Light/Dark

Saṁyutta Nikāya — The Connected Discourses

SN54: Connected Discourses on Breathing

SN54:13 Ānanda (1)

1At Sāvatthī. Then the Venerable Ānanda approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, sat down to one side, and said to him: sn.v.329

"Venerable sir, is there one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things? And four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things? And seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things?"

2"There is, Ānanda, one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things."


3"But, venerable sir, what is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils four things; and the four things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil seven things; and the seven things which, when developed and cultivated, fulfil two things?"

"Concentration by mindfulness of breathing, Ānanda, is the one thing which, when developed and cultivated, fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness. The four establishments of mindfulness, when developed and cultivated, fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment. The seven factors of enlightenment, when developed and cultivated, fulfil true knowledge and liberation.

4"How, Ānanda, is concentration by mindfulness of breathing developed and cultivated so that it fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness? Here, Ānanda, a bhikkhu, having gone to the forest, to the foot of a tree, or to an empty hut, sits down. Having folded his legs crosswise, straightened his body, and set up mindfulness in front of him, just mindful he breathes in, mindful he breathes out … . He trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe in’; he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out.’

5"Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu, when breathing in long, knows: ‘I breathe in long’ … as in §10 … when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the bodily formation, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of body, Ānanda, that is, sn.v.330 breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

6"Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Experiencing rapture, I will breathe in’ … when he trains thus: ‘Tranquillizing the mental formation, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I call this a certain kind of feeling, Ānanda, that is, close attention to breathing in and breathing out. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

7"Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Experiencing the mind, I will breathe in’ … when he trains thus: ‘Liberating the mind, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. For what reason? I say, Ānanda, that there is no development of concentration by mindfulness of breathing for one who is muddled and who lacks clear comprehension. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating mind in mind, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

8"Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu trains thus: ‘Contemplating impermanence, I will breathe in’ … when he trains thus: ‘Contemplating relinquishment, I will breathe out’—on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world. Having seen with wisdom what is the abandoning of covetousness and displeasure, sn.v.331 he is one who looks on closely with equanimity. Therefore, Ānanda, on that occasion the bhikkhu dwells contemplating phenomena in phenomena, ardent, clearly comprehending, mindful, having removed covetousness and displeasure in regard to the world.

9"It is, Ānanda, when concentration by mindfulness of breathing is developed and cultivated in this way that it fulfils the four establishments of mindfulness.

10"And how, Ānanda, are the four establishments of mindfulness developed and cultivated so that they fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment?

"Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating the body in the body, on that occasion unmuddled mindfulness is established in that bhikkhu. [n.316] The sequel as in SN46.3. This passage is also included in the Ānāpānasati Sutta, at MN III 85,7–87,37. Section (iii), on true knowledge and liberation, is at MN III 88,1‒11. Whenever, Ānanda, unmuddled mindfulness has been established in a bhikkhu, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

11"Dwelling thus mindfully, he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu dwelling thus mindfully discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

12"While he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, sn.v.332 his energy is aroused without slackening. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu's energy is aroused without slackening as he discriminates that Dhamma with wisdom, examines it, makes an investigation of it, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energy is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of energy; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of energy goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

13"When his energy is aroused, there arises in him spiritual rapture. Whenever, Ānanda, spiritual rapture arises in a bhikkhu whose energy is aroused, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of rapture is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of rapture; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of rapture goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

14"For one whose mind is uplifted by rapture the body becomes tranquil and the mind becomes tranquil. Whenever, Ānanda, the body becomes tranquil and the mind becomes tranquil in a bhikkhu whose mind is uplifted by rapture, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of tranquillity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of tranquillity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of tranquillity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

15"For one whose body is tranquil and who is happy the mind becomes concentrated. Whenever, Ānanda, the mind becomes concentrated in a bhikkhu whose body is tranquil and who is happy, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of concentration is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of concentration; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of concentration goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

16"He becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of equanimity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.


