paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā vuṭṭhānāyā"ti?

61"Dve kho, āvuso, paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā vuṭṭhānāya –  sabbanimittānañca manasikāro, animittāya ca dhātuyā amanasikāro. Ime kho, āvuso, dve paccayā animittāya cetovimuttiyā vuṭṭhānāyā"ti.

62"Yā cāyaṁ, āvuso, appamāṇā cetovimutti, yā ca ākiñcaññā cetovimutti, yā ca suññatā cetovimutti, yā ca animittā cetovimutti — ime dhammā nānātthā ceva nānābyañjanā ca udāhu ekatthā byañjanameva nānan"ti?

63"Yā cāyaṁ, āvuso, appamāṇā cetovimutti, yā ca ākiñcaññā cetovimutti, yā ca suññatā cetovimutti, yā ca animittā cetovimutti — atthi kho, āvuso, pariyāyo yaṁ pariyāyaṁ āgamma ime dhammā nānātthā ceva nānābyañjanā ca; atthi ca kho, āvuso, pariyāyo yaṁ pariyāyaṁ āgamma ime dhammā ekatthā, byañjanameva nānaṁ.

64Katamo cāvuso, pariyāyo yaṁ pariyāyaṁ āgamma ime dhammā nānātthā ceva nānābyañjanā ca?


65Idhāvuso, bhikkhu mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṁ, tathā tatiyaṁ, tathā catutthaṁ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Karuṇāsahagatena cetasā … pe … muditāsahagatena cetasā … upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṁ, tathā tatiyaṁ, tathā catutthaṁ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Ayaṁ vuccatāvuso, appamāṇā cetovimutti.


66Katamā cāvuso, ākiñcaññā cetovimutti?

67Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma natthi kiñcīti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ vuccatāvuso, ākiñcaññā cetovimutti.


68Katamā cāvuso, suññatā cetovimutti?

69Idhāvuso, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘suññamidaṁ attena vā attaniyena vā’ti. Ayaṁ vuccatāvuso, suññatā cetovimutti.

70Katamā cāvuso, animittā cetovimutti?

71Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ vuccatāvuso, animittā cetovimutti. Ayaṁ kho, āvuso, pariyāyo yaṁ pariyāyaṁ āgamma ime dhammā nānātthā ceva nānābyañjanā ca.

72Katamo cāvuso, pariyāyo yaṁ pariyāyaṁ āgamma ime dhammā ekatthā byañjanameva nānaṁ?

73Rāgo kho, āvuso, pamāṇakaraṇo, doso pamāṇakaraṇo, moho pamāṇakaraṇo. Te khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Yāvatā kho, āvuso, appamāṇā cetovimuttiyo, akuppā tāsaṁ cetovimutti aggamakkhāyati. Sā kho panākuppā cetovimutti suññā rāgena, suññā dosena, suññā mohena.

Rāgo kho, āvuso, kiñcano, doso kiñcano, moho kiñcano. Te khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Yāvatā kho, āvuso, ākiñcaññā cetovimuttiyo, akuppā tāsaṁ cetovimutti aggamakkhāyati. Sā kho panākuppā cetovimutti suññā rāgena, suññā dosena, suññā mohena.

Rāgo kho, āvuso, nimittakaraṇo, doso nimittakaraṇo, moho nimittakaraṇo. Te khīṇāsavassa bhikkhuno pahīnā ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Yāvatā kho, āvuso, animittā cetovimuttiyo, akuppā tāsaṁ cetovimutti aggamakkhāyati. Sā kho panākuppā cetovimutti suññā rāgena, suññā dosena, suññā mohena. Ayaṁ kho, āvuso, pariyāyo yaṁ pariyāyaṁ āgamma ime dhammā ekatthā byañjanameva nānan"ti.

74Idamavocāyasmā sāriputto. Attamano āyasmā mahākoṭṭhiko āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṁ abhinandīti.

Mahāvedallasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ tatiyaṁ.