Light/Dark

Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN16: Mahāparinibbānasutta Sutta – The Discourse about the Great Emancipation

King Ajātasattu

1Thus I heard:[n.363] With this Sutta, Mrs Bennett’s volume of abridged translations comes to an end. Of greater value was The Last Days of the Buddha, translated by Sister Vajirā and revised by Francis Story, with notes by the Ven. Nyānaponika Mahāthera (Wheel Publication 67/69, BPS, Kandy 1964).
The Sutta is a composite one, many portions of which are found separately in other parts of the Canon, as listed by RD. No doubt it contains the basic facts about the Buddha’s last days, but various late and more than dubious elements have been incorporated in it-a process which continued in the later Sanskrit versions (produced by the Sarvāstivādins and other schools), which are known to us mainly from the Chinese and Tibetan translations (though some Sanskrit fragments have been found). For E. Waldschmidt’s (German) study of these, see A.K. Warder, Indian Buddhism (2nd ed., Delhi 1980). The Tibetan version is translated into English in W.W. Rockhill, Life of the Buddha (2nd ed., London 1907), pp. 123–147. It should perhaps be mentioned that the (expanded, Sanskrit-based) Mahāparinirvāṇa Sūtra is sometimes cited as evidence for the belief in a supreme self in Mahayana Buddhism. One Chinese version does indeed contain a passage to this effect, but this is a late interpolation, and is not representative of the general Mahayana position.
— At one time the Gracious One was living near Rājagaha on the Vultures' Peak Mountain.[n.364] Gijjhakūṭa: a pleasant elevation above the stifling heat of Rajagaha. The name was taken up by Mahayana writers, who often located the Buddha’s discourses there.

Now at that time the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom,[n.365] See also n.92. He is certainly a historical figure, unlike the ‘King Ajātaśatru of Benares’ of the Bṛhadāranyaka Upaniṣad, with whom he shared a taste for philosophical discussion with sages. RD points out that this is not his personal name but an official epithet. The literal meaning ‘unborn foe’ must then mean ‘he against whom a foe (capable of conquering him) has not been born’, though in view of his act of parricide it came to be taken as ‘the unborn foe (i.e. while still in the womb) of his father’- with legendary elaboration. In Jain sources he is called Kuṇika or Konika. Vedehiputta means ‘son of the Videha woman’ (see next note). There is a long article on him in EB, where, however, RD’s mistranslation at DN 2.102 (see n.139 there) is repeated. had a desire to attack the Vajjians. He said this: "I will annihilate these Vajjians,[n.366] The Vajjian confederacy, northward across the Ganges from Magadha, consisted of the Licchavis of Vesālī and the Vedehis (of Videha — to whom Ajatasattu’s mother belonged), whose capital was Mithila. who are so successful, so powerful, I will destroy the Vajjians, I will bring about the downfall and destruction of the Vajjians".

2Then the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, addressed the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, saying:

"Go, brahmin, and approach the Gracious One, and after approaching worship the Gracious One's feet in my name, and ask whether he is free from sickness, free from illness, in good health, and living comfortably, and say: 'The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, reverend Sir, worships with his head at the Gracious One's feet, and asks whether you are free from sickness, free from illness, in good health, and living comfortably.'

And say this: 'The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, reverend Sir, desires to attack the Vajjians. He says this: "I will annihilate these Vajjians, who are so successful, so powerful, I will destroy the Vajjians, I will bring about the downfall and destruction of the Vajjians." And just what the Gracious One says to you, after learning it well, you must inform me, for the Realised Ones do not speak falsely."

1. The Brāhman Vassakāra

3"Very well, dear Sir," and the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, after replying to the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, and having many great and august vehicles prepared, and mounting those great and august vehicles, departed with those great and august vehicles from Rājagaha, and after approaching by vehicle to the Vultures' Peak Mountain as far as the ground for vehicles would allow, and descending from the vehicles, he approached the Gracious One by foot, and after approaching, he exchanged greetings with the Gracious One, and after exchanging courteous talk and greetings, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side, the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra said this to the Gracious One:

"The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, dear Gotama, worships with his head at dear Gotama's feet, and asks whether you are free from sickness, free from illness, in good health, and living comfortably.

The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, dear Gotama, desires to attack the Vajjians. He says this: 'I will annihilate these Vajjians, who are so successful, so powerful, I will destroy the Vajjians, I will bring about the downfall and destruction of the Vajjians'".

2: Seven Things which Prevent Decline in the Vajjians

4Now at that time venerable Ānanda was stood behind the Gracious One fanning the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying:

"Have you heard, Ānanda: 'The Vajjians assemble regularly and assemble frequently?'" "I have heard this, reverend Sir: 'The Vajjians assemble regularly and assemble frequently.'" "For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will assemble regularly and assemble frequently surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline. (1)

Have you heard, Ānanda: 'The Vajjians assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Vajjian duties unanimously?'" "I have heard this, reverend Sir, that the Vajjians assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Vajjian duties unanimously." "For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Vajjian duties unanimously, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline. (2)

Have you heard, Ānanda: 'The Vajjians do not establish new laws that were not established, or cut off old laws that were established, and carry on with such laws as were accepted in the Ancient Vajjian Constitution?'" "I have heard this, reverend Sir: 'The Vajjians do not establish new laws that were not established, or cut off old laws that were established, and they carry on with such laws as were accepted in the Ancient Vajjian Constitution.'" "For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians do not establish new laws that were not established, or cut off old laws that were established, and they carry on with such laws as were accepted in the Ancient Vajjian Constitution surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline. (3)

Have you heard, Ānanda: 'The Vajjians honour the elders of the Vajjians, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to?'" "I have heard this, reverend Sir: 'The Vajjians honour the elders of the Vajjians, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to.'" "For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will honour the elders of the Vajjians, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline. (4)

Have you heard, Ānanda: 'The Vajjians do not coerce and force their women and girls to dwell with them against their will?'" "I have heard this, reverend Sir: 'The Vajjians do not coerce and force their women and girls to dwell with them against their will.'" "For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will not coerce and force their women and girls to dwell with them against their will, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline. (5)

Have you heard, Ānanda: 'The Vajjians honour the Vajjian shrines amongst the Vajjians, both within and without the city, respect, revere, and worship them, and do not allow the righteous sacrifices that were formerly given, formerly made, to be neglected?'" "I have heard this, reverend Sir: 'The Vajjians honour the Vajjian shrines amongst the Vajjians, both within and without the city, respect, revere, and worship them, and do not allow the righteous sacrifices that were formerly given, formerly made, to be neglected." "For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will honour the Vajjian shrines amongst the Vajjians, both within and without the city, respect, revere, and worship them, and do not allow the righteous sacrifices that were formerly given, formerly made, to be neglected surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline. (6)

Have you heard, Ānanda: 'The Vajjians have made good arrangements in regard to the lawful protection, safety, and guarding of the Worthy Ones, so that Worthy Ones in the future can enter the realm, and having entered the Worthy Ones can live comfortably in the realm?" "I have heard this, reverend Sir: 'The Vajjians have made good arrangements in regard to the lawful protection, safety, and guarding of the Worthy Ones, and that the Worthy Ones in the future can enter the realm, and having entered the Worthy Ones can live comfortably in the realm." "For as long, Ānanda, as the Vajjians will make good arrangements in regard to the lawful protection, safety, and guarding of the Worthy Ones, and that the Worthy Ones in the future can enter the realm, and having entered, the Worthy Ones can live comfortably in the realm, surely growth, Ānanda, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline."(7)

5Then the Gracious One addressed the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, saying: "At one time, brahmin, I was living near Vesālī near to the Sārandada Shrine and there I taught the Vajjians these seven things which prevent decline. For as long, brahmin, as the Vajjians maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the Vajjians agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, brahmin, is to be expected for the Vajjians not decline."

After this was said, the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra addressed the Gracious One, saying: "If the Vajjians, dear Gotama, were endowed with even one or the other of these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth is to be expected not decline, what to say about having seven things which prevent decline? The Vajjians cannot be overcome, dear Gotama, by the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, by war, but only through diplomacy,[n.367] Upalāpana, which RD says must mean ‘humbug, cajolery, diplomacy’. or through the breaking of an alliance. And now, dear Gotama, we shall go, as we have many duties, and there is much which ought to be done."

"Now is the time, brahmin, for whatever you are thinking." Then the Magadhan chief minister the brahmin Vassakāra, after greatly rejoicing and gladly receiving this word of the Gracious One, rose from his seat and departed.

3: Seven Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (1–7)

6Then the Gracious One, not long after the Magadhan chief minister, the brahmin Vassakāra, had gone, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Go, Ānanda, and whatever monks there are living in dependence on Rājagaha, assemble them in the Attendance Hall."


"Very well, reverend Sir," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, and assembling whatever monks there were living in dependence on Rājagaha in the Attendance Hall, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he stood on one side. While standing on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "The Community of monks have assembled, reverend Sir, now is the time, Gracious One, for whatever you are thinking."


Then the Gracious One after rising from his seat approached the Attendance Hall, and after approaching he sat down on the prepared seat. While sitting the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "I will teach you seven things which prevent decline,[n.368] Aparihāniyā dhammā: ‘factors of non-decline’. listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak." "Very well, reverend Sir," those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:


"For as long, monks, as the monks will assemble regularly and assemble frequently, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (1)


For as long, monks, as the monks will assemble unanimously, rise unanimously, and carry out their Community duties unanimously, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (2)


For as long, monks, as the monks do not establish new laws that were not established, or cut off old laws that were established, and they carry on with such training-rules as have been accepted, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (3)


For as long, monks, as the monks will honour the elder monks, those of long-standing, a long time gone-forth, the Fathers of the Community, the Leaders of the Community, respect, revere, worship and think them worth listening to, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (4)


For as long, monks, as the monks will not come under the influence of craving which has arisen for continued existence, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (5)


For as long, monks, as the monks will have desire for forest dwellings, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (6)


For as long, monks, as the monks individually will attend to the ways of mindfulness, so that their fellow celibates, who are well-behaved, in the future can come, and having come to their fellow celibates, who are well-behaved, can live comfortably, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (7)

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

4: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (8–14)

7I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak.""Very well, reverend Sir," those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:


"For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure in work,[n.369] Kammârāmā etc.: ‘fond of action, etc.’ Here kamma obviously does not have the technical Buddhist meaning, and is glossed as ‘things to be done’. the delight in work, and are not attached to work, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (1)


For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure in speech, the delight in speech, and are not attached to speech, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (2)


For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure in sleep, the delight in sleep, and are not attached to sleep, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (3)


For as long, monks, as the monks are not devoted to the pleasure of company, the delight in company, and are not attached to company, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (4)


For as long, monks, as the monks do not have evil wishes, do not go under the influence of evil wishes, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (5)


For as long, monks, as the monks do not have wicked friends, do not have wicked companions, do not have wicked comrades, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (6)


For as long, monks, as the monks do not achieve only mundane or incomplete attainment,[n.370] Stopping short of the goal of enlightenment, ‘resting on their laurels’. surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (7)


For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

5: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (15–21)

8I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it … as long, monks, as the monks will have faith, … have a conscientious mind, … have a sense of shame, … will be learned, will be strenuous, … will attend to mindfulness, … will possess wisdom, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

6: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (22–28)

9I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak."

"Very well, reverend Sir," those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

"For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the factor of Perfect Awakening that is Mindfulness … Investigation of the nature of things … Energy … Rapture … Calm … Concentration … Equanimity, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

7: Seven Further Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (29–35)

10I will teach you a further seven things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak." "Very well, reverend Sir," those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

"For as long, monks, as the monks will develop the perception of impermanence … non-self … unattractive … danger … giving up … dispassion … cessation, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these seven things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these seven things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline.

8: Six Things which Prevent Decline in the Community (36–42)

11I will teach you a further six things which prevent decline, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak." "Very well, reverend Sir," those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

"For as long, monks, as the monks with friendly actions by way of the body will serve their fellow celibates, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (1)

For as long, monks, as the monks with friendly actions by way of speech … mind will serve their fellow celibates, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (2–3)


For as long, monks, as the monks in regard to those righteous gains, received in accordance with the Teaching—whatever amount has been received in the bowl—will divide and share such gains with those who are virtuous, fellow celibates, and share them in common, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (4)


For as long, monks, as the monks are endowed with those virtues which are unbroken, faultless, unspotted, unblemished, productive of freedom, praised by the wise, not clung to, leading to concentration, and will live endowed with virtue amongst their fellow celibates who themselves possess such virtue, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (5)


For as long, monks, as the monks are endowed with that which is Ariyan View, which leads out, which leads to the complete destruction of suffering for one who acts thus, and will live endowed with Right View amongst those who themselves possess such Right View, both in public and in private, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline. (6)


For as long, monks, as the monks will maintain these six things which prevent decline, and the monks will agree with these six things which prevent decline, surely growth, monks, is to be expected for the monks, not decline."


12There also the Gracious One, while living near Rājagaha on the Vultures' Peak Mountain, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying: "Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."

9: The Story of the Teaching at Ambalaṭṭhikā

13Then the Gracious One, after living near Rājagaha for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach Ambalaṭṭhikā."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Ambalaṭṭhikā. There the Gracious One lived near Ambalaṭṭhikā in the King's Rest House.[n.371] This is the Ambalatthika mentioned in DN 1, not that in DN 5.1.


There also the Gracious One, while living in Ambalaṭṭhikā in the King's Rest House, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying:

"Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."


14Then the Gracious One, after living near Ambalaṭṭhikā for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach Nāḷandā."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Nāḷandā. There the Gracious One lived near Nāḷandā in Pāvārika's Mango Wood.

10: Sāriputta's Lion's Roar

15Then venerable Sāriputta approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side venerable Sāriputta said this to the Gracious One: "I have confidence, reverend Sir, in the Gracious One in this way: that neither in the past, the future, or at present is there found another ascetic or brahmin who has more deep knowledge in regard to Perfect Awakening than the Gracious One."

"You have spoken this great and imposing speech, Sāriputta, a definite, well-grasped, lion's roar that was roared, saying: 'I have confidence, reverend Sir, in the Gracious One in this way: that neither in the past, the future, or at present is there found another ascetic or brahmin who has more deep knowledge in regard to Perfect Awakening than the Gracious One.'

But have you, Sāriputta, understood those who, in past times, were Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas, and known with your mind the minds of those Gracious Ones? Or that those Gracious Ones had such and such virtues, those Gracious Ones had such and such qualities, those Gracious Ones had such and such wisdom, those Gracious Ones had such and such lifestyles, those Gracious Ones had such and such liberations?"


"No, reverend Sir."

"But have you, Sāriputta, understood those who, in the future times, will be Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas, and known with your mind the minds of those Gracious Ones? Or that those Gracious Ones will have such and such virtues, those Gracious Ones will have such and such qualities, those Gracious Ones will have such and such wisdom, those Gracious Ones will have such and such lifestyles, those Gracious Ones will have such and such liberations?"


"No, reverend Sir."

"But have you understood I, who am, at present, a Worthy and Perfect Sambuddha, and known with your mind my mind? Or that the Gracious One has such and such virtues, the Gracious One has such and such qualities, the Gracious One has such and such wisdom, the Gracious One has such and such a lifestyle, the Gracious One has such and such a liberation?"


"No, reverend Sir."

"Here then, Sāriputta, in regard to those past, future, and present Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas you have no full and exact knowledge with your own mind. Then how is it, Sāriputta, at present that you have spoken such a great and imposing speech, a definite, well-grasped, lion's roar that was roared, saying: 'I have confidence, reverend Sir, in the Gracious One in this way: that neither in the past, the future, or at present is there found another ascetic or brahmin who has more deep knowledge in regard to Perfect Awakening than the Gracious One'?"

16"I do not, reverend Sir, in regard to those past, future, and present Worthy and Perfect Sambuddhas have full and exact knowledge with my own mind. However, I understand what I said is in conformity with the Teaching.[n.372] Dhammanvaya: ‘the way the Dhamma goes’; anvaya also means ‘lineage’, and RD has ‘the lineage of the faith’, which is doubly inappropriate.

It is like a King's city, reverend Sir, near the border areas, having strong foundations, strong walls and gateways, and a single door, and there is a watchman, wise, accomplished, and intelligent, warding off those unknown, and letting through those well-known. While going around the road on inspection through the whole of that city he may not see such fissures in the wall or openings in the wall that even a cat could go out through, it may be so, but he knows: 'Whatever grosser beings enter or depart from this city all of them surely enter or depart through this door.'

Similarly, reverend Sir, I understand it is in conformity with the Teaching, that whoever, reverend Sir, in the past times, are Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas, all those Gracious Ones, after giving up the five hindrances, have penetrated with wisdom the corruptions of the mind that make one feeble, have established their minds in the four ways of attending to mindfulness, and after developing just as it is the Seven Factors of Awakening, have awakened to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening.

That whoever, reverend Sir, in the future times, are Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas all those Gracious Ones, after giving up the five hindrances, and penetrating with wisdom the corruptions of the mind that make one feeble, and establishing their minds in the four ways of attending to mindfulness, and developing just as it is the Seven Factors of Awakening, will awaken to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening.

And the Gracious One, reverend Sir, in the present time, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha, also after giving up the five hindrances, has penetrated with wisdom the corruptions of the mind that make one feeble, has established his mind in the four ways of attending to mindfulness, and after developing just as it is the Seven Factors of Awakening, has awoken to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening."

17There also the Gracious One, while living near Nāḷandā in Pāvārika's Mango Wood, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying:

"Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."

11: The Advantages of Virtue

18Then the Gracious One, after living near Nāḷandā for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach Pāṭaligāma."


"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Pāṭaligāma.

The laymen of Pāṭaligāma heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, had reached Pāṭaligāma." Then the laymen of Pāṭaligāma approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they sat down on one side. While sitting on one side, the laymen of Pāṭaligāma said this to the Gracious One: "May the Gracious One consent, reverend Sir, to stay in our rest house." The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence.

Then the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, having understood the Gracious One's consent, after rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, approached their rest house, and after approaching, and spreading the mats so that the rest house was spread all over, and preparing the seats, setting up the water-pot, and lighting the oil-lamp, they approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they stood on one side. While standing on one side, the laymen of Pāṭaligāma said this to the Gracious One:

"The rest house is spread with mats all over, reverend Sir, the seats are prepared, the water-pot is set up, and the oil-lamp is lit, now is the time, reverend Sir, for whatever the Gracious One is thinking."


Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the evening time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached the rest house, and after approaching, washing his feet, and entering the rest house, he sat down near to the middle pillar, facing the East, and the Community of monks, after washing their feet, and entering the rest house, sat down behind the Gracious One near the West wall, facing the East, having the Gracious One in front of them. Also the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, after washing their feet, and entering the rest house, sat down in front of the Gracious One near the East wall, facing the West, having the Gracious One in front of them.


19Then the Gracious One addressed the laymen of Pāṭaligāma, saying: "There are these five dangers, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue. What are the five?


Here, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, because of being heedless undergoes a great loss of riches. This is the first danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.


Furthermore, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue, a bad report goes round. This is the second danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.


Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, whatever assembly he approaches, whether an assembly of Nobles, or an assembly of brahmins, or an assembly of householders, or an assembly of ascetics, he approaches without confidence, with confusion. This is the third danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.


Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, dies bewildered. This is the fourth danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.


Furthermore, householders, one lacking in virtue, one who has lost his virtue, at the break-up of the body, after death, arises in the lower world, in an unfortunate destiny, in the fall, in the nether regions. This is the fifth danger for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue.

 

20These are the five dangers, householders, for one lacking in virtue, for one who has lost his virtue. There are these five advantages, householders, for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.What are the five? Here, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, because of being heedful obtains a great mass of riches. This is the first advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.


Furthermore, householders, of one who is virtuous, of one accomplished in virtue, a good report goes round. This is the second advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, whatever assembly he approaches, whether an assembly of Nobles, or an assembly of brahmins, or an assembly of householders, or an assembly of ascetics, approaches with confidence, without confusion. This is the third advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, dies without bewilderment. This is the fourth advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

Furthermore, householders, one who is virtuous, one accomplished in virtue, at the break-up of the body, after death, arises in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the fifth advantage for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue.

These are the five advantages, householders, for one who is virtuous, for one accomplished in virtue."

21Then the Gracious One, after instructing, rousing, enthusing, and cheering the laymen of Pāṭaligāma for most of the night with a talk about the Teaching, dismissed them, saying: "The night has passed, householders, now is the time for whatever you are thinking."

"Very well, reverend Sir," said those laymen of Pāṭaligāma, and after replying to the Gracious One, rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.

Then the Gracious One, not long after the laymen of Pāṭaligāma had gone, entered an empty place.

12: Building up Pāṭaligāma

22Now at that time the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra were building up a city at Pāṭaligāma to ward off the Vajjians. Then at that time a great many Divinities, thousands upon thousands, were taking possession of grounds at Pāṭaligāma.

In that place where the great Divinities took possession of grounds, there the powerful rulers and great royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the middling Divinities took possession of grounds, there the middling rulers and middling royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the lower Divinities took possession of grounds, there the lower rulers and lower royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

The Gracious One saw with his Divine-eye, which is purified, and surpasses that of normal men, that those Divinities, thousands upon thousands, were taking possession of grounds at Pāṭaligāma.

Then towards the time of dawn, having risen from his seat, the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Now who, Ānanda, is building a city at Pāṭaligāma?"

"The Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra, reverend Sir, are building up a city at Pāṭaligāma to ward off the Vajjians."

"It is just as though, Ānanda, they are building after consulting with the Tāvatiṁsa Divinities, so, Ānanda, are the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra building up a city at Pāṭaligāma to ward off the Vajjians.

Here, Ānanda, I saw with my Divine-eye, which is purified, and surpasses that of normal men, that a great many Divinities, thousands upon thousands, were taking possession of grounds at Pāṭaligāma.

In that place where the great Divinities took possession of grounds, there the powerful rulers and great royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the middling Divinities took possession of grounds, there the middling rulers and middling royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

In that place where the lower Divinities took possession of grounds, there the lower rulers and lower royal ministers' minds inclined to building up residences.

For as long, Ānanda, as there is an Ariyan sphere of influence, for as long as there is trade, this basket-opening Pāṭaliputta will be the chief city. For Pāṭaliputta, Ānanda, there will be three dangers: from fire and from water and from the breaking of an alliance."


23Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, they exchanged greetings with the Gracious One, and after exchanging courteous talk and greetings, they stood on one side. While standing on one side the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra said this to the Gracious One: "May dear Gotama consent to us offering him a meal today, together with the Community of monks." The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence.

Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra having understood the Gracious One's consent, approached their own dwelling, and after approaching, in their own dwellings, having had excellent foodstuffs made ready, had the time announced to the Gracious One, saying: "It is time, dear Gotama, the meal is ready."

Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached the dwelling of the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra, and after approaching, he sat down on the prepared seat.


Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra with their own hands served and satisfied the Community of monks with the Buddha at its head with excellent foodstuffs. Then the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra, when the Gracious One had eaten and washed his hand and bowl, having taken a low seat, sat down on one side.


While sitting on one side the Gracious One rejoiced the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra with these verses:


"In that place where he makes his dwelling, having entertained
The wise and virtuous here, the restrained, who live the spiritual life,

He should dedicate a gift of merit to those Divinities who were in that place.
Honoured, they pay honour, revered, they revere him.

Thereafter they have compassion on him, as a mother on her own son,
A man whom the Divinities has compassion on always sees what is auspicious."