17"Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu dwells contemplating feelings in feelings … mind in mind … phenomena in phenomena, on that occasion unmuddled mindfulness is established in that bhikkhu. sn.v.333 Whenever, Ānanda, unmuddled mindfulness has been established in a bhikkhu, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of mindfulness goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.


All should be elaborated as in the case of the first establishment of mindfulness.

18"He becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated. Whenever, Ānanda, a bhikkhu becomes one who closely looks on with equanimity at the mind thus concentrated, on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity is aroused by the bhikkhu; on that occasion the bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of equanimity; on that occasion the enlightenment factor of equanimity goes to fulfilment by development in the bhikkhu.

"It is, Ānanda, when the four establishments of mindfulness are developed and cultivated in this way that they fulfil the seven factors of enlightenment.

19"How, Ānanda, are the seven factors of enlightenment developed and cultivated so that they fulfil true knowledge and liberation?

"Here, Ānanda, a bhikkhu develops the enlightenment factor of mindfulness, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release. He develops the enlightenment factor of discrimination of states … the enlightenment factor of energy … the enlightenment factor of rapture … the enlightenment factor of tranquillity … the enlightenment factor of concentration … the enlightenment factor of equanimity, which is based upon seclusion, dispassion, and cessation, maturing in release.

"It is, Ānanda, when the seven factors of enlightenment are developed and cultivated in this way that they fulfil true knowledge and liberation."

1Sāvatthinidānaṁ. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:

"Atthi nu kho, bhante, ekadhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro dhamme paripūreti, cattāro dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta dhamme paripūrenti, satta dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā dve dhamme paripūrentī"ti?

2"Atthi kho, Ānanda, ekadhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro dhamme paripūreti, cattāro dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta dhamme paripūrenti, satta dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā dve dhamme paripūrentī"ti.


3"Katamo pana, bhante, ekadhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro dhamme paripūreti, cattāro dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta dhamme paripūrenti, satta dhammā bhāvitā bahulīkatā dve dhamme paripūrentī"ti?

"Ānāpānassatisamādhi kho, Ānanda, ekadhammo bhāvito bahulīkato cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti, cattāro satipaṭṭhānā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satta bojjhaṅge paripūrenti, satta bojjhaṅgā bhāvitā bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṁ paripūrenti.

4Kathaṁ bhāvito, Ānanda, ānāpānassatisamādhi kathaṁ bahulīkato cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti? IdhĀnanda, bhikkhu araññagato vā rukkhamūlagato vā suññāgāragato vā nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā. So satova assasati, satova passasati. Dīghaṁ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṁ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, dīghaṁ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṁ passasāmī’ti pajānāti … pe … ‘paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati.

5Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu dīghaṁ vā assasanto ‘dīghaṁ assasāmī’ti pajānāti, dīghaṁ vā passasanto ‘dīghaṁ passasāmī’ti pajānāti; rassaṁ vā … pe … ‘passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṁ kāyasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati – kāye kāyānupassī, Ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Kāyaññatarāhaṁ, Ānanda, etaṁ vadāmi, yadidaṁ – assāsapassāsaṁ. TasmātihĀnanda, kāye kāyānupassī bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.

6Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu ‘pītippaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, sukhappaṭisaṁvedī … pe … cittasaṅkhārappaṭisaṁvedī … ‘passambhayaṁ cittasaṅkhāraṁ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘passambhayaṁ cittasaṅkhāraṁ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati – vedanāsu vedanānupassī, Ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Vedanāññatarāhaṁ, Ānanda, etaṁ vadāmi, yadidaṁ – assāsapassāsānaṁ sādhukaṁ manasikāraṁ. TasmātihĀnanda, vedanāsu vedanānupassī bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (2)

7Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu ‘cittappaṭisaṁvedī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘cittappaṭisaṁvedī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati; abhippamodayaṁ cittaṁ … pe … samādahaṁ cittaṁ … ‘vimocayaṁ cittaṁ assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘vimocayaṁ cittaṁ passasissāmī’ti sikkhati – citte cittānupassī, Ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Nāhaṁ, Ānanda, muṭṭhassatissa asampajānassa ānāpānassatisamādhibhāvanaṁ vadāmi. TasmātihĀnanda, citte cittānupassī bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (3)

8Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu aniccānupassī … pe … virāgānupassī … nirodhānupassī … ‘paṭinissaggānupassī assasissāmī’ti sikkhati, ‘paṭinissaggānupassī passasissāmī’ti sikkhati – dhammesu dhammānupassī, Ānanda, bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. So yaṁ taṁ hoti abhijjhādomanassānaṁ pahānaṁ taṁ paññāya disvā sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. TasmātihĀnanda, dhammesu dhammānupassī bhikkhu tasmiṁ samaye vihārati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (4)

9Evaṁ bhāvito kho, Ānanda, ānāpānassatisamādhi evaṁ bahulīkato cattāro satipaṭṭhāne paripūreti.

10Kathaṁ bhāvitā cĀnanda, cattāro satipaṭṭhānā kathaṁ bahulīkatā satta bojjhaṅge paripūrenti?

Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī vihārati – upaṭṭhitāssa tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno sati hoti asammuṭṭhā. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhuno upaṭṭhitā sati hoti asammuṭṭhā – satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, satisambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati.

11So tathā sato vihāranto taṁ dhammaṁ paññāya pavicinati pavicarati parivīmaṁsamāpajjati. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu tathā sato vihāranto taṁ dhammaṁ paññāya pavicinati pavicarati parivīmaṁsamāpajjati – dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati. (2)

12Tassa taṁ dhammaṁ paññāya pavicinato pavicarato parivīmaṁsamāpajjato āraddhaṁ hoti vīriyaṁ asallīnaṁ. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhuno taṁ dhammaṁ paññāya pavicinato pavicarato parivīmaṁsamāpajjato āraddhaṁ hoti vīriyaṁ asallīnaṁ – vīriyasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, vīriyasambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati. (3)

13Āraddhavīriyassa uppajjati pīti nirāmisā. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhuno āraddhavīriyassa uppajjati pīti nirāmisā – pītisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, pītisambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, pītisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati. (4)

14Pītimanassa kāyopi passambhati, cittampi passambhati. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhuno pītimanassa kāyopi passambhati, cittampi passambhati – passaddhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, passaddhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati. (5)

15Passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhuno passaddhakāyassa sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati – samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, samādhisambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, samādhisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati. (6)

16So tathāsamāhitaṁ cittaṁ sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu tathāsamāhitaṁ cittaṁ sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti – upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati. (7)


17Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu vedanāsu … pe … citte … pe … dhammesu dhammānupassī vihārati – upaṭṭhitāssa tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno sati hoti asammuṭṭhā. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhuno upaṭṭhitā sati hoti asammuṭṭhā – satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, satisambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, satisambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati.


Yathā paṭhamaṁ satipaṭṭhānaṁ, evaṁ vitthāretabbaṁ.

18So tathāsamāhitaṁ cittaṁ sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti. Yasmiṁ samaye, Ānanda, bhikkhu tathāsamāhitaṁ cittaṁ sādhukaṁ ajjhupekkhitā hoti – upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno āraddho hoti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhu bhāveti, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo tasmiṁ samaye bhikkhuno bhāvanāpāripūriṁ gacchati.

Evaṁ bhāvitā kho, Ānanda, cattāro satipaṭṭhānā evaṁ bahulīkatā satta bojjhaṅge paripūrenti.

19Kathaṁ bhāvitā, Ānanda, satta bojjhaṅgā kathaṁ bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṁ paripūrenti?

IdhĀnanda, bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti … pe … upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ.

Evaṁ bhāvitā kho, Ānanda, satta bojjhaṅgā evaṁ bahulīkatā vijjāvimuttiṁ paripūrentī"ti.

Tatiyaṁ.