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Aṅguttara Nikāya - The Numerical Discourses

10: The Book of the Tens

176. Cunda

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was dwelling at Pāvā in the mango grove of Cunda, the smith's son.[n.2165] It was this Cunda that offered the Buddha his final meal. See DN  16.59, II 127. Then Cunda, the smith's son, approached the Blessed One, paid homage to him, and sat down to one side. The Blessed One then said to him:


"Cunda, whose rites of purity[n.2166] Soceyyāni. The meaning is not immediately clear and Mp does not gloss the word. Soceyya normally means "purity, purification," but from the context it seems to refer to a kind of rite. do you prefer?"

"Bhante, I prefer the rites of purity prescribed by the brahmins of the west who carry around waterpots, wear garlands of water plants, tend the sacred fire, and immerse themselves in water."


2"And how, Cunda, do the brahmins of the west prescribe their rites of purity?"


"Here, Bhante, the brahmins of the west enjoin a disciple thus: ‘Come, good man, having gotten up early, you should stroke the ground from your bed. If you don’t stroke the ground, you should stroke wet cow dung. If you don’t stroke wet cow dung, you should stroke green grass. If you don’t stroke green grass, you should tend the sacred fire. If you don’t tend the sacred fire, you should pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation. If you don’t pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation, you should immerse yourself in water three times including the evening.’ It is in this way that the brahmins of the west prescribe their rites of purity. It is their rites of purity that I prefer."

3"Cunda, purification in the Noble One's discipline is quite different from the rites of purity prescribed by the brahmins of the west who carry around waterpots, wear garlands of water plants, tend the sacred fire, and immerse themselves in water."

"But how, Bhante, does purification come about in the Noble One's discipline? It would be good if the Blessed One would teach me the Dhamma in a way that explains how purification comes about in the Noble One's discipline."


4"Well then, Cunda, listen and attend closely. I will speak."

"Yes, Bhante," Cunda, the smith's son, replied. The Blessed One said this:

5"Impurity by body, Cunda, is threefold. Impurity by speech is fourfold. Impurity by mind is threefold.

6"And how, Cunda, is impurity by body threefold?


(1) "Here, someone destroys life. He is murderous, bloody-handed, given to blows and violence, merciless to living beings.

7(2) "He takes what is not given. He steals the wealth and property of others in the village or forest.

8(3) "He engages in sexual misconduct. He has sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a penalty; or even with one already engaged.[n.2167] The last four refer respectively to: (1) a woman protected by her co-religionists, (2) one already married or even promised to a husband at birth or in childhood, (3) one with whom sexual relations entail punishment, and (4) a girl who has been garlanded by a man as a sign of engagement.

9"It is in this way that impurity by body is threefold.

10"And how, Cunda, is impurity by speech fourfold?

(4) "Here, someone speaks falsehood. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives’ presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: ‘So, good man, tell what you know,’ then, not knowing, he says, ‘I know,’ or knowing, he says, ‘I do not know’; not seeing, he says, ‘I see,’ or seeing, he says, ‘I do not see.’ Thus he consciously speaks falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

11(5) "He speaks divisively. Having heard something here, he repeats it elsewhere in order to divide those people from these; or having heard something elsewhere, he repeats it to these people in order to divide them from those. Thus he is one who divides those who are united, a creator of divisions, one who enjoys factions, rejoices in factions, delights in factions, a speaker of words that create factions.

12(6) "He speaks harshly. He utters such words as are rough, hard, hurtful to others, offensive to others, bordering on anger, unconducive to concentration.

13(7) "He indulges in idle chatter. He speaks at an improper time, speaks falsely, speaks what is unbeneficial, speaks contrary to the Dhamma and the discipline; at an improper time he speaks such words as are worthless, unreasonable, rambling, and unbeneficial.

"It is in this way that impurity by speech is fourfold.


14"And how, Cunda, is impurity by mind threefold?

(8) "Here, someone is full of longing. He longs for the wealth and property of others thus: ‘Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!’

15(9) "He has a mind of ill will and intentions of hate thus: ‘May these beings be slain, slaughtered,[n.2168] All three editions here read bajjhantu, "let them be bound." Mp provides no gloss but at MN I 287,11 we find vajjhantu, glossed by Ps II 332,16 as vadhaṁ pāpuṇantu, "let them be slaughtered," and by Ps-pṭ II 230 (VRI ed.) as maraṇaṁ pāpuṇantu, "let them die." I thus take vajjhantu to be the correct reading. cut off, destroyed, or annihilated!’