Then the Gracious One after rejoicing the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra with these verses, after rising from his seat, went away.

24Now at that time the Magadhan chief ministers Sunīdha and Vassakāra were following close behind the Gracious One, thinking: "That gate by which the ascetic Gotama leaves will get the name the Gotama Gate, and that ford by which he crosses the river Ganges will get the name the Gotama Ford."

Then that gate by which the Gracious One left got the name the Gotama Gate. Then the Gracious One approached the river Ganges. Now at that time the river Ganges was full to the brim, and could be drunk from by crows perched on the bank. Some of the people were seeking boats, some were seeking floats, and some were binding rafts, desiring to go from this shore to the shore beyond.

Then the Gracious One, just as a strong man might stretch out a bent arm, or bend in an outstretched arm, so did he vanish from the near bank of the river Ganges, and reappeared on the far bank, together with the Community of monks.

The Gracious One saw those people, some seeking boats, some seeking floats, and some binding rafts, desiring to go from this shore to the shore beyond.


Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

"Those who cross over a sea or a river,
Do so after making a bridge, and leaving the marshes behind.
While people are still binding together a raft,
Intelligent people have crossed over."

The First Chapter for Recital is Finished

13: The Four Noble Truths

25Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach Koṭigāma." "Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Koṭigāma. There the Gracious One lived near Koṭigāma.


There the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying:

"Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of Four Noble Truths both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.


Which four?

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of the Noble Truth of the Practice going to the Cessation of Suffering both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

But now the Noble Truth of Suffering has been understood and penetrated, the Noble Truth of the Arising of Suffering has been understood and penetrated, the Noble Truth of the Cessation of Suffering has been understood and penetrated, the Noble Truth of the Practice going to the Cessation of Suffering has been understood and penetrated. Craving for continued existence has been cut off, what leads to rebirth has been exhausted, there is no continuation in existence."

The Gracious One said this, and after saying this, the Fortunate One, the Teacher, said something more:

"Because of not seeing as it really is the Four Noble Truths
we have run along for a long time through various births.
Now these have been seen, uprooted is what leads to rebirth,
the root of suffering has been cut off, there is no continuation in existence."

There also the Gracious One, while living in Koṭigāma, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying:

"Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."

14: The Mirror of the True Nature of Things

26Then the Gracious One, after living near Koṭigāma for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach the Nādikas."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at the Nādikas. There the Gracious One lived near one of the Nādikas in the Brick House.[n.373] Most buildings being of wood, this was exceptional, hence its name.

Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:


"The monk named Sāḷha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?


The nun named Nandā, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was her destination? What was her future state?


The layman named Sudatta, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?


The laywoman named Sujātā, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was her destination? What was her future state?


The layman named Kakudha, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?

The layman named Kālinga … layman named Nikaṭa … layman named Kaṭissaha … layman named Santuṭṭha … layman named Bhadda … layman named Subhadda, reverend Sir, has died in Nādika, what was his destination? What was his future state?"


27"The monk Sāḷha, Ānanda, through the destruction of the pollutants, without pollutants, freed in mind, freed through wisdom, dwelt having known, having directly experienced, and having attained Nibbāna himself in this very life.

The nun Nandā, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously[n.374] As a Non-Returner (anāgāmī). in the Brahmā worlds, and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Sudatta, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of three fetters, and the diminuation of passion, hatred, and delusion, is a Once-Returner, and will return only once more to this world, and then will make an end to suffering.

The laywoman Sujātā, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of three fetters, is a Stream-Enterer, is no longer subject to falling into the lower realms, and has a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.

The layman Kakudha, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously in the Brahmā worlds, and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

The layman Kālinga … layman Nikaṭa … layman Kaṭissaha … layman Tuṭṭha … layman Santuṭṭha … layman Bhadda … layman Subhadda, Ānanda, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters has arisen spontaneously in the Brahmā worlds, and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.


More than fifty laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika who, through the complete destruction of the five lower fetters have arisen spontaneously in the Brahmā worlds, and will attain Final Emancipation there, without returning from that world.

In excess of ninety laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika who, through the complete destruction of three fetters, and the diminuation of passion, hatred, and delusion are Once-Returners, and will return only once more to this world, and then will make an end to suffering.

In excess of five-hundred laymen, Ānanda, have died in Nādika who, through the complete destruction of three fetters, are Stream-Enterers, no longer subject to falling into the lower realms, and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.

 

28But it is not such a wonder, Ānanda, that those who have become human should die, but if every time there is a death in this place, after approaching the Realised One, you were to ask about it, Ānanda, that would be troublesome[n.375] DA stresses that Buddhas can feel only physical, not mental weariness. to the Realised One.

Therefore, Ānanda, I will teach this presentation of the Teaching called the Mirror of the True Nature of Things,[n.376] Dhammâdāsa: in which one can ‘inspect’ oneself. endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself: 'Exhausted is birth in Hell, exhausted is birth in an animal's womb, exhausted is birth in the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms, I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling into the lower realms, and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.'

29And what, Ānanda, is this presentation of the Teaching called the Mirror of the True Nature of Things, endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself: 'Exhausted is birth in Hell, exhausted is birth in an animal's womb, exhausted is birth in the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms, I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling into the lower realms, and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening'?


Here, Ānanda, a Noble Disciple is endowed with perfect confidence in the Buddha thinking:[n.377] ‘Has no doubt’ (i.e. has, by ‘entering the Stream’, transcended doubt).

'Such is he, the Gracious One, the Worthy One, the Perfect Sambuddha, the one endowed with understanding and good conduct, the Fortunate One, the One who understands the worlds, the unsurpassed guide for those people who need taming, the Teacher of Divinities and men, the Buddha, the Gracious One.'

He is endowed with perfect confidence in the Teaching thinking:

'The Teaching has been well-proclaimed by the Gracious One, it is visible, not subject to time, inviting inspection, onward leading, and can be understood by the wise for themselves.'


He is endowed with perfect confidence in the Community thinking:

'The Gracious One's Community of disciples are good in their practice, the Gracious One's Community of disciples are straight in their practice, the Gracious One's Community of disciples are systematic in their practice, the Gracious One's Community of disciples are correct in their practice, that is to say, the four pairs of persons,[n.378] The eight are the one who has gained the state of Stream-Winner, and the one who has gained its ‘fruition’ (counted separately), and similarly for the three higher stages. The eight are the one who has gained the state of Stream-Winner, and the one who has gained its ‘fruition’ (counted separately), and similarly for the three higher stages. the eight individual persons, this is the Gracious One's Community of disciples, they are worthy of offerings, of hospitality, of gifts, and of reverential salutation, they are an unsurpassed field of merit for the world.'

He[n.379] He, referring to the disciple and not (as RD) to the Saṅgha. is endowed with the lovely Ariyan virtue, unbroken, faultless, unspotted, unblemished,[n.380] Viññupassaṭṭhehi: ‘not deficient, undisturbed’ (cf. PED), not (as RD) ‘praised by the wise’ productive of freedom, praised by the wise, not adhered to, leading to concentration.


This is the presentation of the Teaching, Ānanda, called the Mirror of the True Nature of Things endowed with which a Noble Disciple desiring to do so may declare about himself: 'Exhausted is Hell, exhausted is birth in an animal's womb, exhausted is birth in the realm of the Fallen Spirits, exhausted is falling into an unfortunate destiny in the lower realms, I am a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling into the lower realms, and have a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening.'"


There also the Gracious One, while living near Nādika in the Brick House, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying: "Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."

30Then the Gracious One, after living near Nādika for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach Vesālī."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Vesālī. There the Gracious One lived near Vesālī in Ambapālī's Wood. There the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying:

"Mindfully[n.381] For this and the next verse, see DN 22.1. and with full awareness, monks, a monk should live, this is our advice to you. And how, monks, is a monk mindful?

Here, monks, a monk dwells contemplating the nature of the body in the body, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating the nature of feelings in feelings, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating the nature of the mind in the mind, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world; he dwells contemplating the nature of things in various things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

Thus, monks, a monk is mindful. And how, monks, does a monk have full awareness?

Here, monks, a monk in going forwards, in going back, is one who practises with full awareness, in looking ahead, or in looking around, he is one who practises with full awareness, in bending or in stretching, he is one who practises with full awareness, in bearing his double-robe, bowl, and other robes, he is one who practises with full awareness, in eating, in drinking, in chewing, in tasting, he is one who practises with full awareness, in passing stool and urine, he is one who practises with full awareness, in going, in standing, in sitting, in sleeping, in waking, in talking, and in maintaining silence, he is one who practises with full awareness.

Thus, monks, a monk has full awareness. Mindfully and with full awareness, monks, a monk should live, this is our advice to you."

15: The Courtesan Ambapālī

31The courtesan Ambapālī[n.383] Ganikā. She was a rich and cultivated woman, with skills similar to those of a geisha. heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has reached Vesālī and is living near Vesālī in my Mango Wood."

Then the courtesan Ambapālī, after having many great and august vehicles prepared, and mounting those great and august vehicles, departed with those great and august vehicles from Vesālī, and after approaching by vehicle to her pleasure garden as far as the ground for vehicles would allow, and descending from the vehicles, she approached the Gracious One by foot, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, she sat down on one side. While the courtesan Ambapālī was sitting on one side the Gracious One instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered her with a talk about the Teaching.

Then the courtesan Ambapālī, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, said to the Gracious One: "May the Gracious One consent, reverend Sir, to me offering him a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks."

The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence. Then the courtesan Ambapālī, having understood the Gracious One's consent, after rising from her seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.


The Licchavīs from Vesālī heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, had reached Vesālī and is living near Vesālī in Ambapālī's Wood."

Then those Licchavīs, after having many great and august vehicles prepared, and mounting those great and august vehicles, departed with those great and august vehicles from Vesālī. There some of the Licchavīs were blue,[n.384] Nīla: variously rendered as ‘dark blue, blue-green’, etc. having a blue appearance,[n.385] Men wore cosmetics of various colours. with blue clothes and blue decorations; some of the Licchavīs were yellow, having a yellow appearance, with yellow clothes and yellow decorations; some of the Licchavīs were red, having a red appearance, with red clothes and red decorations; some of the Licchavīs were white, having a white appearance, with white clothes and white decorations.

Then the courtesan Ambapālī rolled alongside the Licchavī youths axle by axle, wheel by wheel, and yoke by yoke. Then those Licchavīs said this to the courtesan Ambapālī: "Why do you, Ambapālī, roll alongside the Licchavī youths axle by axle, wheel by wheel, and yoke by yoke?"

"Because I have invited the Gracious One, noble sirs, for a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks."

"Give us this meal, Ambapālī, for a hundred thousand kahapanas."

"If, noble sirs, you would give Vesālī and its revenues[n.386] Sâhāraṁ: lit. ‘with its food’, i.e. revenue. still I would not give this meal to you."

Then the Licchavīs snapped their fingers, thinking: "We have surely been defeated by a woman,[n.387] A play on amba ‘mango’ and ambakā ‘woman’. Her name means ‘mango-guardian”. we have surely been defeated by a woman."


Then the Licchavīs entered Ambapālī's Wood. The Gracious One saw those Licchavīs coming from afar, and having seen them, he addressed the monks, saying: "Let those monks who have not seen the Tāvatiṁsa Divinities, monks, look at the Licchavī troupe, monks, look upon the Licchavī troupe, monks, contemplate the Licchavī troupe, monks, who are like the Tāvatiṁsa Divinities."


Then after the Licchavīs had gone as far as the ground for vehicles would allow, and had descended from the vehicles, they approached the Gracious One by foot, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, they sat down at one side.

While the Licchavīs were sitting on one side the Gracious One instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching. Then the Licchavīs, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, said to the Gracious One: "Please consent to us offering a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks."


"I have already consented to the courtesan Ambapālī's meal on the morrow."

Then the Licchavīs snapped their fingers, thinking: "We have surely been defeated by a woman, we have surely been defeated by a woman."

Then the Licchavīs, after greatly rejoicing and gladly receiving this word of the Gracious One, rising from their seats, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.

32Then the courtesan Ambapālī after the night had passed, having had excellent foodstuffs made ready in her own pleasure park, had the time announced to the Gracious One, saying: "It is time, reverend Sir, the meal is ready."

Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached the courtesan Ambapālī's residence, and after approaching he sat down on the prepared seat. Then the courtesan Ambapālī with her own hand served and satisfied the Community of monks with the Buddha at its head with excellent foodstuffs.

Then the courtesan Ambapālī, when the Gracious One had eaten and washed his hand and bowl, having taken a certain low seat, sat down on one side. While sitting on one side the courtesan Ambapālī said this to the Gracious One: "I donate this pleasure park, reverend Sir, to the Community of monks with the Buddha at its head."

The Gracious One accepted the pleasure park. Then the Gracious One, after instructing, rousing, enthusing, and cheering the courtesan Ambapālī with a talk about the Teaching, having risen from the seat, went away.


There also the Gracious One, while living in Vesālī in Ambapālī's Wood, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying:

"Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."

16: The Gracious One's Sickness

33Then the Gracious One, after living near Ambapālī's Wood for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach the little village of Beluva."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at the little village of Beluva. There the Gracious One lived near the little village of Beluva.

There the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "Go, monks, and undertake the Rains Retreat in the vicinity of Vesālī living like friends, like companions, like comrades, and I will spend the Rains Retreat right here at the little village of Beluva."

"Very well, reverend Sir," and those monks, after replying to the Gracious One, undertook the Rains Retreat in the vicinity of Vesālī living like friends, like companions, like comrades. But the Gracious One spent the Rains Retreat right there at the little village of Beluva.

Then while dwelling for the Rains Retreat, a heavy affliction arose for the Gracious One, and continued with strong and death-like feelings. There the Gracious One dwelt mindfully, with full awareness, and without being troubled. Then this occurred to the Gracious One: "It is not suitable that I, without having addressed my attendants, without having given notice to the Community of monks, should attain Final Emancipation. Having energetically dismissed this affliction, I could live on after determining the lifespan."

34Then the Gracious One having energetically dismissed that affliction lived on after determining the lifespan. Then the Gracious One's affliction abated. Then, the Gracious One, having risen from that sickness, not long after rising, departed from the Sick Room and sat down on the prepared seat in front of that Room.

Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One:

"I have seen, reverend Sir, the Gracious One comfortable, I have seen, reverend Sir, the Gracious One bearing up while sick, and my body, reverend Sir, became faint as it were, and although I could not see straight, and things were not clear, it appeared to me, reverend Sir, that the Gracious One was sick, but it was some small comfort that the Gracious One would not attain Final Emancipation until the Gracious One had spoken regarding the Community of monks."

35"But what, Ānanda, does the Community of monks expect of me? The Teaching has been taught by me, Ānanda, without having made a distinction between esoteric and exoteric,[n.388] A famous statement, implying that there is no ‘esoteric’ teaching in Buddhism, at least as originally taught by the Founder. There is no contradiction with the parable of the siṁsapā leaves at SN 56.31. for the Realised One there is nothing, Ānanda, of a closed teacher's fist in regard to the Teaching.

To whoever, Ānanda, this thought occurs: 'I will lead the Community of monks'[n.389] Pariharissāmi: ‘I will take care of’. or 'I am the instructer of the Community of monks' let him speak, Ānanda, regarding the Community of monks. But to the Realised One, Ānanda, this thought does not occur: 'I will lead the Community of monks' or 'I am the instructor of the Community of monks'. Then why, Ānanda, should the Realised One speak regarding the Community of monks?


I, Ānanda, at present, am old, elderly, of great age, far gone, advanced in years, I am eighty years old.[n.390] The idea that the Buddha died at the age of eighty has, for some reason, been considered implausible. We might as well query the fact that Wordsworth died shortly after his eightieth birthday, the year of his death, too, bearing the suspiciously ‘round’ figure of 1850! See n.400. It is like, Ānanda, an old cart, which only keeps going when shored up with bamboo,[n.391] Vegha-missakena. The precise meaning of the expression seems to be unknown, but it ["being bound together with straps" —Walshe] remains a vivid image! just so, Ānanda, I think the Realised One's body only keeps going when shored up with bamboo.

When the Realised One doesn't pay attention, Ānanda, to any of the signs,[n.392] Sabba-nimittānaṁ amanasikārā: ‘not attending to any signs’, i.e. ideas. when all feelings have ceased,[n.393] I.e. mundane feelings (DA). he lives having established the signless mind-concentration,[n.394]‘The concentration attained during intensive insight-meditation’ (AA, quoted in LDB). and at that time, Ānanda, the Realised One's body is most comfortable.


Therefore, Ānanda, live with yourself as an island,[n.395] Dīpa = Skt. dvīpa ‘island’ rather than Skt. dīpa ‘lamp’. But we do not really know whether the Buddha pronounced the two words alike or not! In the absence of such knowledge, it is perhaps best not to be too dogmatic about the meaning. In any case, it is just ‘oneself’ that one has to have as one’s ‘island’ (or lamp), not some ‘great self’ which the Buddha did not teach (cf. n.363, end). yourself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge. And how, Ānanda, does a monk live with himself as an island, himself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge?


Here, Ānanda, a monk dwells contemplating the nature of the body in the body … feelings in feelings … the mind in the mind … things in various things, ardent, fully aware, and mindful, after removing avarice and sorrow regarding the world.

Thus, Ānanda, a monk lives with himself as an island, himself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge. For whoever, Ānanda, whether at present or after my passing, lives with himself as an island, himself as a refuge, with no other refuge, with the Teaching as an island, the Teaching as a refuge, with no other refuge, those monks of mine, Ānanda, will go from darkness to the highest[n.396] Tamatagge. The meaning of this is rather obscure, to say the least. It seems to mean something like ‘the highest’, even if scholars cannot agree as to how this meaning is reached. See the long note (28) in LDB.—whoever likes the training."

The Second Chapter for Recital is Finished.

17: Ānanda's Failure

36Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, entered Vesālī for alms. After walking for alms in Vesālī, and returning from the alms-round after the meal, he addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Take up the sitting mat, Ānanda, we will approach the Cāpāla shrine to dwell for the day."


"Very well, reverend Sir," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, and taking the sitting mat, he followed along close behind the Gracious One.

Then the Gracious One approached the Cāpāla shrine, and after approaching, he sat down on the prepared seat, and also venerable Ānanda, after worshipping the Gracious One, sat down on one side.

37While sitting on one side the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda:


"Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka shrine, delightful is the Sattamba shrine,[n.397] The ‘Seven Mangoes’ Shrine. delightful is the Many Sons' shrine,[n.398] Bahuputta, the ‘Many Sons’ Shrine, at which people used to pray for sons to an ancient banyan-tree. delightful is the Sārandada shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla shrine.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power,[n.399] Iddhipādā. See DN 18.36. could, if he wanted, Ānanda, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan."[n.400] Kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappâvasesaṁ vā. This passage is much disputed. The usual meaning of kappa is ‘aeon’ (but see PED for other senses). DA, however, takes it to mean ‘the full life-span’ (i.e. in Gotama’s day, 100 years: cf. DN 14.8). DA also takes avasesa to mean ‘in excess’ (the usual meaning being ‘the remainder’). After some hesitation, and preferring the lesser ‘miracle’, I have translated the sense of kappa (as I take it) by ‘a century’. This, of course, accords with DA. I have, however, adopted the usual meaning of avasesa as making good sense. For the Buddha, the ‘remainder’ would have been twenty years. PTS translators of the parallel passages have differed in their interpretations. Whereas RD in DN preferred ‘aeon’, Woodward at SN 51.10 (followed reluctantly by Hare at AN 8.70!) has ‘allotted span’, and at Ud 6.1 he tersely remarks: ‘Supposed by some to mean “the aeon or world-period”’. It may be noted that LDB has ‘world-period’, while Mrs Bennett discreetly omits the passage.

But venerable Ānanda, despite such a gross hint being made by the Gracious One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Gracious One, saying: "May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men," like one whose mind was possessed by Māra.[n.401] Māra (= ‘Death’) is the personified spirit of evil, the Tempter, very like the Biblical Satan. But like Brahmā, he is only the temporary incumbent of an ‘office’.


For a second time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka shrine, delightful is the Sattamba shrine, delightful is the Many Sons' shrine, delightful is the Sārandada shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla shrine.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan."

But venerable Ānanda, despite such a gross hint being made by the Gracious One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Gracious One, saying: "May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men," like one whose mind was possessed by Māra.


For a third time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka shrine, delightful is the Sattamba shrine, delightful is the Many Sons' shrine, delightful is the Sārandada shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla shrine.

Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan."

But venerable Ānanda, despite such a gross hint being made by the Gracious One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Gracious One, saying: "May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men," like one whose mind was possessed by Māra.

Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Go, Ānanda, now is the time for whatever you are thinking."

"Very well, reverend Sir," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, rising from his seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, he sat down not far away at the root of a certain tree.

18: The Relinquishment of the Life Process

38Then the Wicked Māra, not long after venerable Ānanda had gone, approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, he stood on one side. While standing on one side the Wicked Māra said this to the Gracious One:

"May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.


For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

'I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my monks are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.'[n.402] Sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ. RD renders this ‘the wonder-working truth’, to which the Ven. Nyānaponika (LDB, n-30) takes exception, pointing out that the adjective could be rendered (paraphrased) by ‘convincing and liberating’. It must however be said that in DN 11.4 we find anusasani-pāṭihāriya ‘the miracle of instruction’ (see n.233 there). In neither place does it imply a miracle in the ‘vulgar’ sense.

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's monks are true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.


For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

'I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my nuns are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.'

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's nuns are true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.


For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

'I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laymen are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.'

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laymen are true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.


For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

'I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laywomen are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.'

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's laywomen are true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, do declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.


For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:

'I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as this spiritual life of mine has not become successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, until it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.'

But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's spiritual life is successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men. May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation."


When that was said the Gracious One said this to the Wicked Māra: "You should have little concern, Wicked One, in no long time the Realised One will be Finally Emancipated, after three months have passed from now, the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation."

39Then at the Cāpāla shrine the Gracious One, mindfully, with full awareness, relinquished the life-process. With the relinquishment of the life-process by the Gracious One there was a great earthquake, and a fearful, horrifying crash of the Divinities' thunder drum.

Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

"Measurable and immeasurable continuity,
And the continuation-process the Sage relinquished.
Content in himself, and concentrated,
He broke continuity of self like a coat of mail."[n.403] ‘As a warrior breaks his armour after the battle’ (DA).

19: Eight Reasons for Earthquakes

40Then it occured to venerable Ānanda: "Surely it is wonderful, surely it is marvellous, this great earthquake, this very great earthquake, and this awful, hair-raising, crash of the Divinities' thunder drum. What was the reason, what was the cause, for the occurrence of this great earthquake?"

Then venerable Ānanda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down at one side. Sitting on one side venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "Surely it is wonderful, reverend Sir, surely it is marvellous, reverend Sir, this great earthquake, this very great earthquake, and this awful, hair-raising, crash of the Divinities' thunder drum. What was the reason, reverend Sir, what was the cause, for the occurrence of this great earthquake?"

41"There are these eight reasons, eight causes, Ānanda, for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

Which eight?