16(10) "He holds wrong view and has an incorrect perspective thus: ‘There is nothing given, nothing sacrificed, nothing offered; there is no fruit or result of good and bad actions; there is no this world, no other world; there is no mother, no father; there are no beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world no ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge, make them known to others.’

"It is in this way that impurity by mind is threefold.


17"These, Cunda, are the ten courses of unwholesome kamma. If one engages in these ten courses of unwholesome kamma, then, if one gets up early and strokes the ground from one's bed, one is impure, and if one doesn’t stroke the ground, one is impure.

18If one strokes wet cow dung, one is impure, and if one doesn’t stroke wet cow dung, one is impure.

19If one strokes green grass, one is impure, and if one doesn’t stroke green grass, one is impure.

20If one tends the sacred fire, one is impure, and if one doesn’t tend the sacred fire, one is impure.

21If one pays homage to the sun with reverential salutation, one is impure, and if one doesn’t pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation, one is impure.

22If one immerses oneself in water three times including the evening, one is impure, and if one doesn’t immerse oneself in water three times including the evening, one is impure.

For what reason?


Because these ten courses of unwholesome kamma are themselves impure and defiling.

23It is because people engage in these ten courses of unwholesome kamma that hell, the animal realm, the sphere of afflicted spirits, and other bad destinations are seen.


24"Purity by body, Cunda, is threefold. Purity by speech is fourfold. Purity by mind is threefold.

"And how, Cunda, is purity by body threefold?

(1)"Here, someone, having abandoned the destruction of life, abstains from the destruction of life. With the rod and weapon laid aside, conscientious and kindly, he dwells compassionate toward all living beings.

(2) "Having abandoned the taking of what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. He does not steal the wealth and property of others in the village or in the forest.

(3) "Having abandoned sexual misconduct, he abstains from sexual misconduct. He does not have sexual relations with women who are protected by their mother, father, mother and father, brother, sister, or relatives; who are protected by their Dhamma; who have a husband; whose violation entails a penalty; or even with one already engaged.

28"It is in this way that purity by body is threefold.


29"And how, Cunda, is purity by speech fourfold?

(4) "Here, someone, having abandoned false speech, abstains from false speech. If he is summoned to a council, to an assembly, to his relatives’ presence, to his guild, or to the court, and questioned as a witness thus: ‘So, good man, tell what you know,’ then, not knowing, he says, ‘I do not know,’ or knowing, he says, ‘I know’; not seeing, he says, ‘I do not see,’ or seeing, he says, ‘I see.’ Thus he does not consciously speak falsehood for his own ends, or for another's ends, or for some trifling worldly end.

30(5) "Having abandoned divisive speech, he abstains from divisive speech. Having heard something here, he does not repeat it elsewhere in order to divide those people from these; or having heard something elsewhere, he does not repeat it to these people in order to divide them from those. Thus he is one who reunites those who are divided, a promoter of unity, who enjoys concord, rejoices in concord, delights in concord, a speaker of words that promote concord.

31(6) "Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech. He speaks such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, and lovable, as go to the heart, are courteous, desired by many, and agreeable to many.

32(7) "Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at a proper time, speaks truth, speaks what is beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the discipline; at a proper time he speaks such words as are worth recording, reasonable, succinct, and beneficial.


33"It is in this way that purity by speech is fourfold.

34"And how, Cunda, is purity by mind threefold?

(8) "Here, someone is without longing. He does not long for the wealth and property of others thus: ‘Oh, may what belongs to another be mine!’

35(9) "He is of good will and his intentions are free of hate thus: ‘May these beings live happily, free from enmity, affliction, and anxiety!’


36(10) "He holds right view and has a correct perspective thus: ‘There is what is given, sacrificed, and offered; there is fruit and result of good and bad actions; there is this world and the other world; there is mother and father; there are beings spontaneously reborn; there are in the world ascetics and brahmins of right conduct and right practice who, having realized this world and the other world for themselves by direct knowledge, make them known to others.’


37"It is in this way that purity by mind is threefold."

38"These, Cunda, are the ten courses of wholesome kamma. If one engages in these ten courses of wholesome kamma, then, if one gets up early and strokes the ground from one's bed, one is pure, and if one doesn’t stroke the ground, one is pure.

39If one strokes wet cow dung, one is pure, and if one doesn’t stroke wet cow dung, one is pure.

40If one strokes green grass, one is pure, and if one doesn’t stroke green grass, one is pure.

41If one tends the sacred fire, one is pure, and if one doesn’t tend the sacred fire, one is pure.

42If one pays homage to the sun with reverential salutation, one is pure, and if one doesn’t pay homage to the sun with reverential salutation, one is pure.