This great Earth, Ānanda, stands in the water, the water stands in the atmosphere, the atmosphere stands in space. There comes a time, Ānanda, when great winds blow, with the great winds blowing, the waters move, the waters having moved, the Earth moves. This is the first reason, the first cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (1)

Furthermore, Ānanda, when an ascetic or a brahmin or a Divinity, one of great power, one of great majesty, has, through spiritual power, attained complete mastery of the mind, and has then developed even a trifling perception of the Earth, or an unlimited perception of water,[n.404] DA has an involved and dubious explanation. The point, surely, is that there is an imbalance in the powers of such a mighty deva (who, of course, is far from being enlightened!). this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the second reason, the second cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (2)

Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Buddha-to-be falls away from the Tusita hosts, and mindfully, with full awareness, enters his mother's womb, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the third reason, the third cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (3)

Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Buddha-to-be mindfully, with full awareness, exits his mother's womb, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the fourth reason, the fourth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (4)

Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One perfectly awakens to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the fifth reason, the fifth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (5)

Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One sets the unsurpassed wheel of the Teaching rolling, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the sixth reason, the sixth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (6)

Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One mindfully, with full awareness gives up the life-process, this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the seventh reason, the seventh cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (7)

Furthermore, Ānanda, when the Realised One is Finally Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining,[n.405] Anupādisesāya nibbāna-dhātuya parinibbāyati: ‘enters the Nibbāna-element without the groups (of attachment) remaining’; or, in mundane parlance, ‘dies’. See BDic under Nibbāna. this Earth moves, wavers, flutters, and shakes. This is the eighth reason, the eighth cause for the occurrence of a great earthquake. (8)

These are the eight reasons, the eight causes, Ānanda, for the occurrence of a great earthquake.

20: The Eight Assemblies

42There are, Ānanda, eight assemblies.


Which eight?


The assembly of Nobles, the assembly of brahmins, the assembly of householders, the assembly of ascetics, the assembly of the Four Great Kings, the assembly of the Tāvatiṁsa Divinities, the assembly of Māra, the assembly of the Brahmā Divinities.


I know, Ānanda, after approaching countless hundreds of assemblies of Nobles[n.406] Or: ‘assemblies of many hundreds of Khattiyas’. … brahmins … householders … ascetics … the Four Great Kings … Tāvatiṁsa Divinities … Māra … Brahmā Divinities, that there, before settling down, before conversing, and before entering upon discussion, whatever their appearance was, my appearance would become, whatever their voice was, my voice would become, and I instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, and while I was speaking they did not know me and would ask: 'Who is this speaking, a Divinity or a man?' and having instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered them with a talk about the Teaching, I disappeared. And when I had disappeared they did not know me and would ask: 'Who is this who disappeared, a Divinity or a man?'


These, Ānanda, are the eight assemblies.

21: The Eight Means of Mind mastery

43There are, Ānanda, eight means of mind mastery.[n.407] Abhibhū-ayatanāni > abhibhâyatanāni. See MN 77 and articles in BDic and EB.

Which eight?


Perceiving forms internally,[n.408] On one’s own person. someone sees forms externally, limited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the first means of mind mastery. (1)


Perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, unlimited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the second means of mind mastery. (2)

Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, limited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the third means of mind mastery. (3)

Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, unlimited, beautiful or ugly, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the fourth means of mind mastery. (4)

Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, just as the flower called Ummā is blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, blue, blue-coloured, of blue appearance, shiny blue, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the fifth means of mind mastery. (5)

Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, yellow, yellow-coloured, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, just as the flower called Kaṇikāra[n.409] The flower of the tree Pterospermum acerifolium. is yellow, yellow-coloured, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is yellow, yellow-coloured, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, yellow, yellow colour, of yellow appearance, shiny yellow, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the sixth means of mind mastery. (6)

Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, just as the flower called Bandhujīvaka is red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, red, red-coloured, of red appearance, shiny red, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the seventh means of mind mastery. (7)

Without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, just as the Osadhī star,[n.410] The ‘healing star’, equated with Venus. is white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, or just as there is Banaras cloth smoothed on both sides that is white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, so, without perceiving forms internally, someone sees forms externally, white, white-coloured, of white appearance, shiny white, and having mastered them, he is one who perceives thus: 'I know, I see'. This is the eighth means of mind mastery. (8)


These, Ānanda, are the eight means of mind mastery.

22: The Eight Liberations

44There are, Ānanda, eight liberations. Which eight?

One having form sees forms. This is the first liberation. (1)

Not perceiving forms internally, he sees forms externally. This is the second liberation. (2)

One is intent on endless beauty. This is the third liberation. (3)

Having completely transcended perceptions of form, with the disappearance of perceptions of sensory impact, not attending to perceptions of variety, understanding: 'This is endless space', he abides in the sphere of endless space. This is the fourth liberation. (4)

Having completely transcended the sphere of endless space, understanding: 'This is endless consciousness', he abides in the sphere of endless consciousness. This is the fifth liberation. (5)

Having completely transcended the sphere of endless consciousness, understanding: 'This is nothing', he abides in the sphere of nothingness. This is the sixth liberation. (6)

Having completely transcended the sphere of nothingness, he abides in the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception. This is the seventh liberation. (7)

Having completely transcended the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he abides in the cessation of perception and feeling. This is the eighth liberation. (8)

These, Ānanda, are the eight liberations.

23: Ānanda's Fault

45At one time Ānanda I was living at Uruvelā, on the bank of the river Nerañjarā, at the root of the Goatherd's Banyan tree, in the first period after attaining Awakening. Then, Ānanda, the Wicked Māra approached me, and after approaching he stood on one side. While standing to one side, Ānanda, the Wicked Māra said this to me:


"May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation."


After this was said, Ānanda, I said this to the Wicked Māra: "I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my monks are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.


I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my nuns are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.


I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laymen are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.


I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my laywomen are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching.


I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as this spiritual life of mine has not become successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, until it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men."


46Now today, Ānanda, at the Cāpāla Shrine the Wicked Māra approached me, and after approaching he stood on one side. While standing on one side the Wicked Māra said this to me:

'May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For these words, reverend Sir, were spoken by the Gracious One:


"I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as my monks … nuns … laymen … laywomen are not true disciples, accomplished, disciplined, confident, learned, bearers of the Teaching, practising in conformity with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, and having learned it from their own teacher, will declare, reveal, make known, set forth, open up, analyse, make plain—after giving a good rebuke with reason to the doctrines of others that have arisen—and teach the miraculous Teaching."

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation. For the Gracious One has said these words:

"I will not attain Final Emancipation, Wicked One, for as long as this spiritual life of mine has not become successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, until it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men."


But at present, reverend Sir, the Gracious One's spiritual life is successful and prosperous, well spread-out, possessed by many, become great, it is well-explained amongst Divinities and men.

May the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation now, reverend Sir, may the Fortunate One attain Final Emancipation, now is the time, reverend Sir, for the Gracious One's Final Emancipation.'


47When that was said, Ānanda, I said this to the Wicked Māra: 'You should have little concern, Wicked One, in no long time the Realised One will be Finally Emancipated, after three months have passed from now, the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation.' Now today, Ānanda, at the Cāpāla Shrine the Realised One mindfully, with full awareness, gave up the life-process."

 

48When this was said venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "Let the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, let the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, having compassion on the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men."


"Enough, Ānanda, do not beg the Realised One, now is the wrong time, Ānanda, for begging the Realised One."


For a second time … third time venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "Let the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan, let the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, having compassion on the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men."


"Do you, Ānanda, have faith in the Realised One's Awakening?" "Yes, reverend Sir," "Then why do you, Ānanda, harrass the Realised One up and till the third time?"


"Face to face with me, reverend Sir, face to face I have heard you say: 'Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.'"


"Do you have faith, Ānanda?" "Yes, reverend Sir,"


"Then, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you, in that you, despite such a gross hint being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, was unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, saying: 'May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.'

If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

24: Ānanda's Fault at Rājagaha

49–50At one time, Ānanda, I was living at Rājagaha on the Vulture's Peak Mountain, I was living right there at Rājagaha near the Gotama Banyan Tree, I was living right there at Rājagaha near the Thieves' Precipice, I was living right there at Rājagaha on the side of the Vebhāra mountain in the Seven Leaves Cave, I was living right there at Rājagaha on the side of the Isigili mountain on Black Rock, I was living right there at Rājagaha in the Cool Wood, at the Snake Tank Slope, I was living right there at Rājagaha in the River Tapodā Monastery, I was living right there near Rājagaha, at Jīvaka's Mango Wood, I was living right there near Rājagaha, in the Deer Park at the place called Crushing Womb, in that place, Ānanda, I addressed you, saying:


'Delightful, Ānanda, is Rājagaha, delightful is the Vulture's Peak Mountain, delightful is the Gotama Banyan Tree, delightful is the Thieves' Precipice, delightful is the side of the Vebhāra mountain in the Seven Leaves Cave, delightful is the side of the Isigili mountain on Black Rock, delightful is the Cool Wood, at the Snake Tank Slope, delightful is the River Tapodā Monastery, delightful is the Squirrel's Feeding Place in Bamboo Wood, delightful is Jīvaka's Mango Wood, delightful is the Deer Park at the place called Crushing Womb.


Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.'


But despite such a gross hint being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, you were unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, saying:

'May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.'

If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

25: Ānanda's Fault at Vesālī

51–52At one time, Ānanda, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Udena Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Gotamaka Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Seven Mangos Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Many Sons Shrine, I was living right here near Vesālī, in the Sārandada Shrine, and here today, Ānanda, at the Cāpāla Shrine I addressed you, saying:


'Delightful, Ānanda, is Vesālī, delightful is the Udena Shrine, delightful is the Gotamaka Shrine, delightful is the Seven Mangos Shrine, delightful is the Many Sons Shrine, delightful is the Sārandada Shrine, delightful is the Cāpāla Shrine.


Whoever has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power, could, if he wanted, remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan. The Realised One has developed, Ānanda, made much of, carried on, established, maintained, augmented, and properly instigated the Four Paths to Power. If he wanted, Ānanda, the Realised One could remain for the lifespan or for what is left of the lifespan.'

But despite such a gross hint, Ānanda, being made by the Realised One, such a gross suggestion being made, you were unable to penetrate it, and did not beg the Realised One, saying:

'May the Gracious One remain, reverend Sir, for the lifespan; may the Fortunate One remain for the lifespan, for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.'


If you, Ānanda, had begged the Realised One twice the Realised One might have rejected your speech, but would have accepted it on the third occasion. So, Ānanda, there is this wrong-doing for you, there is this fault for you.

53Were you not warned by me when I declared: 'There is alteration in, separation from, and changeability in all that is dear and appealing'? How can it be otherwise, Ānanda, for that which is obtained, born, become, conditioned, subject to dissolution? It is not possible to say this: 'It should not dissolve'. But this has been relinquished, cast out, let loose, abandoned by the Realised One, forsaken, the life-process that has been given up. For sure this word was spoken by the Realised One:

'Not long now there will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation, after the passing of three months the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation.' The Realised One cannot for the sake of life go back on that, it is not possible.[n.411] RD says (in part): ‘I do not understand the connexion of ideas between this paragraph and the idea repeated with such tedious iteration in the preceding paragraphs.’ I do not understand what he does not understand. There seems to be no special contradiction of ideas. Whether a Buddha lives on for a century, or even an aeon, he must eventually die.

26: The Thirty-Seven Things on the Side of Awakening

Come Ānanda let us approach the Gabled House Hall in Great Wood."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

Then the Gracious One with venerable Ānanda approached the Gabled House Hall in Great Wood, and after approaching he addressed venerable Ānanda, saying:

"Go, Ānanda, and whatever monks are living in dependance on Vesālī assemble them in the Attendance Hall."

"Very well, reverend Sir," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One and assembling whatever monks were living in dependance on Vesālī in the Attendance Hall, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he stood at one side. While standing on one side, venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "The Community of monks has assembled, reverend Sir, now is the time, Gracious One, for whatever you are thinking."

54Then the Gracious One approached the Attendance Hall, and after approaching he sat down on the prepared seat. While sitting the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying:

"Therefore, monks, whatever Teachings have, with deep knowledge, been taught by me, after grasping them well, you should practise, develop, and make a lot of them, so that the Spiritual Life may last long, and may endure for a long time, and that will be for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men.

And what are those Teachings that have, with deep knowledge, been taught by me, which after grasping them well, you should practise, develop, and make a lot of them, so that the Spiritual Life may last long, and may endure for a long time, that will be for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men?


They are as follows:

The Four Ways of Attending to Mindfulness,
the Four Right Strivings,
the Four Paths to Power,
the Five Faculties,[n.412] The five (spiritual) faculties are: faith (or confidence: saddhā), energy (viriya), mindfulness (sati), concentration (samādhi), and wisdom (paññā). Faith needs to be balanced with wisdom, and energy with concentration, but mindfulness is self-balancing (see VM 4.45-49).
the Five Strengths,[n.413] The names of these powers are the same as those of the faculties listed above. The difference is that at Stream-Entry they become powers as being unshakeable by their opposites. This answers RD’s query at ii, 129 (he has, incidentally reversed the order of the two groups there).
the Seven Factors of Awakening,
the Noble Eight-Fold Path.[n.414] This group of 37 items constitutes the Bodhipakkhiya-Dhammā or ‘Things pertaining to enlightenment’ (cf. MN 77).

These, monks, are those Teachings that have, with deep knowledge, been taught by me, after grasping them well, you should practise, develop, and make a lot of them, so that the Spiritual Life may last long, and may endure for a long time, and that will be for the benefit of many people, for the happiness of many people, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare, benefit, and happiness of Divinities and men."


55Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying:

"Come now, monks, for I tell you all conditioned things are subject to decay, strive on with heedfulness! Not long now there will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation, after the passing of three months the Realised One will attain Final Emancipation."


The Gracious One said this, and after saying this, the Fortunate One, the Teacher, said something more:

"Youths and also the old, fools and also the wise,
Rich and also the poor—all end in death.
Like an earthen vessel made by a potter
Small and great, that which is baked and unbaked,
All end in breakage, just so life ends in death."

Then the Teacher, said something more:


"Well-matured, decayed, with little of my life remaining,
Having abandoned rebirth I will go, having made myself a refuge.
Be heedful, mindful, and virtuous, monks,
With well-reasoned thoughts, protect your minds.

Whoever in this Teaching and Discipline
will live heedful,
Having given up the round of rebirths,
he will put an end to suffering."

The Third Chapter for Recital is Finished.

27: The Four Noble Things

56Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, entered Vesālī for alms. After walking for alms in Vesālī, when he was returning from the alms-round after the meal, after looking at Vesālī with an elephant's look,[n.415] Buddhas, like elephants, apparently turn the whole body round to look back! he addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "This is the last time, Ānanda, there will be sight of Vesālī for the Realised One. Come Ānanda let us approach Bhaṇḍagāma."


"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Bhaṇḍagāma. There the Gracious One lived near Bhaṇḍagāma.

There the Gracious One said this to the monks: "Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration, monks, of four things both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.


Which four?

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Virtue both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Concentrated Development both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Wisdom both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

Because of a lack of understanding and a lack of penetration of Noble Freedom[n.416] The usual triad of morality, concentration and wisdom, with the outcome, which is liberation. both you and I have been wandering and running along in Saṁsāra for a long time.

But now this Noble Virtue has been understood and penetrated, this Noble Concentrated Development has been understood and penetrated, this Noble Wisdom has been understood and penetrated, this Noble Freedom has been understood and penetrated. Craving for continued existence has been cut off, what leads to rebirth has been exhausted, there is no continuation in existence."


The Gracious One said this, and after saying this, the Fortunate One, the Teacher, said something more:

"Virtue, Concentrated Development, Wisdom, and unsurpassed Freedom,
These things have been understood by the Famous Gotama,

Thus after knowing it deeply the Buddha declared the Teaching to the monks,
The Suffering-Ender, the Teacher, the Visionary One who is Emancipated."

There also the Gracious One, while living in Bhaṇḍagāma, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying:


"Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."

28: The Four Great Referalls

57Then the Gracious One, after living near Bhaṇḍagāma for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying:

"Come Ānanda let us approach Hatthigāma Elephant Village, Ambagāma Mango Village, Jambugāma Rose-Apple Village, Bhoganagara Wealthy Village."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Bhoganagara. There the Gracious One lived near Bhoganagara at the Joyous Shrine.

There the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "I will teach these Four Great Referrals, monks, listen to it, apply your minds well, and I will speak."

"Very well, reverend Sir," those monks replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:


58"Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: 'I have heard this directly from the Gracious One, friends, directly I learned it: "This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation."' That monk's speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.

If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare well with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by that monk,' and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare well with the Discipline, you may come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by that monk.' This, monks, is the first Great Referral you should bear in mind. (1)

Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: 'In a certain dwelling place lives a Community with elders and leaders, I have heard this directly from that Community, directly I learned it: "This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation."' Those monks' speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.

If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare well with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by that Community,' and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare well with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by that Community.' This, monks, is the second Great Referral you should bear in mind. (2)

Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: 'In a certain dwelling place live many elders, very learned, who have learned the traditions, who are bearers of the Teaching, bearers of the Discipline, bearers of the Tabulation, I have heard this directly from those elders, directly I learned it: "This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation."' Those monks' speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.

If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare well with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by those elders,' and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare well with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by those elders.' This, monks, is the third Great Referral you should bear in mind. (3)

Here, monks, a monk might speak like this: 'In a certain dwelling place lives one elder, very learned, who has learned the traditions, a bearer of the Teaching, a bearer of the Discipline, a bearer of the Tabulation, I have heard this directly from that elder, directly I learned it: "This is the Teaching, this is the Discipline, this is the Teacher's Dispensation."' That monk's speech, monks, is not to be rejoiced over, not to be scorned at. Without having rejoiced over it, without having scorned it, after learning those words and syllables well, they should be laid alongside the Discourses, they should be compared with the Discipline.


If, when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline they do not fit in with the Discourses, they do not compare well with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is not the Gracious One's word, it is not well learned by that elder,' and, monks, you should abandon it. If when these are laid alongside the Discourses, compared with the Discipline, they do fit in with the Discourses, they do compare well with the Discipline, you may here come to this conclusion: 'Certainly this is the Gracious One's word, it is well-learned by that elder.' This, monks, is the fourth Great Referral you should bear in mind. (4)


These, monks, are the Four Great Referrals you should bear in mind."

There also the Gracious One, while living near Bhoganagara at the Joyful Shrine, spoke frequently to the monks about the Teaching, saying:

"Such is virtue, such is concentration, such is wisdom, when virtue is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to concentration, when concentration is well-developed it yields great fruit and brings great advantages in regard to wisdom, when wisdom is well-developed the mind is completely liberated from the pollutants, that is to say: the pollutant of sensuality, the pollutant of craving for continued existence, the pollutant of ignorance."

29: The Last Meal

59Then the Gracious One, after living near Bhoganagara for as long as he liked, addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda let us approach Pāvā."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks arrived at Pāvā. There the Gracious One lived near Pāvā in Cunda the Smith's mango wood.

Cunda the Smith heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has arrived at Pāvā, and is dwelling near Pāvā, in my mango wood." Then Cunda the Smith approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While Cunda the Smith was sitting on one side the Gracious One instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered him with a talk about the Teaching. Then Cunda the Smith, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, said this to the Gracious One: "May the Gracious One consent, reverend Sir, to me offering him a meal on the morrow, together with the Community of monks."

The Gracious One consented by maintaining silence. Then Cunda the Smith, having understood the Gracious One's consent, after rising from his seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, went away.


Then after the night had passed, Cunda the Smith, in his own residence, having had excellent foodstuffs made ready, and an abundance of tender pork,[n.417] I have chosen this ambiguous expression to translate the controversial term sūkara-maddava (sūkara = ‘pig’, maddava = ‘mild, gentle, soft’, also ‘withered’). It could therefore mean either ‘the tender parts of a pig’ or ‘what pigs enjoy’ (cf. note 46 in LDB). What is quite clear is that the old commentators did not know for certain what it did mean. DA gives three possibilities: 1. The flesh of a wild pig, neither too young nor too old, which had come to hand without being killed, 2. soft boiled rice cooked with ‘the five products of the cow’, or 3. a kind of elixir of life (rasāyana) (cf. next note). Modem interpreters from RD onwards have favoured truffles as a plausible explanation, and some evidence for this has been adduced. Trevor Ling, in note 31 to his revision of the RD translation of this Sutta (The Buddhaʹs Philosophy of Man; Everyman’s Library, London 1981, p. 218), remarks: ‘This explanation seems intended to avoid offence to vegetarian readers or hearers. Rhys Davids’s statement that Buddhists “have been mostly vegetarians, and are increasingly so”, is difficult to accept.’ Be that as it may (and in fact Eastern Theravada Buddhists have rarely been vegetarians, though some are now, almost certainly under Western influence!), the question of vegetarianism has frequently been raised in the Buddhist field.
The standard Theravada position is set out in the Jivaka Sutta (MN 55), in which the Buddha tells Jivaka that monks must not eat the meat of any animal concerning which they have seen, heard or suspect that it was specially killed for them. The Buddha rejected Devadatta’s proposal to forbid meat-eating altogether to the monks. Living on alms as they did in the conditions of rural India at the time, they would either have gravely embarrassed those who offered them food, or starved if they had refused all meat. At the same time, under modem conditions, especially in the West, the question does arise as to whether the Saṅgha might not educate the laity into offering only vegetarian food. Many Western Buddhists (and not only Mahayanists) are in fact vegetarians today.
In many schools of Mahayana Buddhism, vegetarianism is the rule, and some writers have indulged in polemics against the Theravada school on this score. This, whatever may be said, has not always been purely for reasons of compassion. Shinran Shōnin, the founder of the Shin School in Japan, abolished compulsory vegetarianism along with celibacy because he considered it a form of penitential practice.
had the time announced to the Gracious One, saying: "It is time, reverend Sir, the meal is ready."


Then the Gracious One, having dressed in the morning time, after picking up his bowl and robe, together with the Community of monks, approached Cunda the Smith's residence, and after approaching, he sat down on the prepared seat. Having sat down, the Gracious One addressed Cunda the Smith, saying:

"Serve me with the tender pork you have prepared, Cunda, but serve the Community of monks with the other foodstuffs which have been prepared."

"Very well, reverend Sir", said Cunda the Smith, and after replying to the Gracious One, he served the Gracious One with the tender pork that had been prepared, but served the Community of monks with the other foodstuffs which had been prepared. Then the Gracious One addressed Cunda the Smith, saying:

"Throw that left over tender pork into a pit, Cunda, for I do not see, Cunda, in the world with its Divinities, Māra, and Brahmā, in this generation with its ascetics and brahmins, princes and men, one who, having eaten it, could completely digest it, except for a Realised One."[n.418] The reference to an elixir noted above is interesting. E. Lamotte, The Teaching of Vimalakīrti (Engl. transl., PTS, London 1976), p. 313f., has an interesting and learned note in which he refers to deities mentioned in MN 36, who offered to insert a special divine essence into the Bodhisatta’s pores to keep him alive, at the time of his extreme austerities. He compares the Buddha’s last meal with the wondrous food served to the Bodhisattvas by Vimalakirti, which takes seven days to digest, whereas the sūkara-maddava eaten by the Buddha can only be digested by the Tathagata (or so we are told). The trouble was, of course, that in fact even the Tathagata failed to digest it! Cf. also SN 7.9.

"Very well, reverend Sir", said Cunda the Smith, and after replying to the Gracious One, and throwing what was left over of that tender pork into a pit, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side.

While sitting on one side Cunda the Smith having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, having risen from the seat, went away.


60Then for the Gracious One, after eating Cunda the Smith's food, a painful affliction arose, bloody dysentery, and strong feelings occurred, such as end in death. There the Gracious One, mindfully, with full awareness, bore those pains without being troubled. Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come, Ānanda, let us approach Kusinārāā."

"Very well, reverend Sir", venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

"Having eaten Cunda the Smith's food, so I have heard,
The Firm One experienced a very strong affliction, such as ends in death.

For the Teacher, who had eaten tender pork,
A very strong sickness arose.
While still purging the Gracious One said:
'I will go to the town of Kusinārāā.'"[n.419] ‘These verses were made by the elders who held the Council’ (DA), and likewise at verses 38, 41.

30: Bringing Drinking Water

61Then the Gracious One, having gone down from the road, approached the root of a certain tree, and after approaching, he addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come now, Ānanda, prepare the outer robe folded in four for me, I am weary, Ānanda, and will sit down."

"Very well, reverend Sir", said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, he prepared the outer robe folded in four, and the Gracious One sat down on the prepared seat. While sitting the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come now, Ānanda, bring drinking water, I am thirsty, Ānanda, and will drink."

After that was said, venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "Just now, reverend Sir, five hundred wagons have passed by, and the little water that flows, having been churned by the wheels, is stirred up and disturbed. The Kakutthā river is not far away, with transparent water, agreeable water, cool water, pure water, with beautiful banks, a delightful place, there the Gracious One can drink drinking water, and can cool his limbs."

For a second time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come now, Ānanda, bring drinking water, I am thirsty, Ānanda, and will drink."

For a second time venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "Just now, reverend Sir, five hundred wagons have passed by, and the little water that flows, having been churned by the wheels, is stirred up and disturbed. The Kakutthā river is not far away, with transparent water, agreeable water, cool water, pure water, with beautiful banks, a delightful place, there the Gracious One can drink drinking water, and can cool his limbs."

For a third time the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come now, Ānanda, bring drinking water, I am thirsty, Ānanda, and will drink."

"Very well, reverend Sir", said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, and taking the bowl, he approached the little river. Then that little river that was flowing, which had been churned by the wheels, and was stirred up and disturbed, as venerable Ānanda was approaching, flowed transparent, clear, and undisturbed.

Then it occurred to venerable Ānanda: "Surely it is wonderful, surely it is marvellous, the Realised One's great power and great majesty, in that that little river that is flowing, which has been churned by wheels, and is stirred up and disturbed, as I was approaching, flowed transparent, clear, and undisturbed."

After taking a bowl of drinking water he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, he said this to the Gracious One: "It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, the Realised One's great power and great majesty, in that that little river that is flowing, which has been churned by wheels, and is stirred up and disturbed, as I was approaching, flowed transparent, clear, and undisturbed. Please drink the drinking water, Gracious One! Please drink the drinking water, Fortunate One!" Then the Gracious One drank the water.

31: The Story concerning Pukkusa Mallaputta

62Now at that time Pukkasa Mallaputta, a disciple of Āḷāra Kālāma,[n.420] The first teacher the future Buddha went to: see  26. was travelling along the highway from Pāvā to Kusinārāā. Pukkasa Mallaputta saw the Gracious One sitting at the root of a certain tree. And having seen him he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side Pukkasa Mallaputta said this to the Gracious One: "It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, that those who have gone forth, reverend Sir, live such a peaceful living.

Formerly, reverend Sir, Āḷāra Kālāma descended from the highway he was travelling along, and was dwelling for the day sat not far away at the root of a certain tree. Then, reverend Sir, about five hundred waggons passed by very close to Āḷāra Kālāma. Then, reverend Sir, a certain man who was traveling along behind those waggons approached Āḷāra Kālāma, and after approaching he said this to Āḷāra Kālāma:

'Did you not see, reverend Sir, about five hundred waggons pass by?'

'I did not see, friend.'

'But, reverend Sir, did you not hear the sound?'

'I did not hear the sound, friend.'

'But, reverend Sir, were you sleeping?'

'I was not sleeping, friend.'

'But, reverend Sir, were you conscious?'

'Yes, friend.'

'So you, reverend Sir, though conscious and awake, when about five hundred waggons passed by very close neither saw them nor heard a sound! Why, reverend Sir, even your double-robe is covered with dust!'

'Yes, friend.'


Then this occurred to that man: 'It is wonderful, it is marvellous, that those who have indeed gone forth live such a peaceful living. Because though conscious and awake, when about five hundred waggons passed by very close he did not see them or hear a sound!' And having gained great confidence in Āḷāra Kālāma, he left."

63"Now what do you think, Pukkusa, which is the more difficult to do or the more difficult to come by: that someone though conscious and awake, when about five hundred waggons passed by very close should neither see them nor hear a sound, or that someone, though conscious and awake, when the Divinities rain down, when the Divinities throw it down, and the lightning flashes, and the thunder crashes forth, should neither see it nor hear a sound?"


"Why, reverend Sir, what to make of five-hundred waggons, six-hundred waggons, seven-hundred waggons, eight-hundred waggons, nine-hundred waggons, one thousand waggons, or one-hundred thousand waggons? This is the more difficult to do or the more difficult to come by: that someone, though conscious and awake, when the Divinities rain down, when the Divinities throw it down, and the lightning flashes, and the thunder crashes forth, should neither see it nor hear a sound."


"One day, Pukkusa, I was living near Ātumā at the Decorated House. Now at that time the Divinities rained down, the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, and not far away from the Decorated House two brothers who were farmers died, along with four oxen. Then, Pukkusa, a great crowd of people having departed from Ātumā, went to the place where the brothers who were farmers and the four oxen had died.

Then, Pukkusa, at that time, after leaving the Decorated House, I was walking in the open air near the gate to the Decorated House. Then, Pukkusa, a certain man from that crowd approached me, and after approaching and worshipping me, he stood on one side. While standing there, Pukkusa, I said to that man:

'Why, friend, has that great crowd of people assembled?'

'Just now, reverend Sir, the Divinities rained down, the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, and two brothers who were farmers died, along with four oxen, and that great crowd of people assembled here. But where were you, reverend Sir?'

'I was right here, friend.'

'But, reverend Sir, did you see it?'

'I did not see, friend.'

'But, reverend Sir, did you hear the sound?'

'I did not hear the sound, friend.'

'But, reverend Sir, were you sleeping?'

'I was not sleeping, friend.'

'But, reverend Sir, were you conscious?'

'Yes, friend.'

'So, reverend Sir, though conscious and awake when the Divinities rained down, when the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, you neither saw it, nor heard a sound!'

'Yes, friend.'


64Then, Pukkusa, this occurred to that man: 'It is wonderful, it is marvellous, that those who have indeed gone forth live such a peaceful living. Because though conscious and awake when the Divinities rained down, when the Divinities threw it down, and the lightning flashed, and the thunder crashed forth, he did not see it or hear a sound!' And after gaining great confidence in me, worshipping and circumamblating me, he left."


After this was said, Pukkusa Mallaputta said this to the Gracious One: "That faith, reverend Sir, I have in Āḷāra Kālāma, I clear away as with a great wind, I wash it away as with a fast-flowing river:


Excellent, reverend Sir! Excellent, reverend Sir! Just as, reverend Sir, one might set upright what has been overturned, or open up what has been closed, or show a path to one who is lost, or bear an oil lamp in the darkness so that one who has eyes can see forms, just so has the Teaching been made clear by the Gracious One in more than one way. I go to the Gracious One, reverend Sir, for refuge, and to the Teaching, and to the Community of monks. Please bear it in mind, Gracious One, that I am a lay disciple who has gone for refuge from today forward for as long as I am furnished with life."


Then Pukkusa Mallaputta addressed a certain man, saying: "Come, my man, bring me a pair of polished gold-coloured robes, ready to wear."


"Very well, reverend Sir," said that man, and after replying to Pukkusa Mallaputta, he brought a pair of polished gold-coloured robes, ready to wear. Then Pukkusa Mallaputta offered that pair of polished gold-coloured robes, ready to wear, to the Gracious One, saying: "Please accept, reverend Sir, this pair of polished gold-coloured robes, ready to wear out of compassion for me, Gracious One."

"Then, Pukkusa, clothe me with one, and Ānanda with the other."

"Very well, reverend Sir," said Pukkusa Mallaputta, and after replying to the Gracious One clothed the Gracious One with one, and Ānanda with the other.[n.421] This ridiculous story is probably a late insertion. Then the Gracious One instructed Pukkusa Mallaputta roused, enthused, and cheered him with a talk about the Teaching. Then Pukkusa Mallaputta, having been instructed, roused, enthused, and cheered by the Gracious One with a talk about the Teaching, after rising from his seat, worshipping and circumambulating the Gracious One, departed.


65Then, venerable Ānanda, not long after Pukkusa Mallaputta had departed, offered that pair of polished gold-coloured robes, ready to wear, to the Gracious One, and when placed on the Gracious One's body they appeared to have lost their gleam.

Then venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, how pure and clean is the Realised One's skin-colour, reverend Sir! This pair of polished gold-coloured robes, ready to wear, reverend Sir, when placed on the Gracious One's body have lost their gleam!"

"Just so, Ānanda, on two occasions, Ānanda, the Realised One's skin-colour becomes exceedingly pure and clean.


On which two occasions?

That night, Ānanda, the Realised One perfectly awakens to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening, and that night the Realised One is Finally Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining. On these two occasions the Realised One's skin-colour is exceedingly pure and clean. Today, Ānanda, during the last watch of the night, near to Kusinārāā, in the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, between a pair of Sal trees will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation.

"Come Ānanda let us approach River Kakutthā."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.[n.422] The river Ananda had previously mentioned.


"A pair of polished gold-coloured robes was offered by Pukkusa,
Once clothed with it the Teacher's golden skin colour shone forth."

32: Cunda's Great Gain

66Then the Gracious One with a great Community of monks went to the river Kakutthā, and after going, and entering into the river Kakutthā, bathing, and drinking, and coming back out, he approached the mango wood, and after approaching, he addressed venerable Cundaka, saying: "Come now, Cundaka, prepare the outer robe folded in four for me, I am weary, Cundaka, and will lie down."

"Very well, reverend Sir", said venerable Cundaka, and after replying to the Gracious One, he prepared the outer robe folded in four. Then the Gracious One, lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, after placing one foot on the top of the other, mindfully, with full awareness, having applied his mind to the thought of rising. And venerable Cundaka sat down right there in front of the Gracious One.

"The Awakened One, having gone to the little river Kakutthā,
Which had water that was transparent, pleasant, and clear,
The Teacher, very weary, entered the river,
the Realised One, who is unmatched here in the world.

After washing and drinking, the Teacher came out,
And in the middle of the Community of monks, at the front,
The Teacher, the Gracious One, having taught the Teaching here,
The Great Sage went to the mango wood.

He addressed the monk called Cundaka, saying:
"Spread out the robe folded in four for me to lie down on,"
Cunda, urged by the One with Developed Mind,
Very quickly spread the robe folded in four.
The Teacher, very weary, lay down,
With Cunda sat right there at the front."

67Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "It may be, Ānanda, that someone might cause remorse for the smith Cunda, saying: 'There is no gain for you, friend Cunda, it is a poor gain for you, in that the Realised One, after eating his last almsfood from you, attained Final Emancipation.'

If there is remorse for Cunda the Smith, Ānanda, drive it out in this way, saying: 'There is a gain for you, friend Cunda, it is a good gain for you, in that the Realised One, after eating his last almsfood from you, attained Final Emancipation. I heard this face to face with the Gracious One, friend Cunda, I learned it face to face: 'There are these two almsfoods which have the very same excellent fruit, have the very same excellent result, that is a greater fruit, a greater result than other almsfood.


Which two?

That almsfood which, after eating, the Realised One awakens to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening; and that almsfood which, after eating, the Realised One attains Final Emancipation in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining. These are the two almsfoods which have the same fruit, have the same result, that is an exceedingly greater fruit, a greater result than other almsfood.

Friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a good deed that is conducive to long life, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a good deed that is conducive to beauty, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a good deed that is conducive to happiness, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a good deed that is conducive to fame, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a good deed that is conducive to heaven, friend Cunda the Smith has accumulated a good deed that is conducive to sovereignty.' If there is remorse for Cunda the Smith, Ānanda, it should be driven out in this way!"


Then the Gracious One, having understood the significance of it, on that occasion uttered this exalted utterance:

"For the one who gives merit is increased,
From restraint hatred is not accumulated.
The skilful one gives up what is bad,
Through the destruction of passion, hatred, and delusion, he is emancipated."

The Fourth Chapter for Recital is Finished.

33: Worshipping the Realised One

68Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come Ānanda, let us approach the further shore of the Golden river, to Kusinārāā, and to the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana."[n.423] Or ‘the recreation-ground (upavattana) belonging to the Mallas’.

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One together with a great Community of monks went to the further shore of the Golden river, to Kusinārāā, and the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, and after going he addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Come, Ānanda, prepare a couch with the head facing north between the Twin Sal Trees for me, I am weary, Ānanda, and will lie down."

"Very well, reverend Sir," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, he prepared a couch with the head facing north between the Twin Sal Trees. Then the Gracious One, lay down on his right side in the lion's posture, after placing one foot on the top of the other, mindfully, with full awareness.

Now at that time the Twin Sal Trees were full of flowering blossoms, outside of flowering time, and they were sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also the Divine Coral Tree flowers were falling from the sky, and they were sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine sandalwood powder was falling from the sky, and was sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine music played in the sky in worship of the Realised One. Also Divine songs played in the sky in worship of the Realised One.

69Then the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda: "The Twin Sal Trees are full of flowering blossoms, outside of flowering time, and they are sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also the Divine Coral Tree flowers are falling from the sky, and they are sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine sandalwood powder is falling from the sky, and is sprinkling down on the Realised One's body, showering down, pouring down on the Realised One in worship. Also Divine music plays in the sky in worship of the Realised One. Also Divine songs play in the sky in worship of the Realised One.

But it is not in this way, Ānanda, that the Realised One is honoured, respected, revered, worshipped, or esteemed. But that monk, nun, layman, or laywoman, Ānanda, who lives practising the Teaching in accordance with the Teaching, correct in their practice, living in conformity with the Teaching, he honours, respects, reveres, worships, and esteems the Realised One with the highest worship. Therefore, Ānanda, thinking: 'Let us live practising the Teaching in accordance with the Teaching, correct in our practice, living in conformity with the Teaching,' this is how you are to train, Ānanda."

34: The Visit of the Divinities

70Now at that time venerable Upavāṇa was standing in front of the Gracious One, fanning the Gracious One. Then the Gracious One dismissed venerable Upavāṇa, saying: "Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me."

Then venerable Ānanda thought: "This venerable Upavāṇa has been the Gracious One's attendant for a long time, living near to him, within proximity. Then at the last moment the Gracious One dismisses venerable Upavāṇa, saying: 'Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me.' What was the reason, what was the cause, for the Gracious One dismissing venerable Upavāṇa, saying: 'Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me'?"

Then venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "This venerable Upavāṇa has been the Gracious One's attendant for a long time, living near to him, within proximity. Then at the last moment the Gracious One dismisses venerable Upavāṇa, saying: 'Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me.' What is the reason, reverend Sir, what is the cause, for the Gracious One dismissing venerable Upavāṇa, saying: 'Depart, monk, do not stand in front of me'?"

"Almost all of the Divinities, Ānanda, from the ten world-elements have assembled to see the Realised One, everywhere around Kusinārāā and the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana for as far as twelve leagues there is no place, even so much as a tip of a pricking hair, unpervaded by powerful Divinities, and the Divinities, Ānanda, are complaining, saying: 'We have come from afar to see the Realised One, only occasionally, infrequently, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world, and today during the last watch of the night will be the Realised One's Final Emancipation, and this powerful monk is stood in front concealing the Realised One, and we are not able to see the Realised One at the last moment.'"


71"But what beings and Divinities is the Gracious One thinking of?"

"There are, Ānanda, Divinities in the sky, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they are crying: 'Too quickly the Gracious One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world will disappear!'

There are, Ānanda, Divinities on the Earth, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they are crying: 'Too quickly the Gracious One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world will disappear!'"

But those Divinities who have cut off passion, mindfully, with full awareness, they endure, thinking: 'Impermanent are all processes, how can it be otherwise?'"[n.424] Normally it is understood that devas are unenlightened, but DA here states—without further comment—that these are Non-Returners or even Arahants.

35: The Four Places that Produce Enthusiasm

72"Formerly, reverend Sir, the monks, having dwelt for the Rains Retreat used to come to see the Realised One, and we would receive those meditating monks for assembling and seeing the Realised One. But after the Gracious One has passed way, reverend Sir, we will not receive those meditating monks for assembling and seeing the Realised One."


"There are these four places that can be seen, that produce enthusiasm,[n.425] Saṁvejanīyāni: ‘arousing samvegaʹ (‘sense of urgency’: Ñāṇamoli in VM and Pts. translations). Ānanda, for a faithful man of good family. Which four?


Thinking: 'Here the Realised One was born',[n.426] Lumbini (now Rummindei in Nepal). Ānanda, that is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.


Thinking: 'Here the Realised One awoke to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening',[n.427] Uruvela (now Buddha Gayā in Bihar). Ānanda, that is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.


Thinking: 'Here the Realised One set rolling the Wheel of the Teaching',[n.428] The deer-park at Isipatana (modern Sarnāth) near Vārāṇasī (Benares). Ānanda, that is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.


Thinking: 'Here the Realised One was completely Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining',[n.429] Kusinara. Ānanda, that is a place to be seen that produces enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.


These are the four places, Ānanda, that are to be seen that produce enthusiasm for a faithful man of good family.


Faithful monks, nuns, laymen, and laywomen will come, thinking: 'Here the Realised One was born', 'Here the Realised One awoke to the unsurpassed and Perfect Awakening', 'Here the Realised One set rolling the Wheel of the Teaching', 'Here the Realised One was Finally Emancipated in the Emancipation-element which has no basis for attachment remaining', and whoever, Ānanda, will die while on pilgrimage to the Shrines with a confident mind they will all, at the break-up of the body, after death, re-arise in a fortunate destiny, in a heavenly world."

 

73"How, reverend Sir, are we to act in regard to women?"

"As though they were not seen, Ānanda."

"But when seeing them, reverend Sir, how are we to act?"

"Without conversing, Ānanda."

"But when conversing, reverend Sir, how are we to act?"

"You should attend to mindfulness, Ānanda."[n.430] This small passage seems arbitrarily inserted at this point. Cf. SN 35.127.

74"How should we act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Realised One's body?"

"Do not worry, Ānanda, about how you are to worshipfully dispose of the Realised One's body. Come, Ānanda, live striving for the highest good, being devoted to the highest good, being heedful of the highest good, ardent, and resolute.[n.431] Lit. ‘for your own good’, but DA says ‘for the highest purpose, Arahantship’. Cf. n.370. There are, Ānanda, wise Nobles, wise brahmins, wise householders who have faith in the Realised One. They will worshipfully dispose of the Realised One's body."


75"How should we act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Realised One's body?"

"As you act in regard to the Universal Monarch's body, so you should act in regard to the Realised One's body."

"But how do they act, reverend Sir, in regard to the Universal Monarch's body?"

"They wrap the Universal Monarch's body, Ānanda, with clean cloth, and after wrapping with clean cloth, they wrap with carded cotton, and after wrapping with carded cotton, they wrap with clean cloth, by this means after wrapping the Universal Monarch's body with five-hundred pairs of cloth and cotton, enclosing it in an oil tub made of iron,[n.432] Ayasa means ‘of iron’, but DA, not considering this good enough, glosses it as ‘of gold’: improbable even though, as Ven. Nyāṇaponika notes (LDB, note 53), there is some support in Sanskrit for this meaning. and enclosing it in another iron tub, and putting it on a scented funeral pyre, they burn the Universal Monarch's body, and they build a Shrine for the Universal Monarch at the crossroads.

So they act in regard to a Universal Monarch's body, and as they act in regard to a Universal Monarch's body so should they act in regard to a Realised One's body, and a Shrine should be made for the Realised One at the crossroads. Whoever there prepares flowers, incense, or powder,[n.433] Probably sandalwood or ochre paste. or worships or establishes confidence in his mind, that will be for their benefit and happiness for a long time.

 

76These four persons, Ānanda, are worthy of a Shrine. Which four?

  • A Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine,
  • an Individual Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine,[n.434] Pacceka Buddha: A ‘private Buddha’ who, though enlightened, does not teach.
  • a Realised One's disciple is worthy of a Shrine,
  • a Universal Monarch is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha worthy of a Shrine? Thinking: 'This is the Shrine of a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha', Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Realised One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is an Individual Sambuddha worthy of a Shrine? Thinking: 'This is the Shrine of a Gracious One, an Individual Sambuddha', Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why an Individual Sambuddha is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is a Realised One's disciple worthy of a Shrine? Thinking: 'This is the Shrine of a disciple of a Gracious One, a Worthy One, a Perfect Sambuddha', Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Realised One's disciple is worthy of a Shrine.

And for what reason or cause is a Universal Monarch worthy of a Shrine? Thinking: 'This is the Shrine of Righteous Monarch, a Righteous King', Ānanda, many people purify their mind, and after purifying their mind, at the break-up of the body, after death, they arise in a fortunate destiny, in a Heavenly world. This is the reason or cause, Ānanda, why a Universal Monarch is worthy of a Shrine. These, Ānanda, are the four persons worthy of a Shrine."

36: Ānanda's Marvellous Qualities

77Then venerable Ānanda, after entering the living place,[n.435] The word used is vihāra which in the context cannot mean ‘monastery’, and DA calls it a pavilion. The neutral rendering ʹlodgingʹ is safest. and leaning against the door-lintel,[n.436] Kapisīsaṁ lit. ‘monkey’s head’. Scarcely ‘lintel’ (RD): Ananda would have to be fairly tall to lean on this! The definition in DA is rather obscure, but that quoted by Childers from the 12th-century Abhidhānapadīpikā (his main source) is ‘the bolt or bar of a door’ (aggalathambo), and aggaḷa is used in this sense at DN 3.8. But Childers also quotes a Sanskrit meaning of ‘coping of a wall’. stood there crying: "The Teacher will attain Final Emancipation while I am still a Trainee with much to do, he who has compassion for me!"

Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "Where, monks, is Ānanda?"

"This venerable Ānanda, reverend Sir, after entering the living place, and leaning against the door-lintel, stands there crying: 'The Teacher will attain Final Emancipation while I am still a Trainee with much to do, he who has compassion for me!'"

Then the Gracious One addressed a certain monk, saying: "Go, monk, and in my name address Ānanda, saying: 'The Teacher, friend Ānanda, is calling you.'"

"Very well, reverend Sir, and after replying to the Gracious One, he approached venerable Ānanda, and after approaching he said this to venerable Ānanda: "The Teacher, friend Ānanda, is calling you."

"Very well, friend," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to that monk, he approached the Gracious One, and after approaching and worshipping the Gracious One, he sat down on one side. While sitting on one side the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda:

"Enough, Ānanda, don't grieve, don't lament, were you not warned by me when I declared: 'There is alteration in, separation from, and changeability in all that is dear and appealing.' How can it be otherwise, Ānanda, for that which is obtained, born, become, conditioned, subject to dissolution? It is not possible to say this: 'The Realised One's body should not dissolve'.

For a long time, Ānanda, you dwelt near to the Realised One with beneficial, pleasant, trustworthy, and limitlessly friendly bodily actions, with beneficial, pleasant, trustworthy, and limitlessly friendly speech actions, with beneficial, pleasant, trustworthy, and limitlessly friendly mental actions, you have done meritorious deeds, Ānanda, you should devote yourself to quickly striving to be one who is pollutant-free!"[n.437] An Arahant. Ānanda is said to have become an Arahant just before the first Council, after the Buddha’s passing.

78Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "Whoever were Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas in the past, monks, for those Gracious Ones also there were such superior attendants, just as Ānanda is for me; whoever will be Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas in the future, monks, for those Gracious Ones also there will be such superior attendants, just as Ānanda is for me.

Ānanda is wise, monks, Ānanda is intelligent, monks, he knows: 'This is the time for monks to approach and see the Realised One, this is the time for monks, this is the time for nuns, this is the time for laymen, this is the time for laywomen, this is the time for kings, for kings' ministers, for outside teachers, for the disciples of outside teachers.'


79There are four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about Ānanda. Which four?

If, monks, a group of monks approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing him, and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of monks are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

If, monks, a group of nuns approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing him, and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of nuns are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

If, monks, a group of laymen approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing him, and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of laymen are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

If, monks, a group of laywomen approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing him, and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of laywomen are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

These are the four wonderful and marvellous things about Ānanda.


There are four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about the Universal Monarch. Which four?

If, monks, a group of Nobles approach to see the Universal Monarch their minds are uplifted through seeing him, and if the Universal Monarch speaks, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of nobles are dissatisfied if then the Universal Monarch remains silent.

If, monks, a group of brahmins … householders … ascetics approach to see the Universal Monarch their minds are uplifted through seeing him, and if the Universal Monarch speaks, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of ascetics are dissatisfied if then the Universal Monarch remains silent.

In the same way there are four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about Ānanda.

If, monks, a group of monks … nuns … laymen … laywomen[n.438] This may seem like only one ‘wonderful quality’, but it is fourfold because equally applicable in regard to each of the four groups. approach to see Ānanda their minds are uplifted through seeing him, and if Ānanda speaks words of welcome, their minds are uplifted with the speech, but that group of laywomen are dissatisfied if at that time Ānanda remains silent.

There are the four wonderful and marvellous things, monks, about Ānanda."

37: Kusinārāā's History

80After this was said, venerable Ānanda addressed the Gracious One, saying: "Reverend Sir, may the Gracious One not attain Final Emancipation in this small town, this barren town, this branch town. There are, reverend Sir, other great towns, such as: Campā, Rājagaha, Sāvatthī, Sāketa, Kosambī, Bārāṇasī—let the Gracious One attain Final Emancipation there. There are many wealthy Nobles there, wealthy brahmins, wealthy householders, who are devoted to the Realised One, and will worshipfully dispose of the Realised One's body." "Do not say that, Ānanda, do not say that, Ānanda: 'This small town, this barren town, this branch town'.

Formerly, Ānanda, there was a King by the name of Mahāsudassana, a Righteous Monarch, a Righteous King, who was victorious over the four quarters, one who had established a stable country, endowed with the seven jewels.


This Kusinārāā, was then named Kusāvatī, and was King Mahāsudassana's capital city. Stretching for twelve leagues from East to West, and seven leagues from North to South, the capital city Kusāvatī was prosperous, Ānanda, successful, populous, full of people, with much food, just as, Ānanda, the capital city of the Divinities named Āḷakamandā[n.439] Kuvera’s city: see DN 32.43. is prosperous, successful, populous, full of people, with much food, so the capital city Kusāvatī was prosperous, Ānanda, successful, populous, full of people, with much food.

The capital city Kusāvatī was never separated from the ten sounds, by day or by night, that is to say: the sound of elephants, the sound of horses, the sound of chariots, the sound of drums, the sound of tabours, the sound of lutes, the sound of songs, the sound of cymbals, the sound of hand bells, and with 'eat, drink, chew!' as the tenth sound.[n.440] Verses 17-18 are repeated practically verbatim in the next Sutta.

38: The Mallas Worship the Gracious One

81"Go, Ānanda, and after entering into Kusinārāā, announce to the Mallas: 'Today, Vāseṭṭhas,[n.441] This is the family-name (cf., n.179). in the last watch of the night, will be the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, do not regret it afterwards thinking: "In the area of our village, was the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, and we did not, in the last watch of the night, get to see the Realised One"'."

"Very well, reverend Sir," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to the Gracious One, dressing, and taking his robes and bowl, he entered Kusinārāā with a companion.

Now at that time the Mallas from Kusinārāā were assembled in the Council Hall having some business or other. Then venerable Ānanda went to where the Mallas from Kusinārāā were assembled in the Council Hall, and after approaching he said this to the Mallas: "Today, Vāseṭṭhas, in the last watch of the night, will be the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, come along, Vāseṭṭhas, do not regret it afterwards thinking: 'In the area of our village, was the Realised One's attainment of Final Emancipation, and we did not, in the last watch of the night, get to see the Realised One.'"


After hearing this from venerable Ānanda, the Mallas, the sons of the Mallas, the daughters-in-law of the Mallas, and the wives of the Mallas became miserable, depressed, with their minds given over to suffering. Some, having dishevelled hair, were weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they were crying: "Too quickly the Gracious One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One will attain Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world will disappear!"

Then the Mallas, the sons of the Mallas, the daughters-in-law of the Mallas, and the wives of the Mallas, miserable, depressed, with their minds given over to suffering, approached the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, and approached venerable Ānanda.

Then this occurred to venerable Ānanda: "If I make the Mallas of Kusinārāā worship the Gracious One one by one before the Gracious One has been worshipped by the Mallas of Kusinārāā the night will end. Now what if I, having segregated the Mallas family by family, made them worship the Gracious One, saying: 'A Malla named so and so, together with his children, wife, dependents, and councillors worships the Gracious One's feet with his head'?"

Then venerable Ānanda having segregated the Mallas family by family, made them worship the Gracious One, saying: "A Malla named so and so, together with his children, wife, dependents, and councillors worships the Gracious One's feet with his head."

Then venerable Ānanda, in this way, during the first watch of the night, made the Mallas of Kusinārāā worship the Gracious One.

39: Subhadda, the Last Direct Disciple

82Now at that time a wanderer named Subhadda had arrived at Kusinārāā. The wanderer Subhadda heard: "Today, it seems, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation."

Then this occurred to the wanderer Subhadda: "I have heard this from old, elderly wanderers, who are teachers and teachers' teachers, when they said: 'Only occasionally, rarely, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world.' Today, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation. There is a doubt that has arisen for me, and I have confidence in the ascetic Gotama thus: 'The ascetic Gotama is able to teach the Teaching in such a way that I will be able to abandon that doubt.'"

Then the wanderer Subhadda approached the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, and approached venerable Ānanda, and after approaching he said to venerable Ānanda: "I have heard this from old, elderly wanderers, dear Ānanda, who are teachers and teachers' teachers, when they said: 'Only occasionally, rarely, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world.' Today, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation. There is a doubt that has arisen for me, and I have confidence in the ascetic Gotama thus: 'The ascetic Gotama is able to teach the Teaching in such a way that I will be able to abandon that doubt'. It would be well, dear Ānanda, if I was allowed to see the ascetic Gotama."


After this was said, venerable Ānanda said this to the wanderer Subhadda: "Enough, friend Subhadda, do not trouble the Realised One, the Gracious One is exhausted."

For a second time … third time the wanderer Subhadda said this to venerable Ānanda: "I have heard this from old, elderly wanderers, dear Ānanda, who are teachers and teachers' teachers, when they said: 'Only occasionally, rarely, do Realised Ones, Worthy Ones, Perfect Sambuddhas arise in the world.' Today, in the last watch of the night, will be the ascetic Gotama's attainment of Final Emancipation. There is a doubt that has arisen for me, and I have confidence in the ascetic Gotama thus: 'The ascetic Gotama is able to teach the Teaching in such a way that I will be able to abandon that doubt'. It would be well, dear Ānanda, if I was allowed to see the ascetic Gotama."

For a third time venerable Ānanda said this to the wanderer Subhadda: "Enough, friend Subhadda, do not trouble the Realised One, the Gracious One is exhausted."

83The Gracious One heard venerable Ānanda having this conversation with the wanderer Subhadda. Then the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda: "Enough, Ānanda, do not obstruct Subhadda allow Subhadda to see the Realised One. Whatever Subhadda will ask of me all of it he will ask of me seeking for deep knowledge,[n.442] Aññā-pekho: rendered by RD as ‘from a desire for knowledge’, which agrees with DA. But aññā is used for ‘the highest knowledge’, i.e. ‘enlightenment’, and we may assume a play on the two senses (mundane and supramundane) of ‘enlightenment’, equally possible in Pali and in English. and not to trouble me. Whatever question is put I will answer, and he will quickly understand it."


Then venerable Ānanda said this to the wanderer Subhadda: "Go, friend Subhadda, the Gracious One has given you permission."

Then the wanderer Subhadda approached the Gracious One, and after approaching, he exchanged greetings with the Gracious One, and after exchanging courteous talk and greetings, he sat down on one side.

While sitting on one side the wanderer Subhadda said this to the Gracious One: "Those ascetics and brahmins, dear Gotama, who have a community, a group, who teach a group, well-known, famous, religious founders, agreed upon as good for the people, such as: Pūraṇa Kassapa, Makkhali Gosāla, Ajita Kesakambala, Pakudha Kaccāyana, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, Nigaṇṭha Nāṭaputta, have they all understood, according to their own avowal? Have they all not understood? Or, have some understood? Or, have some not understood?"

"Enough, Subhadda, stop this: 'Have they all understood, according to their own avowal? Have they all not understood? Or, have some understood? Or, have some not understood?' I will teach the Teaching to you, Subhadda, listen to it, apply your mind well, and I will speak."

"Very well, reverend Sir," the wanderer Subhadda replied to the Gracious One, and the Gracious One said this:

84"Wherever, Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is not found in a Teaching and Discipline there a true ascetic is not found, there a second true ascetic is not found, there a third true ascetic is not found, there a fourth true ascetic is not found.[n.443] These are, of course, the Stream-Winner, Once-Returner, Non-Returner and Arahant.

But wherever, Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is found in a Teaching and Discipline there a true ascetic is found, there a second true ascetic is found, there a third true ascetic is found, there a fourth true ascetic is found.

In this Teaching and Discipline, Subhadda, the Noble Eightfold Path is found, here a true ascetic is found, here a second true ascetic is found, here a third true ascetic is found, here a fourth true ascetic is found.

Void are the outside doctrines of these other ascetics, Subhadda, but if monks should live well, the world will not be void of Worthy Ones.

At twenty-nine years, Subhadda,
I went forth a seeker of what is good,
More than fifty years ago,
Wherefore I am truly gone forth, Subhadda.
Existing in the realm of the right Teaching
Outside of this there is no true ascetic,

a second true ascetic is not found, a third true ascetic is not found,
a fourth true ascetic is not found.
Void are the outside doctrines of these other ascetics,
Subhadda, but if monks should live well,
the world will not be void of Worthy Ones."[n.444] The PTS text makes the verse run only to line 6, and this is followed by RD and in LDB. But in the addenda to the second edition of 1938, it is indicated that the verse continues as shown here (except, probably, for the line in parentheses), and omitting the name of Subhadda.

85After this was said, the wanderer Subhadda said this to the Gracious One: "Excellent, reverend Sir! Excellent, reverend Sir! Just as, reverend Sir, one might set upright what has been overturned, or open up what has been closed, or show a path to one who is lost, or bear an oil lamp in the darkness, so that one who has eyes can see forms, just so has the Teaching been made clear by the Gracious One in more than one way. I go to the Gracious One for refuge, reverend Sir, and to the Teaching, and to the Community of monks. May I receive the going-forth, reverend Sir, in the presence of the Gracious One, may I receive the full ordination."

"Those who were formerly of another sect who in this Teaching and Discipline desire the going-forth, who desire full ordination, live on probation for four months, and at the end of four months, the minds of the monks being satisfied,[n.445] I.e. properly qualified. This passage also at DN 8.53. they give the going-forth and the full ordination into the monkhood. But I understand there is a distinction between persons in this case."

"If, reverend Sir, those who were formerly of another sect who in this Teaching and Discipline, desire the going-forth, who desire full ordination, live on probation for four months, and at the end of four months, the minds of the monks being satisfied, they give the going-forth and the full ordination into the monkhood, then I will live on probation for four years, and at the end of four years, the minds of the monks being satisfied, they can give the going-forth and the full ordination into the monkhood."

Then the Gracious One said this to venerable Ānanda: "Then, Ānanda, give the going-forth to Subhadda."

"Very well, reverend Sir," venerable Ānanda replied to the Gracious One.

Then the wanderer Subhadda said this to venerable Ānanda: "There are certainly gains for you, friend Ānanda, it is certainly a good gain for you, friend Ānanda, that here, face to face with the Teacher, you have been consecrated with an attendant's consecration."

The wanderer Subhadda received the going forth in the presence of the Gracious One, received full ordination.

Then not long after ordination, venerable Subhadda, while dwelling solitary, secluded, heedful, ardent, and resolute, after no long time attained that good for which young gentlemen rightly go forth from the house to the houseless life, that unsurpassed conclusion to the spiritual life, and dwelt having known, experienced, and attained it himself in this very life.

Destroyed is rebirth, accomplished is the spiritual life, done is what ought to be done, there is no more of this mundane state—this he knew.

And venerable Subhadda became another of the Worthy Ones. He was the last direct disciple of the Gracious One.[n.446] Sentence added by the Elders at the Council (DA).

The Fifth Chapter for Recital is Finished

40: The Last Instructions of the Realised One

86Then the Gracious One addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "It may be, Ānanda, that some of you may think in this way: 'Past is the Teacher's word, there is now no Teacher for us.' But it should not be seen like that, Ānanda, whatever Teaching and Discipline has been taught by me or laid down, Ānanda, that is your Teacher after my passing away.

 
 


At present, Ānanda, the monks address each other with the word 'friend', but after my passing away they are not to address one another thus. The elder monk, Ānanda, should address the younger monk by his name or by his clan name or by the word 'friend'.[n.447] Avuso. But the younger monk should address the elder monk as reverend Sir[n.448] Bhante. Rendered here as ‘Lord’, but in modem usage the normal form of address to monks, rendered ‘Venerable Sir’. Western Buddhists should note that it is a vocative, i.e. used in direct address, and not as a kind of pronoun denoting ‘the Venerable So-and-so’. or venerable Sir.[n.449] Āyasmā: the regular prefix as in ‘the Venerable Ananda’, etc.

Desiring to do so, Ānanda, the Community after my passing away, can abolish the minor and subsidiary training rules.[n.450] The Saṅgha did not take advantage of this permission, mainly because Ananda had omitted to enquire which rules were to be regarded as ‘minor’. It would not be appropriate to get involved here in modem debates on the subject.


The highest penalty,[n.451] Brahmadaṇḍa: used in a different sense at DN n.156. Channa had been Gotama’s charioteer, and had since joined the Order, but showed a perverse spirit. The treatment imposed on him by the Buddha’s orders brought him to his senses. Ānanda, after my passing away, is to be handed out to the monk Channa."

"But what is the highest penalty, reverend Sir?"

"The monk Channa, Ānanda, may say whatever he wishes but he is not to be spoken to or advised or instructed by the monks."


87Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "It may be, monks, that for one of the monks there is doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice. Ask, monks, do not be regretful later thinking: 'The Teacher was face to face with us and we didn't ask the Gracious One directly about the training.'" After this was said those monks were silent.

For a second time … third time the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "It may be, monks, that for one of the monks there is doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice. Ask, monks, do not be regretful later thinking: 'The Teacher was face to face with us and we didn't ask the Gracious One directly about the training.'" For a third time those monks were silent.

Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "It may be, monks, that out of respect for the Teacher you do not ask, then one friend, monks, can inform another friend about his doubts." After this was said those monks were silent.

Then venerable Ānanda said this to the Gracious One: "It is wonderful, reverend Sir, it is marvellous, reverend Sir, I am confident, reverend Sir, that in this Community of monks there is not one of the monks in this Community of monks who has doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice."

"Out of confidence,[n.452] Pasādā: ‘brightness, serenity of mind’. According to DA ‘the least one’ was Ananda himself. Ānanda, you speak, but the Realised One, Ānanda, has knowledge that there is not one of the monks in this Community of monks who has doubt or confusion about the Buddha, or about the Teaching, or about the Community, or about the Path, or about the practice. For amongst these five hundred monks, Ānanda, he who is the last monk, is a Stream-Enterer, no longer subject to falling into the lower realms, and has a fixed destiny ending in Final Awakening."

88Then the Gracious One addressed the monks, saying: "Come now, monks, for I tell you all conditioned things are subject to decay, strive on with heedfulness!" These were the last words of the Realised One.[n.453] Vayadhammā saṅkhārā. Appamādena sampādetha. The words occurred previously at DN 16.88. RD’s rendering of the latter two words, ‘Work out your salvation with diligence’ (adopted from Warren) has become too famous. Even Brewster, who normally follows RD, has changed it to ‘Accomplish earnestly!’, which is much better. Much has been made in some quarters of the fact that the Sarvastivadin version (and therefore the Tibetan translation) omits these words. But the passage is even expanded in one Chinese version, which makes dubious any conclusions which may be drawn from the omission elsewhere. However, there does seem to have been an early corruption in the text, as in the parallel passage at SN 6.2.5.2 the order of the two sentences is reversed: appamādena sampādetha vayadhammā saṅkhādrā (= S i, 158). The inference is that the words quoted were lost at an early stage in the Sarvastivadin tradition. The SN passage probably reflects an intermediate stage in that process.

41: The Final Emancipation

89Then the Gracious One attained the first absorption, and after emerging from the first absorption he attained the second absorption, and after emerging from the second absorption he attained the third absorption, and after emerging from the third absorption he attained the fourth absorption, and after emerging from the fourth absorption he attained the sphere of endless space, and after emerging from the sphere of endless space he attained the sphere of endless consciousness, and after emerging from the sphere of endless consciousness he attained the sphere of nothingness, and after emerging from the sphere of nothingness, he attained the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, and after emerging from the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, he attained the cessation of perception and feeling.[n.454] RD says ‘No one, of course, can have known what actually did occur.’ Since Anuruddha is said to have had highly developed psychic powers, we cannot be so sure.


Then venerable Ānanda said this to venerable Anuruddha: "Has the Gracious One, reverend Anuruddha, attained Final Emancipation?"

"The Gracious One, reverend Ānanda,[n.455] Note that Ananda, the junior, addresses Anuruddha as instructed by the Buddha, and Anuruddha replies similarly. has not attained Final Emancipation, he has attained the cessation of perception and feeling."

Then the Gracious One, after emerging from the cessation of perception and feeling, attained the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception, and after emerging from the sphere of neither-perception-nor-non-perception he attained the sphere of nothingness, and after emerging from the sphere of nothingness he attained the sphere of endless consciousness, and after emerging from the sphere of endless consciousness he attained the sphere of endless space, and after emerging from the sphere of endless space he attained the fourth absorption, and after emerging from the fourth absorption he attained the third absorption, and after emerging from the third absorption he attained the second absorption, and after emerging from the second absorption he attained the first absorption, and after emerging from the first absorption he attained the second absorption, and after emerging from the second absorption he attained the third absorption, and after emerging from the third absorption he attained the fourth absorption, and after emerging from the fourth absorption, immediately the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation.


90When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation there was a great earthquake, and an awful, horrifying crash of the Divinities' thunder drum. When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation Brahmā Sahampati[n.456] As in MN 26, etc., and playing the same role as in DN 141. spoke this verse:

91"All beings in the world will surely lay aside the body,
In the same way the Teacher, Such-like, unmatched in the world,
the Realised One, attained to the ten strengths, the Sambuddha, has attained Final Emancipation."


92When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation Sakka, the Lord of the Divinities, spoke this verse:


"Impermanent, indeed, are all processes, arisen they have the nature to decay,
After arising they come to cessation, the stilling of them is blissful."[n.457] Aniccā vata saṅkhārā
uppāda-vaya-dhammino,
Uppajitvā nirujjhanti,
tesam vupasamo sukho.
RD rightly calls this a ‘celebrated verse’. Frequently quoted, it concludes DN 17.


93When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation venerable Anuruddha spoke these verses:


"There is no more breathing for that Such-like one of steady mind,
Freed from lust, the Sage who has died, has entered the peace of Nibbāna.

With an unshaken heart, he endured the painful feelings,
Like a flame when it goes out so his mind was liberated in Nibbāna."


When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation along with the Emancipation venerable Ānanda spoke this verse:


"With that there was fear, with that there was horror,
When the Sambuddha, endowed with all noble qualities, attained Emancipation."


94When the Gracious One attained Final Emancipation those monks there who were not free from passion, throwing up their arms, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, were crying: 'Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!' But those monks who were free from passion, mindfully, with full awareness, endured, thinking: "Impermanent are all processes, how can it be otherwise?"


95Then venerable Anuruddha said this to the monks: "Enough, friends, do not grieve, do not lament, were you not warned by the Gracious One when he declared: 'There is alteration in, separation from, and changeability in all that is dear and appealing.' How can it be otherwise, friends, for that which is obtained, born, become, in process, subject to dissolution? It is not possible to say this: 'It should not dissolve'. The Divinities, friends, are complaining." "But what beings and Divinities is the venerable Anuruddha thinking of?"

"There are, friend Ānanda, Divinities in the sky, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, crying: 'Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!'


There are, friend Ānanda, Divinities on the Earth, perceiving the Earth, who, having dishevelled hair, are weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, crying: 'Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!' But those Divinities, who have cut off passion, they mindfully, with full awareness, endure, thinking: 'Impermanent are all processes, how can it be otherwise?'"

Then venerable Anuruddha and venerable Ānanda spent the rest of the night in talk about the Teaching.


96Then venerable Anuruddha addressed venerable Ānanda, saying: "Go, Ānanda, and after entering Kusinārāā inform the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: 'The Gracious One has attained Emancipation, Vāseṭṭhas, now is the time for whatever you are thinking.'"

"Very well, reverend Sir," said venerable Ānanda, and after replying to venerable Anuruddha, dressing in the morning time, and taking his robes and bowl, he entered Kusinārāā with a companion.

42: The Preparation of the Body

Now at that time the Mallas from Kusinārāā were assembled in the Council Hall having some business or other. Then venerable Ānanda approached the Mallas from Kusinārāā in the Council Hall, and after approaching he informed the Mallas of Kusinārāā saying: "The Gracious One has attained Emancipation, Vāseṭṭhas, now is the time for whatever you are thinking."

After hearing this word from venerable Ānanda, the Mallas, the sons of the Mallas, the daughters-in-law of the Mallas, and the wives of the Mallas became miserable, depressed, with their minds given over to suffering. Some, having dishevelled hair, were weeping, throwing up their arms, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they were crying: "Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!"

The Buddha's Relics

97Then the Mallas from Kusinārāā ordered their men, saying: "Now, friends, gather together perfume and flowers, and all the musicians in Kusinārāā."

Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā, having taken perfumes and garlands, and all the musicians, and five-hundred pairs of clothes, approached the Mallas' Sal Wood at Upavattana, and the Gracious One's body, after approaching the Gracious One's body, through honouring, respecting, revering, and worshipping the body, with dance, song, music, garlands, and perfumes, and making cloth canopies, and preparing circular pavillions, they made the day pass.

Then this occurred to the Mallas of Kusinārāā: "Today it is too late to burn the Gracious One's body, tomorrow we will burn the Gracious One's body."

Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā, through honouring, respecting, revering, and worshipping the Gracious One's body, with dance, song, music, garlands, and perfumes, and making cloth canopies, and preparing circular pavillions, they made the second day pass, they made the third day pass, they made the fourth day pass, they made the fifth day pass, they made the sixth day pass.


Then on the seventh day this occurred to the Mallas of Kusinārāā: "While honouring, respecting, revering, and worshipping the Gracious One's body, with dance, song, music, garlands, and perfumes, after taking it out of the city by the South, on the outside of the City to the South we will burn the Gracious One's body."

98Now at that time eight leaders of the Mallas, having washed their heads and put on clean clothes, said: "Let us lift the Gracious One's body," but they were not able to lift it.

Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā said this to venerable Anuruddha: "What is the reason, Anuruddha, what is the cause why eight leaders of the Mallas, having washed their heads and put on clean clothes, and saying: 'Let us lift the Gracious One's body,' are not able to lift it?"

"You Vāseṭṭhas have one intention, and the Divinities have another intention."

"But what is the Divinities' intention, reverend Sir?"

"Your intention, Vāseṭṭhas, is: 'We, while honouring, respecting, revering, and worshipping the Gracious One's body, with dance, song, music, garlands, and perfumes, after taking it out of the City by the South, on the outside of the City to the South, will burn the Gracious One's body.'

The Divinities' intention, Vāseṭṭhas, is: 'We, while honouring, respecting, revering, and worshipping the Gracious One's body, with the Divinities' dance, song, music, garlands, and perfumes, after carrying it to the North of the City by the North, and re-entering the City by the North Gate, and carrying it to the middle of the City by the middle, and going out by the Eastern Gate, to the East of the City, at the Mallas' Shrine called the Bonded Coronet, there let us burn the Gracious One's body."

"Let us do according to the Divinities' intention, reverend Sir."

99Now at that time the whole of Kusinārāā, including the dirty rubbish heaps, was covered knee-deep with Divine Coral Tree flowers. Then the Divinities and the Mallas of Kusinārāā while honouring, respecting, revering, and worshipping the Gracious One's body with the Divinities' and mens' dance, song, music, garlands, and perfumes, after carrying it to the North of the City by the North, and re-entering the City by the North Gate, and carrying it to the middle of the City by the middle, and going out by the Eastern Gate, to the East of the City, at the Mallas' Shrine called the Bonded Coronet there set down the Gracious One's body.

100Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā said this to venerable Ānanda: "How do we act, reverend Ānanda, in regard to the Realised One's body?"

"As you act, Vāseṭṭhas, in regard to the Universal Monarch's body, so you should act in regard to the Realised One's body."

"But how do we act, reverend Ānanda, in regard to the Universal Monarch's body?"

"They wrap the Universal Monarch's body, Vāseṭṭhas, with clean cloth, and after wrapping with clean cloth, they wrap with carded cotton, and after wrapping with carded cotton, they wrap with clean cloth, by this means after wrapping the Universal Monarch's body with five-hundred pairs of cloth and cotton, enclosing it in an oil tub made of iron, and enclosing it in another iron tub, and putting it on a scented funeral pyre, they burn the Universal Monarch's body, and they build a Shrine for the Universal Monarch at the crossroads.

So they act, Vāseṭṭhas, in regard to a Universal Monarch's body. Just as they act, Vāseṭṭhas, in regard to a Universal Monarch's body, so should they act in regard to a Realised One's body, and a Shrine should be made for the Realised One at the crossroads. Whoever there prepares flowers, incense, or powder, or worships or establishes confidence in his mind, that will be for their benefit and happiness for a long time."

Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā gave orders to their men, saying: "If it is so then wrap the body with the Mallas' carded cloth, friends."

Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā wrapped the Gracious One's body with clean cloth, and after wrapping with clean cloth, they wrapped with carded cotton, and after wrapping with carded cotton, they wrapped with clean cloth, and by this means, after wrapping the Gracious One's body with five-hundred pairs of cloth and cotton, enclosing it in an oil tub made of iron, and enclosing it in another iron tub, and putting it on a scented funeral pyre, they put the Gracious One's body on the funeral pyre.

43: The Story concerning Mahākassapa

101Now at that time venerable Mahākassapa[n.458] One of the Buddha’s most eminent disciples, not to be confused with the many other Kassapas. He had great psychic powers and is said to have lived to be more than 120. He presided at the first Council. was travelling along the highway from Pāvā to Kusinārāā, together with a great Community of monks, around five-hundred monks. Then venerable Mahākassapa, after descending from the path, sat down at the root of a certain tree.

Now at that time a certain Ājīvaka[n.459] Cf. n.66. while holding a Mandārava flower from Kusinārāā was travelling along the highway to Pāvā.

Venerable Mahākassapa saw that Ājīvaka approaching from afar, and after seeing him, he said this to that Ājīvaka: "Do you know our Teacher, friend?"

"Certainly, friend, I know. Today is seven days since the Final Emancipation of the ascetic Gotama, therefore I am holding this Mandārava flower."

Then those monks there who were not free from passion, some, throwing up their arms, were weeping, falling down as though cut down, rolling backwards and forwards as though with their feet cut off, they were crying: 'Too quickly the Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Fortunate One has attained Final Emancipation, too quickly the Visionary in the world has disappeared!'

But those monks who were free from passion, mindfully, with full awareness, endured, thinking: "Impermanent are all processes, how can it be otherwise?"


102Now at that time one who had gone forth in old age, named Subhadda[n.460] Not, of course, the same person as the Subhadda mentioned at 5.23—30. was sitting in that group. Then Subhadda, who had gone forth in old age, said this to those monks: "Enough, friends, do not grieve, do not lament, we are now freed from that troublesome Great Ascetic, saying: 'This is allowable for you, this is not allowable for you.' But now we will do whatever we wish, and we will not do whatever we do not wish."

Then venerable Mahākassapa addressed the monks, saying: "Enough, friends, do not grieve, do not lament, were you not warned by the Gracious One, friends, when he declared this: 'There is alteration in, separation from, and changeability in all that is dear and appealing.' How can it be otherwise, friends, for that which is obtained, born, become, in process, subject to dissolution? It is not possible to say this: 'It should not dissolve'.

103Now at that time four leaders of the Mallas, having washed their heads and put on clean clothes, said: "Let us burn the Gracious One's funeral pyre," but they were not able to burn it. Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā said this to venerable Anuruddha: "What is the reason, venerable Anuruddha, what is the cause, why four leaders of the Mallas, having washed their heads and put on clean clothes, and saying: 'Let us burn the Gracious One's funeral pyre,' are not able to burn it?"

"The Divinities have another intention, Vāseṭṭhas."

"But what is the Divinities' intention, reverend Sir?"

"The Divinities' intention, Vāseṭṭhas, is: 'The venerable Mahākassapa is travelling along the highway from Pāvā to Kusinārāā together with a great Community of monks, around five-hundred monks, the Gracious One's funeral pyre will not burn while venerable Mahākassapa has not worshipped the Gracious One's feet with his head.'"

"Let us do according to the Divinities' intention, reverend Sir."

104Then venerable Mahākassapa approached Kusinārāā, and the Mallas' Shrine called the Bonded Coronet, and the Gracious One's funeral pyre, and after approaching and arranging his robe on one shoulder, extending his hands in respectful salutation, and circumambulating the funeral pyre three times, and uncovering the feet he worshipped the Gracious One's feet with his head.

Also five-hundred monks, after arranging their robes on one shoulder, extending their handsin respectful salutation, and circumambulating the funeral pyre three times, worshipped the Gracious One's feet with their heads. After the Gracious One's feet had been worshipped by venerable Mahākassapa and by five-hundred monks the funeral pyre caught fire by itself.

105Now while the Gracious One's body was burning, of the outer skin, the inner skin, the flesh, the sinews, the synovial fluid, neither charcoal was evident, nor was ash of the body left over only the bones remained.[n.461] Sarīra: bones (later interpreted as the indestructible substance supposed to be found in the ashes of Arahants). Just as while ghee or oil is burning there is no charcoal and no ash evident, so when the Gracious One"s body was burning, of the outer skin, the inner skin, the flesh, the sinews, the synovial fluid, neither charcoal was evident, nor was ash of the body left over. Only two of those five-hundred pairs of clothes were not consumed, that on the inside and that on the outside.

When the Gracious One's body was burnt a shower of water appeared in the sky, and the Gracious One's funeral pyre was extinguished. Also after water rose from a well (sal tree[n.462] Some trees are said to have the property of putting out fires. In Japan this is said of the gingko — despite considerable evidence to the contrary!), the Gracious One's funeral pyre was extinguished. Also the Mallas from Kusinārāā extinguished the Gracious One's funeral pyre with all types of fragrant water.

Then the Mallas of Kusinārāā, after making an enclosure of spears in the Council Hall, and surrounding the Gracious One's bodily relics with bows, honoured, respected, revered, and worshipped it with dance, song, music, garlands, and perfumes.

44: The Distribution of the Relics

106The Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was a Noble, and I also am a Noble, I am worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, I will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

Then the Licchavīs of Vesālī heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the Licchavīs of Vesālī sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was a Noble, and we also are Nobles, we are worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, we will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

Then the Sakyas of Kapilavatthu heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the Sakyas of Kāpilavatthu sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was our foremost relative, we are worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, we will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

Then the Bulas of Allakappa heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the Bulas of Allakappa sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was a Noble, and we also are Nobles, we are worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, we will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

Then the Koliyas of Rāmagāma heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the Koliyas of Rāmagāma sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was a Noble, and we also are Nobles, we are worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, we will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

Then the brahmin Veṭhadīpaka heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the brahmin Veṭhadīpaka sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was a Noble, and I am a brahmin, I am worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, I will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

Then the Mallas of Pāvā heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the Mallas of Pāvā sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was a Noble, and we also are Nobles, we are worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, we will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

After this was said, the Mallas of Kusinārāā said this to their community and group: "The Gracious One has attained Final Emancipation in the area of our village, but we will not see a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics."

107After this was said, the brahmin Doṇa said this to their community and group:

"Listen, dear Sirs, to a sentence of mine:
Our Buddha was one who spoke about forebearance
It is not good that there should be a battle
About sharing the relics of the Best Man.

Let us united, in concord, dear Sirs,
With joyful minds, make eight shares of the relics,
And set up Shrines in every direction
So that many people may gain faith in the Visionary One."

108"Now, brahmin, you must divide the Gracious One's bodily relics in eight equal divisions."

"Certainly, dear Sir," said Doṇa the brahmin, after replying to that community and group, and dividing the Gracious One's bodily relics in eight equal divisions, he said this to that community and group: "Please give me this urn, dear Sirs, and I also will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the urn." They gave the urn to Doṇa the brahmin.

Then the Moriyā of Pepper Wood heard: "The Gracious One, it seems, has attained Final Emancipation in Kusinārāā." Then the Moriyā of Pepper Wood sent a message to the Mallas of Kusinārāā, saying: "The Gracious One was a Noble, and we also are Nobles, we are worthy of a share of the Gracious One's bodily relics, we will make a Shrine and hold a festival for the bodily relics."

"There are no more portions of the Gracious One's relics, instead take the ashes from the Gracious One's body." Therefore they took away the ashes.

 

109Then the Magadhan King Ajātasattu, the son of Lady Wisdom, made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Rājagaha and held a festival.

The Licchavīs from Vesālī made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Vesālī and held a festival.

The Sakyas from Kapilavatthu made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Kapilavatthu and held a festival.

The Bulas of Allakappa made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Allakappa and held a festival.

The Koliyas of Rāmagāma made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Rāmagāma and held a festival.

The Veṭhadīpaka brahmin made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Veṭṭhadīpa and held a festival.

The Mallas of Pāvā made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Pāvā and held a festival.

The Mallas of Kusinārāā made a Shrine for the Gracious One's bodily relics at Kusinārāā and held a festival.

Doṇa the brahmin made a Shrine for the urn and held a festival.

The Moriyās of Pepper Wood made a Shrine for the ashes at Pepper Wood and held a festival.

Thus there were eight Shrines for the bodily relics, the Urn Shrine was the ninth, and the Ashes Shrine was the tenth, and so it was in former times.[n.463] This seems to have been the original end of the Sutta.

110There were eight measures of the Visionary's relics,
Seven measures are honoured in Jambudīpa,
One measure of the most Noble Man
The King of the Dragons honours in Rāmagāma.

One tooth is worshipped in the Heavens,
And one is honoured in the city of Gandhāra,
A further one in the realm of the Kalinga King,
And the King of the Dragons honours one more.

Through the power of these relics this Lovely Earth
Is decorated like a most excellent hall.
Thus this body of the Visionary One,
Is well esteemed by those who respect the respectable.

Honoured by Lords of Divinities, Lords of Dragons, and Kings,
The relics are honoured by true Lords of Men,
Worship those relics after holding up your hands,
A Buddha is rare even in a hundred aeons.

Altogether forty even teeth, the hair, and body hair relics were
Carried off successively by the Divinities to the various Universes.[n.464] These verses were, as Buddhaghosa (DA) obviously correctly says, added by the Sinhalese Elders.


The Discourse about the Great Emancipation,

The Third in the Mahāvagga section of the Long Discourses is Finished.

 

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā rājagahe viharati gijjhakūṭe pabbate.

Tena kho pana samayena rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vajjī abhiyātukāmo hoti. So evamāha: "ahaṁ hime vajjī evaṁmahiddhike evaṁmahānubhāve ucchecchāmi vajjī, vināsessāmi vajjī, anayabyasanaṁ āpādessāmī"ti.

2Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vassakāraṁ brāhmaṇaṁ magadhamahāmattaṁ āmantesi:

"ehi tvaṁ, brāhmaṇa, yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā mama vacanena bhagavato pāde sirasā vandāhi, appābādhaṁ appātaṅkaṁ lahuṭṭhānaṁ balaṁ phāsuvihāraṁ puccha: 'rājā, bhante, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavato pāde sirasā vandati, appābādhaṁ appātaṅkaṁ lahuṭṭhānaṁ balaṁ phāsuvihāraṁ pucchatī'ti.

Evañca vadehi: 'rājā, bhante, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vajjī abhiyātukāmo. So evamāha: "ahaṁ hime vajjī evaṁmahiddhike evaṁmahānubhāve ucchecchāmi vajjī, vināsessāmi vajjī, anayabyasanaṁ āpādessāmī"'ti. Yathā te bhagavā byākaroti, taṁ sādhukaṁ uggahetvā mama āroceyyāsi. Na hi tathāgatā vitathaṁ bhaṇantī"ti.

1. Vassakārabrāhmaṇa

3"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto rañño māgadhassa ajātasattussa vedehiputtassa paṭissutvā bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojetvā bhaddaṁ bhaddaṁ yānaṁ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi rājagahamhā niyyāsi, yena gijjhakūṭo pabbato tena pāyāsi. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikova yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:

"rājā, bho gotama, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhoto gotamassa pāde sirasā vandati, appābādhaṁ appātaṅkaṁ lahuṭṭhānaṁ balaṁ phāsuvihāraṁ pucchati.

Rājā, bho gotama, māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto vajjī abhiyātukāmo. So evamāha: 'ahaṁ hime vajjī evaṁmahiddhike evaṁmahānubhāve ucchecchāmi vajjī, vināsessāmi vajjī, anayabyasanaṁ āpādessāmī'"ti.

2. Rājaaparihāniyadhamma

4Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā ānando bhagavato piṭṭhito ṭhito hoti bhagavantaṁ bījayamāno. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi:

"kinti te, Ānanda, sutaṁ, 'vajjī abhiṇhaṁ sannipātā sannipātabahulā'"ti? "Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante: 'vajjī abhiṇhaṁ sannipātā sannipātabahulā'"ti. "Yāvakīvañca, Ānanda, vajjī abhiṇhaṁ sannipātā sannipātabahulā bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (1)

Kinti te, Ānanda, sutaṁ, 'vajjī samaggā sannipatanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahanti, samaggā vajjikaraṇīyāni karontī'"ti? "Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante: 'vajjī samaggā sannipatanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahanti, samaggā vajjikaraṇīyāni karontī'"ti. "Yāvakīvañca, Ānanda, vajjī samaggā sannipatissanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahissanti, samaggā vajjikaraṇīyāni karissanti, vuddhiyeva, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (2)

Kinti te, Ānanda, sutaṁ, 'vajjī apaññattaṁ na paññapenti, paññattaṁ na samucchindanti, yathāpaññatte porāṇe vajjidhamme samādāya vattantī'"ti? "Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante: 'vajjī apaññattaṁ na paññapenti, paññattaṁ na samucchindanti, yathāpaññatte porāṇe vajjidhamme samādāya vattantī'"ti. "Yāvakīvañca, Ānanda, vajjī apaññattaṁ na paññapessanti, paññattaṁ na samucchindissanti, yathāpaññatte porāṇe vajjidhamme samādāya vattissanti, vuddhiyeva, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (3)

Kinti te, Ānanda, sutaṁ, 'vajjī ye te vajjīnaṁ vajjimahallakā, te sakkaronti garuṁ karonti mānenti pūjenti, tesañca sotabbaṁ maññantī'"ti? "Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante: 'vajjī ye te vajjīnaṁ vajjimahallakā, te sakkaronti garuṁ karonti mānenti pūjenti, tesañca sotabbaṁ maññantī'"ti. "Yāvakīvañca, Ānanda, vajjī ye te vajjīnaṁ vajjimahallakā, te sakkarissanti garuṁ karissanti mānessanti pūjessanti, tesañca sotabbaṁ maññissanti, vuddhiyeva, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (4)

Kinti te, Ānanda, sutaṁ, 'vajjī yā tā kulitthiyo kulakumāriyo, tā na okkassa pasayha vāsentī'"ti? "Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante: 'vajjī yā tā kulitthiyo kulakumāriyo tā na okkassa pasayha vāsentī'"ti. "Yāvakīvañca, Ānanda, vajjī yā tā kulitthiyo kulakumāriyo, tā na okkassa pasayha vāsessanti, vuddhiyeva, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (5)

Kinti te, Ānanda, sutaṁ, 'vajjī yāni tāni vajjīnaṁ vajjicetiyāni abbhantarāni ceva bāhirāni ca, tāni sakkaronti garuṁ karonti mānenti pūjenti, tesañca dinnapubbaṁ katapubbaṁ dhammikaṁ baliṁ no parihāpentī'"ti? "Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante: 'vajjī yāni tāni vajjīnaṁ vajjicetiyāni abbhantarāni ceva bāhirāni ca, tāni sakkaronti garuṁ karonti mānenti pūjenti tesañca dinnapubbaṁ katapubbaṁ dhammikaṁ baliṁ no parihāpentī'"ti. "Yāvakīvañca, Ānanda, vajjī yāni tāni vajjīnaṁ vajjicetiyāni abbhantarāni ceva bāhirāni ca, tāni sakkarissanti garuṁ karissanti mānessanti pūjessanti, tesañca dinnapubbaṁ katapubbaṁ dhammikaṁ baliṁ no parihāpessanti, vuddhiyeva, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (6)

Kinti te, Ānanda, sutaṁ, 'vajjīnaṁ arahantesu dhammikā rakkhāvaraṇagutti susaṁvihitā, kinti anāgatā ca arahanto vijitaṁ āgaccheyyuṁ, āgatā ca arahanto vijite phāsu vihareyyun'"ti? "Sutaṁ metaṁ, bhante 'vajjīnaṁ arahantesu dhammikā rakkhāvaraṇagutti susaṁvihitā kinti anāgatā ca arahanto vijitaṁ āgaccheyyuṁ, āgatā ca arahanto vijite phāsu vihareyyun'"ti. "Yāvakīvañca, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ arahantesu dhammikā rakkhāvaraṇagutti susaṁvihitā bhavissati, kinti anāgatā ca arahanto vijitaṁ āgaccheyyuṁ, āgatā ca arahanto vijite phāsu vihareyyunti. Vuddhiyeva, Ānanda, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihānī"ti. (7)

5Atha kho bhagavā vassakāraṁ brāhmaṇaṁ magadhamahāmattaṁ āmantesi: "ekamidāhaṁ, brāhmaṇa, samayaṁ vesāliyaṁ viharāmi sārandade cetiye. Tatrāhaṁ vajjīnaṁ ime satta aparihāniye dhamme desesiṁ. Yāvakīvañca, brāhmaṇa, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā vajjīsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu vajjī sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, brāhmaṇa, vajjīnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihānī"ti.

Evaṁ vutte, vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "ekamekenapi, bho gotama, aparihāniyena dhammena samannāgatānaṁ vajjīnaṁ vuddhiyeva pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. Ko pana vādo sattahi aparihāniyehi dhammehi. Akaraṇīyāva, bho gotama, vajjī raññā māgadhena ajātasattunā vedehiputtena yadidaṁ yuddhassa, aññatra upalāpanāya aññatra mithubhedā. Handa ca dāni mayaṁ, bho gotama, gacchāma, bahukiccā mayaṁ bahukaraṇīyā"ti.

"Yassadāni tvaṁ, brāhmaṇa, kālaṁ maññasī"ti. Atha kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.

3. Bhikkhuaparihāniyadhamma

6Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkante vassakāre brāhmaṇe magadhamahāmatte āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "gaccha tvaṁ, Ānanda, yāvatikā bhikkhū rājagahaṁ upanissāya viharanti, te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṁ sannipātehī"ti.


"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā yāvatikā bhikkhū rājagahaṁ upanissāya viharanti, te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṁ sannipātetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "sannipatito, bhante, bhikkhusaṅgho, yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṁ maññatī"ti.

'Evaṁ bhante'ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā yāvatikā bhikkhū rājagahaṁ upanissāya viharanti, te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṁ sannipātetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "sannipātito1 bhante bhikkhusaṅgho. Yassa'dāni bhante bhagavā kālaṁ maññatī"ti.


Atha kho bhagavā uṭṭhāyāsanā yena upaṭṭhānasālā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "satta vo, bhikkhave, aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṁ suṇātha, sādhukaṁ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:


"Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū abhiṇhaṁ sannipātā sannipātabahulā bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (1)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū samaggā sannipatissanti, samaggā vuṭṭhahissanti, samaggā saṅghakaraṇīyāni karissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (2)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū apaññattaṁ na paññapessanti, paññattaṁ na samucchindissanti, yathāpaññattesu sikkhāpadesu samādāya vattissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (3)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū ye te bhikkhū therā rattaññū cirapabbajitā saṅghapitaro saṅghapariṇāyakā, te sakkarissanti garuṁ karissanti mānessanti pūjessanti, tesañca sotabbaṁ maññissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (4)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū uppannāya taṇhāya ponobbhavikāya na vasaṁ gacchissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (5)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū āraññakesu senāsanesu sāpekkhā bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (6)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū paccattaññeva satiṁ upaṭṭhapessanti: 'kinti anāgatā ca pesalā sabrahmacārī āgaccheyyuṁ, āgatā ca pesalā sabrahmacārī phāsu vihareyyun'ti. Vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (7)

Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

 

7Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṁ suṇātha, sādhukaṁ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:


"Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na kammārāmā bhavissanti na kammaratā na kammārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (1)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na bhassārāmā bhavissanti na bhassaratā na bhassārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (2)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na niddārāmā bhavissanti na niddāratā na niddārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (3)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na saṅgaṇikārāmā bhavissanti na saṅgaṇikaratā na saṅgaṇikārāmatamanuyuttā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (4)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na pāpicchā bhavissanti na pāpikānaṁ icchānaṁ vasaṁ gatā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (5)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na pāpamittā bhavissanti na pāpasahāyā na pāpasampavaṅkā, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (6)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū na oramattakena visesādhigamena antarāvosānaṁ āpajjissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (7)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

 

8Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi … pe … . Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū saddhā bhavissanti … pe … hirimanā bhavissanti … ottappī bhavissanti … bahussutā bhavissanti … āraddhavīriyā bhavissanti … upaṭṭhitassatī bhavissanti … paññavanto bhavissanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

 

9Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṁ suṇātha, sādhukaṁ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

"Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāvessanti … pe … dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāvessanti … vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāvessanti … pītisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāvessanti … passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāvessanti … samādhisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāvessanti … upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāvessanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā no parihāni.