43If one immerses oneself in water three times including the evening, one is pure, and if one doesn’t immerse oneself in water three times including the evening, one is pure.

For what reason?


Because these ten courses of wholesome kamma are themselves pure and purifying.

44It is because people engage in these ten courses of wholesome kamma that the devas, human beings, and other good destinations are seen."


45When this was said, Cunda, the smith's son, said to the Blessed One: "Excellent, Bhante! … Let the Blessed One accept me as a lay follower who from today has gone for refuge for life."

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​   ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā pāvāyaṁ viharati cundassa kammāraputtassa ambavane. Atha kho cundo kammāraputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho cundaṁ kammāraputtaṁ bhagavā etadavoca: 


"Kassa no tvaṁ, cunda, soceyyāni rocesī"ti?

"Brāhmaṇā, bhante, pacchābhūmakā kamaṇḍalukā sevālamālikā aggiparicārikā udakorohakā soceyyāni paññapenti; tesāhaṁ soceyyāni rocemī"ti.


2"Yathā kathaṁ pana, cunda, brāhmaṇā pacchābhūmakā kamaṇḍalukā sevālamālikā aggiparicārikā udakorohakā soceyyāni paññapentī"ti? "Idha, bhante, brāhmaṇā pacchābhūmakā kamaṇḍalukā sevālamālikā aggiparicārikā udakorohakā.


Te sāvakaṁ evaṁ samādapenti:  ‘ehi tvaṁ, ambho purisa, kālasseva uṭṭhahantova sayanamhā pathaviṁ āmaseyyāsi; no ce pathaviṁ āmaseyyāsi, allāni gomayāni āmaseyyāsi; no ce allāni gomayāni āmaseyyāsi, haritāni tiṇāni āmaseyyāsi; no ce haritāni tiṇāni āmaseyyāsi, aggiṁ paricareyyāsi; no ce aggiṁ paricareyyāsi, pañjaliko ādiccaṁ namasseyyāsi; no ce pañjaliko ādiccaṁ namasseyyāsi, sāyatatiyakaṁ udakaṁ oroheyyāsī’ti. Evaṁ kho, bhante, brāhmaṇā pacchābhūmakā kamaṇḍalukā sevālamālikā aggiparicārikā udakorohakā soceyyāni paññapenti; tesāhaṁ soceyyāni rocemī"ti.

3"Aññathā kho, cunda, brāhmaṇā pacchābhūmakā kamaṇḍalukā sevālamālikā aggiparicārikā udakorohakā soceyyāni paññapenti, aññathā ca pana ariyassa vinaye soceyyaṁ hotī"ti.

"Yathā kathaṁ pana, bhante, ariyassa vinaye soceyyaṁ hoti? Sādhu me, bhante, bhagavā tathā dhammaṁ desetu yathā ariyassa vinaye soceyyaṁ hotī"ti.


4"Tena hi, cunda, suṇāhi, sādhukaṁ manasi karohi; bhāsissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavato paccassosi. Bhagavā etadavoca: 

5"Tividhaṁ kho, cunda, kāyena asoceyyaṁ hoti; catubbidhaṁ vācāya asoceyyaṁ hoti; tividhaṁ manasā asoceyyaṁ hoti.

6Kathañca, cunda, tividhaṁ kāyena asoceyyaṁ hoti?


Idha, cunda, ekacco pāṇātipātī hoti luddo lohitapāṇi hatapahate niviṭṭho adayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtesu. (1)

7Adinnādāyī hoti. Yaṁ taṁ parassa paravittūpakaraṇaṁ gāmagataṁ vā araññagataṁ vā taṁ adinnaṁ theyyasaṅkhātaṁ ādātā hoti. (2)

8Kāmesumicchācārī hoti. Yā tā māturakkhitā piturakkhitā mātāpiturakkhitā bhāturakkhitā bhaginirakkhitā ñātirakkhitā gottarakkhitā dhammarakkhitā sasāmikā saparidaṇḍā antamaso mālāguḷaparikkhittāpi, tathārūpāsu cārittaṁ āpajjitā hoti. (3)

9Evaṁ kho, cunda, tividhaṁ kāyena asoceyyaṁ hoti.

10Kathañca, cunda, catubbidhaṁ vācāya asoceyyaṁ hoti?

Idha, cunda, ekacco musāvādī hoti. Sabhaggato vā parisaggato vā ñātimajjhagato vā pūgamajjhagato vā rājakulamajjhagato vā abhinīto sakkhipuṭṭho:  ‘ehambho purisa, yaṁ jānāsi taṁ vadehī’ti, so ajānaṁ vā āha:  ‘jānāmī’ti, jānaṁ vā āha:  ‘Na jānāmī’ti; apassaṁ vā āha:  ‘passāmī’ti, passaṁ vā āha:  ‘Na passāmī’ti. Iti attahetu vā parahetu vā āmisakiñcikkhahetu vā sampajānamusā bhāsitā hoti. (4)

11Pisuṇavāco hoti. Ito sutvā amutra akkhātā imesaṁ bhedāya, amutra vā sutvā imesaṁ akkhātā amūsaṁ bhedāya. Iti samaggānaṁ vā bhettā, bhinnānaṁ vā anuppadātā, vaggārāmo vaggarato vagganandī vaggakaraṇiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti. (5)

12Pharusavāco hoti. Yā sā vācā aṇḍakā kakkasā parakaṭukā parābhisajjanī kodhasāmantā asamādhisaṁvattanikā, tathārūpiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti. (6)

13Samphappalāpī hoti akālavādī abhūtavādī anatthavādī adhammavādī avinayavādī; anidhānavatiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti akālena anapadesaṁ apariyantavatiṁ anatthasaṁhitaṁ.

Evaṁ kho, cunda, catubbidhaṁ vācāya asoceyyaṁ hoti. (7)


14Kathañca, cunda, tividhaṁ manasā asoceyyaṁ hoti?

Idha, cunda, ekacco abhijjhālu hoti. Yaṁ taṁ parassa paravittūpakaraṇaṁ taṁ abhijjhātā hoti:  ‘aho vata yaṁ parassa taṁ mamassā’ti. (8)

15Byāpannacitto hoti paduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo:  ‘ime sattā haññantu vā bajjhantu vā ucchijjantu vā vinassantu vā mā vā ahesun’ti. (9)

16Micchādiṭṭhiko hoti viparītadassano:  ‘Natthi dinnaṁ, natthi yiṭṭhaṁ, natthi hutaṁ, natthi sukaṭadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, natthi ayaṁ loko, natthi paro loko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti.

Evaṁ kho, cunda, manasā tividhaṁ asoceyyaṁ hoti. (10)


17Ime kho, cunda, dasa akusalakammapathā. Imehi kho, cunda, dasahi akusalehi kammapathehi samannāgato kālasseva uṭṭhahantova sayanamhā pathaviñcepi āmasati, asuciyeva hoti; no cepi pathaviṁ āmasati, asuciyeva hoti.

18Allāni cepi gomayāni āmasati, asuciyeva hoti; no cepi allāni gomayāni āmasati, asuciyeva hoti.

19Haritāni cepi tiṇāni āmasati, asuciyeva hoti; no cepi haritāni tiṇāni āmasati, asuciyeva hoti.

20Aggiñcepi paricarati, asuciyeva hoti, no cepi aggiṁ paricarati, asuciyeva hoti.

21Pañjaliko cepi ādiccaṁ namassati, asuciyeva hoti; no cepi pañjaliko ādiccaṁ namassati, asuciyeva hoti.

22Sāyatatiyakañcepi udakaṁ orohati, asuciyeva hoti; no cepi sāyatatiyakaṁ udakaṁ orohati, asuciyeva hoti.

Taṁ kissa hetu?


Ime, cunda, dasa akusalakammapathā asucīyeva honti asucikaraṇā ca.

23Imesaṁ pana, cunda, dasannaṁ akusalānaṁ kammapathānaṁ samannāgamanahetu nirayo paññāyati, tiracchānayoni paññāyati, pettivisayo paññāyati, yā vā panaññāpi kāci duggatiyo.


24Tividhaṁ kho, cunda, kāyena soceyyaṁ hoti; catubbidhaṁ vācāya soceyyaṁ hoti; tividhaṁ manasā soceyyaṁ hoti.

25Kathaṁ, cunda, tividhaṁ kāyena soceyyaṁ hoti? Idha, cunda, ekacco pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho, lajjī dayāpanno, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati. (1)

26Adinnādānaṁ pahāya, adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti. Yaṁ taṁ parassa paravittūpakaraṇaṁ gāmagataṁ vā araññagataṁ vā, na taṁ adinnaṁ theyyasaṅkhātaṁ ādātā hoti. (2)

27Kāmesumicchācāraṁ pahāya, kāmesumicchācārā paṭivirato hoti yā tā māturakkhitā piturakkhitā mātāpiturakkhitā bhāturakkhitā bhaginirakkhitā ñātirakkhitā gottarakkhitā dhammarakkhitā sasāmikā saparidaṇḍā antamaso mālāguḷaparikkhittāpi, tathārūpāsu na cārittaṁ āpajjitā hoti. (3)

28Evaṁ kho, cunda, tividhaṁ kāyena soceyyaṁ hoti.


29Kathañca, cunda, catubbidhaṁ vācāya soceyyaṁ hoti?

Idha, cunda, ekacco musāvādaṁ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato hoti. Sabhaggato vā parisaggato vā ñātimajjhagato vā pūgamajjhagato vā rājakulamajjhagato vā abhinīto sakkhipuṭṭho:  ‘ehambho purisa, yaṁ jānāsi taṁ vadehī’ti, so ajānaṁ vā āha:  ‘Na jānāmī’ti, jānaṁ vā āha:  ‘jānāmī’ti, apassaṁ vā āha:  ‘Na passāmī’ti, passaṁ vā āha:  ‘passāmī’ti. Iti attahetu vā parahetu vā āmisakiñcikkhahetu vā na sampajānamusā bhāsitā hoti. (4)

30Pisuṇaṁ vācaṁ pahāya, pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti – na ito sutvā amutra akkhātā imesaṁ bhedāya, na amutra vā sutvā imesaṁ akkhātā amūsaṁ bhedāya. Iti bhinnānaṁ vā sandhātā sahitānaṁ vā anuppadātā samaggārāmo samaggarato samagganandī samaggakaraṇiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti. (5)

31Pharusaṁ vācaṁ pahāya, pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti. Yā sā vācā nelā kaṇṇasukhā pemanīyā hadayaṅgamā porī bahujanakantā bahujanamanāpā, tathārūpiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti. (6)

32Samphappalāpaṁ pahāya, samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī; nidhānavatiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti kālena sāpadesaṁ pariyantavatiṁ atthasaṁhitaṁ. (7)


33Evaṁ kho, cunda, catubbidhaṁ vācāya soceyyaṁ hoti.

34Kathañca, cunda, tividhaṁ manasā soceyyaṁ hoti?

Idha, cunda, ekacco anabhijjhālu hoti. Yaṁ taṁ parassa paravittūpakaraṇaṁ taṁ anabhijjhitā hoti:  ‘aho vata yaṁ parassa taṁ mamassā’ti. (8)

35Abyāpannacitto hoti appaduṭṭhamanasaṅkappo:  ‘ime sattā averā hontu abyāpajjā, anīghā sukhī attānaṁ pariharantū’ti. (9)


36Sammādiṭṭhiko hoti aviparītadassano:  ‘atthi dinnaṁ, atthi yiṭṭhaṁ, atthi hutaṁ, atthi sukaṭadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, atthi ayaṁ loko, atthi paro loko, atthi mātā, atthi pitā, atthi sattā opapātikā, atthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī’ti. (10)


37Evaṁ kho, cunda, tividhaṁ manasā soceyyaṁ hoti.

38Ime kho, cunda, dasa kusalakammapathā. Imehi kho, cunda, dasahi kusalehi kammapathehi samannāgato kālasseva uṭṭhahantova sayanamhā pathaviñcepi āmasati, suciyeva hoti; no cepi pathaviṁ āmasati, suciyeva hoti.

39Allāni cepi gomayāni āmasati, suciyeva hoti; no cepi allāni gomayāni āmasati, suciyeva hoti.

40Haritāni cepi tiṇāni āmasati, suciyeva hoti; no cepi haritāni tiṇāni āmasati, suciyeva hoti.

41Aggiñcepi paricarati, suciyeva hoti; no cepi aggiṁ paricarati, suciyeva hoti.

42Pañjaliko cepi ādiccaṁ namassati, suciyeva hoti; no cepi pañjaliko ādiccaṁ namassati, suciyeva hoti.

43Sāyatatiyakañcepi udakaṁ orohati, suciyeva hoti; no cepi sāyatatiyakaṁ udakaṁ orohati, suciyeva hoti.

Taṁ kissa hetu?


Ime, cunda, dasa kusalakammapathā sucīyeva honti sucikaraṇā ca.

44Imesaṁ pana, cunda, dasannaṁ kusalānaṁ kammapathānaṁ samannāgamanahetu devā paññāyanti, manussā paññāyanti, yā vā panaññāpi kāci sugatiyo"ti.


45Evaṁ vutte, cundo kammāraputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:  "Abhikkantaṁ, bhante … pe … upāsakaṁ maṁ, bhante, bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gatan"ti.

Dasamaṁ.