 

10Aparepi vo, bhikkhave, satta aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṁ suṇātha, sādhukaṁ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

"Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū aniccasaññaṁ bhāvessanti … pe … anattasaññaṁ bhāvessanti … asubhasaññaṁ bhāvessanti … ādīnavasaññaṁ bhāvessanti … pahānasaññaṁ bhāvessanti … virāgasaññaṁ bhāvessanti … nirodhasaññaṁ bhāvessanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime satta aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca sattasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni.

 

11Cha vo, bhikkhave, aparihāniye dhamme desessāmi, taṁ suṇātha, sādhukaṁ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:

"Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū mettaṁ kāyakammaṁ paccupaṭṭhāpessanti sabrahmacārīsu āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (1)

Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū mettaṁ vacīkammaṁ paccupaṭṭhāpessanti … pe … mettaṁ manokammaṁ paccupaṭṭhāpessanti sabrahmacārīsu āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (2–3)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū, ye te lābhā dhammikā dhammaladdhā antamaso pattapariyāpannamattampi tathārūpehi lābhehi appaṭivibhattabhogī bhavissanti sīlavantehi sabrahmacārīhi sādhāraṇabhogī, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (4)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū yāni tāni sīlāni akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsāni bhujissāni viññūpasatthāni aparāmaṭṭhāni samādhisaṁvattanikāni tathārūpesu sīlesu sīlasāmaññagatā viharissanti sabrahmacārīhi āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (5)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhū yāyaṁ diṭṭhi ariyā niyyānikā, niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya, tathārūpāya diṭṭhiyā diṭṭhisāmaññagatā viharissanti sabrahmacārīhi āvi ceva raho ca, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihāni. (6)


Yāvakīvañca, bhikkhave, ime cha aparihāniyā dhammā bhikkhūsu ṭhassanti, imesu ca chasu aparihāniyesu dhammesu bhikkhū sandississanti, vuddhiyeva, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ pāṭikaṅkhā, no parihānī"ti.


12Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā rājagahe viharanto gijjhakūṭe pabbate etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti: "iti sīlaṁ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.

 

13Atha kho bhagavā rājagahe yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena ambalaṭṭhikā tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ yena ambalaṭṭhikā tadavasari.


Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā ambalaṭṭhikāyaṁ viharati rājāgārake. Tatrāpi sudaṁ bhagavā ambalaṭṭhikāyaṁ viharanto rājāgārake etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti:

"iti sīlaṁ iti samādhi iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.


14Atha kho bhagavā ambalaṭṭhikāyaṁ yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena nāḷandā tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ yena nāḷandā tadavasari, tatra sudaṁ bhagavā nāḷandāyaṁ viharati pāvārikambavane.

4. Sāriputtasīhanāda

15Atha kho āyasmā sāriputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā sāriputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ, bhante, bhagavati; na cāhu na ca bhavissati na cetarahi vijjati añño samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā bhagavatā bhiyyobhiññataro yadidaṁ sambodhiyan"ti.

"Uḷārā kho te ayaṁ, sāriputta, āsabhī vācā bhāsitā, ekaṁso gahito, sīhanādo nadito: 'evaṁpasanno ahaṁ, bhante, bhagavati; na cāhu na ca bhavissati na cetarahi vijjati añño samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā bhagavatā bhiyyobhiññataro yadidaṁ sambodhiyan'ti.

Kiṁ te, sāriputta, ye te ahesuṁ atītamaddhānaṁ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, sabbe te bhagavanto cetasā ceto paricca viditā: 'evaṁsīlā te bhagavanto ahesuṁ itipi, evaṁdhammā evaṁpaññā evaṁvihārī evaṁvimuttā te bhagavanto ahesuṁ itipī'"ti?


"No hetaṁ, bhante".

"Kiṁ pana te, sāriputta, ye te bhavissanti anāgatamaddhānaṁ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, sabbe te bhagavanto cetasā ceto paricca viditā: 'evaṁsīlā te bhagavanto bhavissanti itipi, evaṁdhammā evaṁpaññā evaṁvihārī evaṁvimuttā te bhagavanto bhavissanti itipī'"ti?


"No hetaṁ, bhante".

"Kiṁ pana te, sāriputta, ahaṁ etarahi arahaṁ sammāsambuddho cetasā ceto paricca vidito: 'evaṁsīlo bhagavā itipi, evaṁdhammo evaṁpañño evaṁvihārī evaṁvimutto bhagavā itipī'"ti?


"No hetaṁ, bhante".

"Ettha ca hi te, sāriputta, atītānāgatapaccuppannesu arahantesu sammāsambuddhesu cetopariyañāṇaṁ natthi. Atha kiñcarahi te ayaṁ, sāriputta, uḷārā āsabhī vācā bhāsitā, ekaṁso gahito, sīhanādo nadito: 'evaṁpasanno ahaṁ, bhante, bhagavati; na cāhu na ca bhavissati na cetarahi vijjati añño samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā bhagavatā bhiyyobhiññataro yadidaṁ sambodhiyan'"ti?

16"Na kho me, bhante, atītānāgatapaccuppannesu arahantesu sammāsambuddhesu cetopariyañāṇaṁ atthi, api ca me dhammanvayo vidito.

Seyyathāpi, bhante, rañño paccantimaṁ nagaraṁ daḷhuddhāpaṁ daḷhapākāratoraṇaṁ ekadvāraṁ, tatrassa dovāriko paṇḍito viyatto medhāvī aññātānaṁ nivāretā ñātānaṁ pavesetā. So tassa nagarassa samantā anupariyāyapathaṁ anukkamamāno na passeyya pākārasandhiṁ vā pākāravivaraṁ vā, antamaso biḷāranikkhamanamattampi. Tassa evamassa: 'ye kho keci oḷārikā pāṇā imaṁ nagaraṁ pavisanti vā nikkhamanti vā, sabbe te imināva dvārena pavisanti vā nikkhamanti vā'ti.

Evameva kho me, bhante, dhammanvayo vidito: 'ye te, bhante, ahesuṁ atītamaddhānaṁ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, sabbe te bhagavanto pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacittā sattabojjhaṅge yathābhūtaṁ bhāvetvā anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambujjhiṁsu.

Yepi te, bhante, bhavissanti anāgatamaddhānaṁ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, sabbe te bhagavanto pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacittā satta bojjhaṅge yathābhūtaṁ bhāvetvā anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambujjhissanti.

Bhagavāpi, bhante, etarahi arahaṁ sammāsambuddho pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe catūsu satipaṭṭhānesu supatiṭṭhitacitto satta bojjhaṅge yathābhūtaṁ bhāvetvā anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho'"ti.

17Tatrapi sudaṁ bhagavā nāḷandāyaṁ viharanto pāvārikambavane etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti:

"iti sīlaṁ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.

5. Dussīlaādīnava

18Atha kho bhagavā nāḷandāyaṁ yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena pāṭaligāmo tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.


"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ yena pāṭaligāmo tadavasari.

Assosuṁ kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā: “bhagavā kira pāṭaligāmaṁ anuppatto”ti. Atha kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: “adhivāsetu no, bhante, bhagavā āvasathāgāran”ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena.

Atha kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavato adhivāsanaṁ viditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā yena āvasathāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā sabbasanthariṁ āvasathāgāraṁ santharitvā āsanāni paññapetvā udakamaṇikaṁ patiṭṭhāpetvā telapadīpaṁ āropetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu, upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhaṁsu. Ekamantaṁ ṭhitā kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: Variant: sabbasanthariṁ → sabbasantharitaṁ santhataṁ (sya-all, km); sabbasanthariṁ santhataṁ (mr)“sabbasantharisanthataṁ, bhante, āvasathāgāraṁ, āsanāni paññattāni, udakamaṇiko patiṭṭhāpito, telapadīpo āropito; yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṁ maññatī”ti


Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṁghena yena āvasathāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā pāde pakkhāletvā āvasathāgāraṁ pavisitvā majjhimaṁ thambhaṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi. Bhikkhusaṁghopi kho pāde pakkhāletvā āvasathāgāraṁ pavisitvā pacchimaṁ bhittiṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi bhagavantameva purakkhatvā. Pāṭaligāmikāpi kho upāsakā pāde pakkhāletvā āvasathāgāraṁ pavisitvā puratthimaṁ bhittiṁ nissāya pacchimābhimukhā nisīdiṁsu bhagavantameva purakkhatvā.


19Atha kho bhagavā pāṭaligāmike upāsake āmantesi: "pañcime, gahapatayo, ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Katame pañca?


Idha, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno pamādādhikaraṇaṁ mahatiṁ bhogajāniṁ nigacchati. Ayaṁ paṭhamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.


Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, dussīlassa sīlavipannassa pāpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati. Ayaṁ dutiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.


Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno yaññadeva parisaṁ upasaṅkamati – yadi khattiyaparisaṁ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṁ yadi gahapatiparisaṁ yadi samaṇaparisaṁ— avisārado upasaṅkamati maṅkubhūto. Ayaṁ tatiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.


Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno sammūḷho kālaṁ karoti. Ayaṁ catuttho ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.


Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, dussīlo sīlavipanno kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjati. Ayaṁ pañcamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Ime kho, gahapatayo, pañca ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā.

6. Sīlavantaānisaṁsa

20Pañcime, gahapatayo, ānisaṁsā sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Katame pañca? Idha, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno appamādādhikaraṇaṁ mahantaṁ bhogakkhandhaṁ adhigacchati. Ayaṁ paṭhamo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.


Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, sīlavato sīlasampannassa kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati. Ayaṁ dutiyo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.

Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno yaññadeva parisaṁ upasaṅkamati – yadi khattiyaparisaṁ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṁ yadi gahapatiparisaṁ yadi samaṇaparisaṁ visārado upasaṅkamati amaṅkubhūto. Ayaṁ tatiyo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.

Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno asammūḷho kālaṁ karoti. Ayaṁ catuttho ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya.

Puna caparaṁ, gahapatayo, sīlavā sīlasampanno kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati. Ayaṁ pañcamo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Ime kho, gahapatayo, pañca ānisaṁsā sīlavato sīlasampadāyā"ti.

21Atha kho bhagavā pāṭaligāmike upāsake bahudeva rattiṁ dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṁsetvā uyyojesi:

"abhikkantā kho, gahapatayo, ratti, yassadāni tumhe kālaṁ maññathā"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho pāṭaligāmikā upāsakā bhagavato paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkamiṁsu.

Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkantesu pāṭaligāmikesu upāsakesu suññāgāraṁ pāvisi.

7. Pāṭaliputtanagaramāpana

22Tena kho pana samayena sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā pāṭaligāme nagaraṁ māpenti vajjīnaṁ paṭibāhāya. Tena samayena sambahulā devatāyo sahasseva pāṭaligāme vatthūni pariggaṇhanti.

Yasmiṁ padese mahesakkhā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, mahesakkhānaṁ tattha raññaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṁ.

Yasmiṁ padese majjhimā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, majjhimānaṁ tattha raññaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṁ.

Yasmiṁ padese nīcā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, nīcānaṁ tattha raññaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṁ.

Addasā kho bhagavā dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena tā devatāyo sahasseva pāṭaligāme vatthūni pariggaṇhantiyo.

Atha kho bhagavā rattiyā paccūsasamayaṁ paccuṭṭhāya āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi:

"Ke nu kho, Ānanda, pāṭaligāme nagaraṁ māpentī"ti? "Sunidhavassakārā, bhante, magadhamahāmattā pāṭaligāme nagaraṁ māpenti vajjīnaṁ paṭibāhāyā"ti.

"Seyyathāpi, Ānanda, devehi tāvatiṁsehi saddhiṁ mantetvā; evameva kho, Ānanda, sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā pāṭaligāme nagaraṁ māpenti vajjīnaṁ paṭibāhāya.

Idhāhaṁ, Ānanda, addasaṁ dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena sambahulā devatāyo sahasseva pāṭaligāme vatthūni pariggaṇhantiyo.

Yasmiṁ, Ānanda, padese mahesakkhā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, mahesakkhānaṁ tattha raññaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṁ.

Yasmiṁ padese majjhimā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, majjhimānaṁ tattha raññaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṁ.

Yasmiṁ padese nīcā devatā vatthūni pariggaṇhanti, nīcānaṁ tattha raññaṁ rājamahāmattānaṁ cittāni namanti nivesanāni māpetuṁ.

Yāvatā, Ānanda, ariyaṁ āyatanaṁ yāvatā vaṇippatho idaṁ agganagaraṁ bhavissati pāṭaliputtaṁ puṭabhedanaṁ. Pāṭaliputtassa kho, Ānanda, tayo antarāyā bhavissanti—aggito vā udakato vā mithubhedā vā"ti.


23Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodiṁsu, sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhaṁsu, ekamantaṁ ṭhitā kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: "adhivāsetu no bhavaṁ gotamo ajjatanāya bhattaṁ saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṅghenā"ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena.

Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavato adhivāsanaṁ viditvā yena sako āvasatho tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā sake āvasathe paṇītaṁ khādanīyaṁ bhojanīyaṁ paṭiyādāpetvā bhagavato kālaṁ ārocāpesuṁ: "kālo, bho gotama, niṭṭhitaṁ bhattan"ti.

Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṅghena yena sunidhavassakārānaṁ magadhamahāmattānaṁ āvasatho tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā buddhappamukhaṁ bhikkhusaṅghaṁ paṇītena khādanīyena bhojanīyena sahatthā santappesuṁ sampavāresuṁ.


Atha kho sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavantaṁ bhuttāviṁ onītapattapāṇiṁ aññataraṁ nīcaṁ āsanaṁ gahetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu.


Ekamantaṁ nisinne kho sunidhavassakāre magadhamahāmatte bhagavā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi:


"Yasmiṁ padese kappeti,
vāsaṁ paṇḍitajātiyo;
Sīlavantettha bhojetvā,
saññate brahmacārayo.

Yā tattha devatā āsuṁ,
tāsaṁ dakkhiṇamādise;
pūjitā pūjayanti,
mānitā mānayanti naṁ.

Tato naṁ anukampanti,
mātā puttaṁva orasaṁ;
Devatānukampito poso,
sadā bhadrāni passatī"ti.


Atha kho bhagavā sunidhavassakāre magadhamahāmatte imāhi gāthāhi anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.

24Tena kho pana samayena sunidhavassakārā magadhamahāmattā bhagavantaṁ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhā honti: "yenajja samaṇo gotamo dvārena nikkhamissati, taṁ gotamadvāraṁ nāma bhavissati. Yena titthena gaṅgaṁ nadiṁ tarissati, taṁ gotamatitthaṁ nāma bhavissatī"ti.

Atha kho bhagavā yena dvārena nikkhami, taṁ gotamadvāraṁ nāma ahosi. Atha kho bhagavā yena gaṅgā nadī tenupasaṅkami. Tena kho pana samayena gaṅgā nadī pūrā hoti samatittikā kākapeyyā. Appekacce manussā nāvaṁ pariyesanti, appekacce uḷumpaṁ pariyesanti, appekacce kullaṁ bandhanti apārā, pāraṁ gantukāmā. Atha kho bhagavā—seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṁ vā bāhaṁ pasāreyya, pasāritaṁ vā bāhaṁ samiñjeyya; evameva—gaṅgāya nadiyā orimatīre antarahito pārimatīre paccuṭṭhāsi saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṁghena.

Addasā kho bhagavā te manusse appekacce nāvaṁ pariyesante appekacce uḷumpaṁ pariyesante appekacce kullaṁ bandhante apārā pāraṁ gantukāme.


Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṁ viditvā tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:

"Ye taranti aṇṇavaṁ saraṁ,
Setuṁ katvāna visajja pallalāni;
Kullañhi jano bandhati,
Tiṇṇā medhāvino janā"ti.

Paṭhamabhāṇavāro.

8. Ariyasaccakathā

25Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena koṭigāmo tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ yena koṭigāmo tadavasari. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā koṭigāme viharati.


Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

" Catunnaṁ, bhikkhave, ariyasaccānaṁ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.


Katamesaṁ catunnaṁ?

Dukkhassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Dukkhasamudayassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Dukkhanirodhassa, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya, bhikkhave, ariyasaccassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Tayidaṁ, bhikkhave, dukkhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ anubuddhaṁ paṭividdhaṁ, dukkhasamudayaṁ ariyasaccaṁ anubuddhaṁ paṭividdhaṁ, dukkhanirodhaṁ ariyasaccaṁ anubuddhaṁ paṭividdhaṁ, dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā ariyasaccaṁ anubuddhaṁ paṭividdhaṁ, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo"ti.

Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṁ vatvāna sugato athāparaṁ etadavoca satthā:

"Catunnaṁ ariyasaccānaṁ,
yathābhūtaṁ adassanā;
Saṁsitaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ,
tāsu tāsveva jātisu.

Tāni etāni diṭṭhāni,
bhavanetti samūhatā;
Ucchinnaṁ mūlaṁ dukkhassa,
natthi dāni punabbhavo"ti.

Tatrapi sudaṁ bhagavā koṭigāme viharanto etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti:

"iti sīlaṁ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.

9. Anāvattidhammasambodhiparāyaṇa

26Atha kho bhagavā koṭigāme yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena nātikā tenupankamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ yena nātikā tadavasari. Tatrapi sudaṁ bhagavā nātike viharati giñjakāvasathe.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:


"sāḷho nāma, bhante, bhikkhu nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo?


Nandā nāma, bhante, bhikkhunī nātike kālaṅkatā, tassā kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo?


Sudatto nāma, bhante, upāsako nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo?


Sujātā nāma, bhante, upāsikā nātike kālaṅkatā, tassā kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo?


Kukkuṭo nāma, bhante, upāsako nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo?

Kāḷimbo nāma, bhante, upāsako … pe … nikaṭo nāma, bhante, upāsako … kaṭissaho nāma, bhante, upāsako … tuṭṭho nāma, bhante, upāsako … santuṭṭho nāma, bhante, upāsako … bhaddo nāma, bhante, upāsako … subhaddo nāma, bhante, upāsako nātike kālaṅkato, tassa kā gati, ko abhisamparāyo"ti?


27"Sāḷho, Ānanda, bhikkhu āsavānaṁ khayā anāsavaṁ cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi.

Nandā, Ānanda, bhikkhunī pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyinī anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.

Sudatto, Ānanda, upāsako tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṁ tanuttā sakadāgāmī sakideva imaṁ lokaṁ āgantvā dukkhassantaṁ karissati.

Sujātā, Ānanda, upāsikā tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā.

Kukkuṭo, Ānanda, upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā.

Kāḷimbo, Ānanda, upāsako … pe … nikaṭo, Ānanda, upāsako … kaṭissaho, Ānanda, upāsako … tuṭṭho, Ānanda, upāsako … santuṭṭho, Ānanda, upāsako … bhaddo, Ānanda, upāsako … subhaddo, Ānanda, upāsako pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā opapātiko tattha parinibbāyī anāvattidhammo tasmā lokā.


Paropaññāsaṁ, Ānanda, nātike upāsakā kālaṅkatā, pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā opapātikā tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.

Sādhikā navuti, Ānanda, nātike upāsakā kālaṅkatā tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṁ tanuttā sakadāgāmino sakideva imaṁ lokaṁ āgantvā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti.

Sātirekāni, Ānanda, pañcasatāni nātike upāsakā kālaṅkatā, tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā sotāpannā avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā.

10. Dhammādāsadhammapariyāya

28Anacchariyaṁ kho panetaṁ, Ānanda, yaṁ manussabhūto kālaṁ kareyya. Tasmiṁyeva kālaṅkate tathāgataṁ upasaṅkamitvā etamatthaṁ pucchissatha, vihesā hesā, Ānanda, tathāgatassa.

Tasmātihānanda, dhammādāsaṁ nāma dhammapariyāyaṁ desessāmi, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṁ byākareyya: 'khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo'ti.

29Katamo ca so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhammapariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṁ byākareyya: 'khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo'ti?


Idhānanda, ariyasāvako buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti:

'itipi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā'ti.

Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti:

'svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī'ti.


Sanghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti:

'suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho, sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho yadidaṁ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa bhagavato sāvakasaṅgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṁ puññakkhettaṁ lokassā'ti.

Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññūpasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṁvattanikehi.


Ayaṁ kho so, Ānanda, dhammādāso dhammapariyāyo, yena samannāgato ariyasāvako ākaṅkhamāno attanāva attānaṁ byākareyya: 'khīṇanirayomhi khīṇatiracchānayoni khīṇapettivisayo khīṇāpāyaduggativinipāto, sotāpannohamasmi avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo'"ti.


Tatrapi sudaṁ bhagavā nātike viharanto giñjakāvasathe etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti: "Iti sīlaṁ iti samādhi iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.

30Atha kho bhagavā nātike yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena vesālī tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ yena vesālī tadavasari.

Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā vesāliyaṁ viharati ambapālivane. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

"Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno, ayaṁ vo amhākaṁ anusāsanī. Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī … pe … citte cittānupassī … pe … dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.

Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sato hoti. Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti?

Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti.

Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu sampajāno hoti. Sato, bhikkhave, bhikkhu vihareyya sampajāno, ayaṁ vo amhākaṁ anusāsanī"ti.

11. Ambapālīgaṇikā

31Assosi kho ambapālī gaṇikā: "Bhagavā kira vesāliṁ anuppatto vesāliyaṁ viharati mayhaṁ ambavane"ti.

Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojāpetvā bhaddaṁ bhaddaṁ yānaṁ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi vesāliyā niyyāsi. Yena sako ārāmo tena pāyāsi. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikāva yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho ambapāliṁ gaṇikaṁ bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṁsesi.

Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassitā samādapitā samuttejitā sampahaṁsitā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "adhivāsetu me, bhante, bhagavā svātanāya bhattaṁ saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṁghenā"ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena.

Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavato adhivāsanaṁ viditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkāmi.


Assosuṁ kho vesālikā licchavī: "Bhagavā kira vesāliṁ anuppatto vesāliyaṁ viharati ambapālivane"ti.

Atha kho te licchavī bhaddāni bhaddāni yānāni yojāpetvā bhaddaṁ bhaddaṁ yānaṁ abhiruhitvā bhaddehi bhaddehi yānehi vesāliyā niyyiṁsu. Tatra ekacce licchavī nīlā honti nīlavaṇṇā nīlavatthā nīlālaṅkārā, ekacce licchavī pītā honti pītavaṇṇā pītavatthā pītālaṅkārā, ekacce licchavī lohitā honti lohitavaṇṇā lohitavatthā lohitālaṅkārā, ekacce licchavī odātā honti odātavaṇṇā odātavatthā odātālaṅkārā.

Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā daharānaṁ daharānaṁ licchavīnaṁ akkhena akkhaṁ cakkena cakkaṁ yugena yugaṁ paṭivaṭṭesi. Atha kho te licchavī ambapāliṁ gaṇikaṁ etadavocuṁ: "kiṁ, je ambapāli, daharānaṁ daharānaṁ licchavīnaṁ akkhena akkhaṁ cakkena cakkaṁ yugena yugaṁ paṭivaṭṭesī"ti?

"Tathā hi pana me, ayyaputtā, bhagavā nimantito svātanāya bhattaṁ saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṁghenā"ti.

"Dehi, je ambapāli, etaṁ bhattaṁ satasahassenā"ti.

"Sacepi me, ayyaputtā, vesāliṁ sāhāraṁ dassatha, evamahaṁ taṁ bhattaṁ na dassāmī"ti.

Atha kho te licchavī aṅguliṁ phoṭesuṁ: " jitamha vata bho ambakāya, jitamha vata bho ambakāyā"ti.


Atha kho te licchavī yena ambapālivanaṁ tena pāyiṁsu.

Addasā kho bhagavā te licchavī dūratova āgacchante. Disvāna bhikkhū āmantesi: “yesaṁ, bhikkhave, bhikkhūnaṁ devā tāvatiṁsā adiṭṭhapubbā, oloketha, bhikkhave, licchaviparisaṁ; apaloketha, bhikkhave, licchaviparisaṁ; upasaṁharatha, bhikkhave, licchaviparisaṁ—tāvatiṁsasadisan”ti.


Atha kho te licchavī yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikāva yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ekamantaṁ nisinne kho te licchavī bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṁsesi.

Atha kho te licchavī bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassitā samādapitā samuttejitā sampahaṁsitā bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: "adhivāsetu no, bhante, bhagavā svātanāya bhattaṁ saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṁghenā"ti. Atha kho bhagavā te licchavī etadavoca:


"adhivutthaṁ kho me, licchavī, svātanāya ambapāliyā gaṇikāya bhattan"ti.

Atha kho te licchavī aṅguliṁ phoṭesuṁ: "jitamha vata bho ambakāya, jitamha vata bho ambakāyā"ti.

Atha kho te licchavī bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkamiṁsu.

32Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā tassā rattiyā accayena sake ārāme paṇītaṁ khādanīyaṁ bhojanīyaṁ paṭiyādāpetvā bhagavato kālaṁ ārocāpesi: "kālo, bhante, niṭṭhitaṁ bhattan"ti.

Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṅghena yena ambapāliyā gaṇikāya nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā buddhappamukhaṁ bhikkhusaṅghaṁ paṇītena khādanīyena bhojanīyena sahatthā santappesi sampavāresi.

Atha kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavantaṁ bhuttāviṁ onītapattapāṇiṁ aññataraṁ nīcaṁ āsanaṁ gahetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho ambapālī gaṇikā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "imāhaṁ, bhante, ārāmaṁ buddhappamukhassa bhikkhusaṅghassa dammī"ti. Paṭiggahesi bhagavā ārāmaṁ.

Atha kho bhagavā ambapāliṁ gaṇikaṁ dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṁsetvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.


Tatrapi sudaṁ bhagavā vesāliyaṁ viharanto ambapālivane etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti:

"iti sīlaṁ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.

12. Veḷuvagāmavassūpagamana

33Atha kho bhagavā ambapālivane yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena veḷuvagāmako tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ yena veḷuvagāmako tadavasari. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā veḷuvagāmake viharati. Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

"etha tumhe, bhikkhave, samantā vesāliṁ yathāmittaṁ yathāsandiṭṭhaṁ yathāsambhattaṁ vassaṁ upetha. Ahaṁ pana idheva veḷuvagāmake vassaṁ upagacchāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paṭissutvā samantā vesāliṁ yathāmittaṁ yathāsandiṭṭhaṁ yathāsambhattaṁ vassaṁ upagacchiṁsu. Bhagavā pana tattheva veḷuvagāmake vassaṁ upagacchi.

Atha kho bhagavato vassūpagatassa kharo ābādho uppajji, bāḷhā vedanā vattanti māraṇantikā. Tā sudaṁ bhagavā sato sampajāno adhivāsesi avihaññamāno. Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: "na kho metaṁ patirūpaṁ, yvāhaṁ anāmantetvā upaṭṭhāke anapaloketvā bhikkhusaṁghaṁ parinibbāyeyyaṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ imaṁ ābādhaṁ vīriyena paṭipaṇāmetvā jīvitasaṅkhāraṁ adhiṭṭhāya vihareyyan"ti.

34Atha kho bhagavā taṁ ābādhaṁ vīriyena paṭipaṇāmetvā jīvitasaṅkhāraṁ adhiṭṭhāya vihāsi. Atha kho bhagavato so ābādho paṭippassambhi. Atha kho bhagavā gilānā vuṭṭhito aciravuṭṭhito gelaññā vihārā nikkhamma vihārapacchāyāyaṁ paññatte āsane nisīdi.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:

"diṭṭho me, bhante, bhagavato phāsu; diṭṭhaṁ me, bhante, bhagavato khamanīyaṁ, api ca me, bhante, madhurakajāto viya kāyo. Disāpi me na pakkhāyanti; dhammāpi maṁ na paṭibhanti bhagavato gelaññena, api ca me, bhante, ahosi kācideva assāsamattā: 'na tāva bhagavā parinibbāyissati, na yāva bhagavā bhikkhusaṁghaṁ ārabbha kiñcideva udāharatī'"ti.

35"Kiṁ panānanda, bhikkhusaṁgho mayi paccāsīsati? Desito, Ānanda, mayā dhammo anantaraṁ abāhiraṁ karitvā. Natthānanda, tathāgatassa dhammesu ācariyamuṭṭhi.

Yassa nūna, Ānanda, evamassa: 'ahaṁ bhikkhusaṁghaṁ pariharissāmī'ti vā 'mamuddesiko bhikkhusaṁgho'ti vā, so nūna, Ānanda, bhikkhusaṁghaṁ ārabbha kiñcideva udāhareyya. Tathāgatassa kho, Ānanda, na evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ bhikkhusaṁghaṁ pariharissāmī'ti vā 'mamuddesiko bhikkhusaṁgho'ti vā. Sakiṁ, Ānanda, tathāgato bhikkhusaṁghaṁ ārabbha kiñcideva udāharissati.


Ahaṁ kho panānanda, etarahi jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayo anuppatto. Āsītiko me vayo vattati. Seyyathāpi, Ānanda, jajjarasakaṭaṁ veṭhamissakena yāpeti; evameva kho, Ānanda, veṭhamissakena maññe tathāgatassa kāyo yāpeti.

Yasmiṁ, Ānanda, samaye tathāgato sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā ekaccānaṁ vedanānaṁ nirodhā animittaṁ cetosamādhiṁ upasampajja viharati, phāsutaro, Ānanda, tasmiṁ samaye tathāgatassa kāyo hoti. Tasmātihānanda, attadīpā viharatha attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, dhammadīpā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā.


Kathañcānanda, bhikkhu attadīpo viharati attasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo, dhammadīpo dhammasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo?


Idhānanda, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati atāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Vedanāsu … pe … citte … pe … dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ.

Evaṁ kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu attadīpo viharati attasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo, dhammadīpo dhammasaraṇo anaññasaraṇo. Ye hi keci, Ānanda, etarahi vā mama vā accayena attadīpā viharissanti attasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, dhammadīpā dhammasaraṇā anaññasaraṇā, tamatagge me te, Ānanda, bhikkhū bhavissanti ye keci sikkhākāmā"ti.

Dutiyabhāṇavāro.

13. Nimittobhāsakathā

36Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya vesāliṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Vesāliyaṁ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "gaṇhāhi, Ānanda, nisīdanaṁ, yena cāpālaṁ cetiyaṁ tenupasaṅkamissāma divā vihārāyā"ti.


"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā nisīdanaṁ ādāya bhagavantaṁ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhi.

Atha kho bhagavā yena cāpālaṁ cetiyaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Āyasmāpi kho ānando bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi.

37Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ bhagavā etadavoca:


"Ramaṇīyā, Ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṁ udenaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ gotamakaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ sattambaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ bahuputtaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ sārandadaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ cāpālaṁ cetiyaṁ.

Yassa kassaci, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, ānanda, tathāgato kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā”ti.

Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ; na bhagavantaṁ yāci: "tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan"ti, yathā taṁ mārena pariyuṭṭhitacitto.


Dutiyampi kho bhagavā … pe …


Tatiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "ramaṇīyā, Ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṁ udenaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ gotamakaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ sattambaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ bahuputtaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ sārandadaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ cāpālaṁ cetiyaṁ.

Yassa kassaci, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, Ānanda, tathāgato kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā"ti.

Evampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavatā oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ; na bhagavantaṁ yāci: "tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan"ti, yathā taṁ mārena pariyuṭṭhitacitto.

Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "gaccha tvaṁ, Ānanda, yassadāni kālaṁ maññasī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā avidūre aññatarasmiṁ rukkhamūle nisīdi.

14. Mārayācanakathā

38Atha kho māro pāpimā acirapakkante āyasmante ānande yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho māro pāpimā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:

"Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato.


Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā:

'na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessantī'ti.

Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhikkhū bhagavato sāvakā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desenti.

Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato.


Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā:

'na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessantī'ti.

Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhikkhuniyo bhagavato sāvikā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desenti.

Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato.


Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā:

'na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessantī'ti.

Etarahi kho pana, bhante, upāsakā bhagavato sāvakā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desenti.

Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato.


Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā:

'na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessantī'ti.

Etarahi kho pana, bhante, upāsikā bhagavato sāvikā viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhanti desenti paññapenti paṭṭhapenti vivaranti vibhajanti uttānīkaronti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desenti.

Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato.


Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā:

'na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me idaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na iddhañceva bhavissati phītañca vitthārikaṁ bāhujaññaṁ puthubhūtaṁ yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitan'ti.

Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhagavato brahmacariyaṁ iddhañceva phītañca vitthārikaṁ bāhujaññaṁ puthubhūtaṁ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitaṁ. Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato"ti.


Evaṁ vutte, bhagavā māraṁ pāpimantaṁ etadavoca: "appossukko tvaṁ, pāpima, hohi, na ciraṁ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṁ māsānaṁ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī"ti.

39Atha kho bhagavā cāpāle cetiye sato sampajāno āyusaṅkhāraṁ ossaji. Ossaṭṭhe ca bhagavatā āyusaṅkhāre mahābhūmicālo ahosi bhiṁsanako salomahaṁso, devadundubhiyo ca phaliṁsu.

Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṁ viditvā tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:

"Tulamatulañca sambhavaṁ,
Bhavasaṅkhāramavassaji muni;
Ajjhattarato samāhito,
Abhindi kavacamivattasambhavan"ti.

16. Mahābhūmicālahetu

40Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi: "acchariyaṁ vata bho, abbhutaṁ vata bho, mahā vatāyaṁ bhūmicālo; sumahā vatāyaṁ bhūmicālo bhiṁsanako salomahaṁso; devadundubhiyo ca phaliṁsu. Ko nu kho hetu ko paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā"ti?

Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami, upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi, ekamantaṁ nisinno kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "acchariyaṁ, bhante, abbhutaṁ, bhante. Mahā vatāyaṁ, bhante, bhūmicālo; sumahā vatāyaṁ, bhante, bhūmicālo bhiṁsanako salomahaṁso; devadundubhiyo ca phaliṁsu. Ko nu kho, bhante, hetu ko paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāyā"ti?

41"Aṭṭha kho ime, Ānanda, hetū, aṭṭha paccayā mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

Katame aṭṭha?

Ayaṁ, Ānanda, mahāpathavī udake patiṭṭhitā, udakaṁ vāte patiṭṭhitaṁ, vāto ākāsaṭṭho. Hoti kho so, Ānanda, samayo, yaṁ mahāvātā vāyanti. Mahāvātā vāyantā udakaṁ kampenti. Udakaṁ kampitaṁ pathaviṁ kampeti. Ayaṁ paṭhamo hetu paṭhamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (1)

Puna caparaṁ, Ānanda, samaṇo vā hoti brāhmaṇo vā iddhimā cetovasippatto, devo vā mahiddhiko mahānubhāvo, tassa parittā pathavīsaññā bhāvitā hoti, appamāṇā āposaññā. So imaṁ pathaviṁ kampeti saṅkampeti sampakampeti sampavedheti. Ayaṁ dutiyo hetu dutiyo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (2)

Puna caparaṁ, Ānanda, yadā bodhisatto tusitakāyā cavitvā sato sampajāno mātukucchiṁ okkamati, tadāyaṁ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṁ tatiyo hetu tatiyo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (3)

Puna caparaṁ, Ānanda, yadā bodhisatto sato sampajāno mātukucchismā nikkhamati, tadāyaṁ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṁ catuttho hetu catuttho paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (4)

Puna caparaṁ, Ānanda, yadā tathāgato anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambujjhati, tadāyaṁ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṁ pañcamo hetu pañcamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (5)

Puna caparaṁ, Ānanda, yadā tathāgato anuttaraṁ dhammacakkaṁ pavatteti, tadāyaṁ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṁ chaṭṭho hetu chaṭṭho paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (6)

Puna caparaṁ, Ānanda, yadā tathāgato sato sampajāno āyusaṅkhāraṁ ossajjati, tadāyaṁ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṁ sattamo hetu sattamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (7)

Puna caparaṁ, Ānanda, yadā tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati, tadāyaṁ pathavī kampati saṅkampati sampakampati sampavedhati. Ayaṁ aṭṭhamo hetu aṭṭhamo paccayo mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya. (8)

Ime kho, Ānanda, aṭṭha hetū, aṭṭha paccayā mahato bhūmicālassa pātubhāvāya.

17. Aṭṭhaparisā

42Aṭṭha kho imā, Ānanda, parisā.


Katamā aṭṭha?


Khattiyaparisā, brāhmaṇaparisā, gahapatiparisā, samaṇaparisā, cātumahārājikaparisā, tāvatiṁsaparisā, māraparisā, brahmaparisā.


Abhijānāmi kho panāhaṁ, Ānanda, anekasataṁ brāhmaṇaparisaṁ … pe … gahapatiparisaṁ … samaṇaparisaṁ … cātumahārājikaparisaṁ … tāvatiṁsaparisaṁ … māraparisaṁ … brahmaparisaṁ upasaṅkamitā. Tatrapi mayā sannisinnapubbañceva sallapitapubbañca sākacchā ca samāpajjitapubbā. Tattha yādisako tesaṁ vaṇṇo hoti, tādisako mayhaṁ vaṇṇo hoti. Yādisako tesaṁ saro hoti, tādisako mayhaṁ saro hoti. Dhammiyā kathāya sandassemi samādapemi samuttejemi sampahaṁsemi. Bhāsamānañca maṁ na jānanti: 'ko nu kho ayaṁ bhāsati devo vā manusso vā'ti? Dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṁsetvā antaradhāyāmi. Antarahitañca maṁ na jānanti: 'ko nu kho ayaṁ antarahito devo vā manusso vā'ti?


Imā kho, Ānanda, aṭṭha parisā.

18. Aṭṭhaabhibhāyatana

43Aṭṭha kho imāni, Ānanda, abhibhāyatanāni.

Katamāni aṭṭha?


Ajjhattaṁ rūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ paṭhamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (1)


Ajjhattaṁ rūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ dutiyaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (2)

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ tatiyaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (3)

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ catutthaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (4)

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati nīlāni nīlavaṇṇāni nīlanidassanāni nīlanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma umāpupphaṁ nīlaṁ nīlavaṇṇaṁ nīlanidassanaṁ nīlanibhāsaṁ. Seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ nīlaṁ nīlavaṇṇaṁ nīlanidassanaṁ nīlanibhāsaṁ. Evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati nīlāni nīlavaṇṇāni nīlanidassanāni nīlanibhāsāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ pañcamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (5)

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati pītāni pītavaṇṇāni pītanidassanāni pītanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma kaṇikārapupphaṁ pītaṁ pītavaṇṇaṁ pītanidassanaṁ pītanibhāsaṁ. Seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ pītaṁ pītavaṇṇaṁ pītanidassanaṁ pītanibhāsaṁ. Evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati pītāni pītavaṇṇāni pītanidassanāni pītanibhāsāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (6)

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati lohitakāni lohitakavaṇṇāni lohitakanidassanāni lohitakanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma bandhujīvakapupphaṁ lohitakaṁ lohitakavaṇṇaṁ lohitakanidassanaṁ lohitakanibhāsaṁ. Seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ lohitakaṁ lohitakavaṇṇaṁ lohitakanidassanaṁ lohitakanibhāsaṁ. Evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati lohitakāni lohitakavaṇṇāni lohitakanidassanāni lohitakanibhāsāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ sattamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (7)

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati odātāni odātavaṇṇāni odātanidassanāni odātanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma osadhitārakā odātā odātavaṇṇā odātanidassanā odātanibhāsā. Seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ odātaṁ odātavaṇṇaṁ odātanidassanaṁ odātanibhāsaṁ. Evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati odātāni odātavaṇṇāni odātanidassanāni odātanibhāsāni. 'Tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ aṭṭhamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (8)


Imāni kho, Ānanda, aṭṭha abhibhāyatanāni.

19. Aṭṭhavimokkha

44Aṭṭha kho ime, Ānanda, vimokkhā. Katame aṭṭha?

Rūpī rūpāni passati, ayaṁ paṭhamo vimokkho. (1)

Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati, ayaṁ dutiyo vimokkho. (2)

Subhanteva adhimutto hoti, ayaṁ tatiyo vimokkho. (3)

Sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā 'ananto ākāso'ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati, ayaṁ catuttho vimokkho. (4)

Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'anantaṁ viññāṇan'ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati, ayaṁ pañcamo vimokkho. (5)

Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'natthi kiñcī'ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati, ayaṁ chaṭṭho vimokkho. (6)

Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati, ayaṁ sattamo vimokkho. (7)

Sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ upasampajja viharati, ayaṁ aṭṭhamo vimokkho. (8)

Ime kho, Ānanda, aṭṭha vimokkhā.

 

45Ekamidāhaṁ, Ānanda, samayaṁ uruvelāyaṁ viharāmi najjā nerañjarāya tīre ajapālanigrodhe paṭhamābhisambuddho. Atha kho, Ānanda, māro pāpimā yenāhaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho, Ānanda, māro pāpimā maṁ etadavoca:


'parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā; parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato'ti. Evaṁ vutte, ahaṁ, Ānanda, māraṁ pāpimantaṁ etadavocaṁ:


'Na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessanti.


Na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessanti.


Na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārino, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessanti.


Na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti viyattā vinītā visāradā bahussutā dhammadharā dhammānudhammappaṭipannā sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacāriniyo, sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ uggahetvā ācikkhissanti desessanti paññapessanti paṭṭhapessanti vivarissanti vibhajissanti uttānīkarissanti, uppannaṁ parappavādaṁ sahadhammena suniggahitaṁ niggahetvā sappāṭihāriyaṁ dhammaṁ desessanti.


Na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me idaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na iddhañceva bhavissati phītañca vitthārikaṁ bāhujaññaṁ puthubhūtaṁ yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitan'ti.


46Idāneva kho, Ānanda, ajja cāpāle cetiye māro pāpimā yenāhaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho, Ānanda, māro pāpimā maṁ etadavoca:

'parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato. Bhāsitā kho panesā, bhante, bhagavatā vācā:


"na tāvāhaṁ, pāpima, parinibbāyissāmi, yāva me bhikkhū na sāvakā bhavissanti … pe … yāva me bhikkhuniyo na sāvikā bhavissanti … pe … yāva me upāsakā na sāvakā bhavissanti … pe … yāva me upāsikā na sāvikā bhavissanti … pe … yāva me idaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na iddhañceva bhavissati phītañca vitthārikaṁ bāhujaññaṁ puthubhūtaṁ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitan"ti.


Etarahi kho pana, bhante, bhagavato brahmacariyaṁ iddhañceva phītañca vitthārikaṁ bāhujaññaṁ puthubhūtaṁ, yāva devamanussehi suppakāsitaṁ.

Parinibbātu dāni, bhante, bhagavā, parinibbātu sugato, parinibbānakālo dāni, bhante, bhagavato'ti.


47Evaṁ vutte, ahaṁ, Ānanda, māraṁ pāpimantaṁ etadavocaṁ: 'appossukko tvaṁ, pāpima, hohi, na ciraṁ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṁ māsānaṁ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī'ti. Idāneva kho, Ānanda, ajja cāpāle cetiye tathāgatena satena sampajānena āyusaṅkhāro ossaṭṭho"ti.

20. Ānandayācanakathā

48Evaṁ vutte, āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan"ti.


"Alaṁ dāni, Ānanda. Mā tathāgataṁ yāci, akālo dāni, Ānanda, tathāgataṁ yācanāyā"ti.


Dutiyampi kho āyasmā ānando … pe … tatiyampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan"ti.


"Saddahasi tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgatassa bodhin"ti? "Evaṁ, bhante". "Atha kiñcarahi tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgataṁ yāvatatiyakaṁ abhinippīḷesī"ti?


"Sammukhā metaṁ, bhante, bhagavato sutaṁ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṁ: 'yassa kassaci, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā. So ākaṅkhamāno, Ānanda, tathāgato kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā'"ti.


"Saddahasi tvaṁ, ānandā"ti? "Evaṁ, bhante".


"Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṁ dukkaṭaṁ, tuyhevetaṁ aparaddhaṁ, yaṁ tvaṁ tathāgatena evaṁ oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ, na tathāgataṁ yāci: 'tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti.

Sace tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgataṁ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṁ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṁ dukkaṭaṁ, tuyhevetaṁ aparaddhaṁ.

 

49Ekamidāhaṁ, Ānanda, samayaṁ rājagahe viharāmi gijjhakūṭe pabbate. Tatrāpi kho tāhaṁ, Ānanda, āmantesiṁ:


'ramaṇīyaṁ, Ānanda, rājagahaṁ, ramaṇīyo, Ānanda, gijjhakūṭo pabbato. Yassa kassaci, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, Ānanda, tathāgato kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā'ti. Evampi kho tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ, na tathāgataṁ yāci: 'tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti. Sace tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgataṁ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṁ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṁ dukkaṭaṁ, tuyhevetaṁ aparaddhaṁ.

50Ekamidāhaṁ, Ānanda, samayaṁ tattheva rājagahe viharāmi gotamanigrodhe … pe … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi corapapāte … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi vebhārapasse sattapaṇṇiguhāyaṁ … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi isigilipasse kāḷasilāyaṁ … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi sītavane sappasoṇḍikapabbhāre … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi tapodārāme … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi veḷuvane kalandakanivāpe … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi jīvakambavane … tattheva rājagahe viharāmi maddakucchismiṁ migadāye.


Yassa kassaci, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā … pe … ākaṅkhamāno, Ānanda, tathāgato kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā'ti.


Evampi kho tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ, na tathāgataṁ yāci:

'tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti.

Sace tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgataṁ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṁ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṁ dukkaṭaṁ, tuyhevetaṁ aparaddhaṁ.

 

51Ekamidāhaṁ, Ānanda, samayaṁ idheva vesāliyaṁ viharāmi udene cetiye. Tatrāpi kho tāhaṁ, Ānanda, āmantesiṁ:


'ramaṇīyā, Ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṁ udenaṁ cetiyaṁ. Yassa kassaci, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, Ānanda, tathāgato kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā'ti. Evampi kho tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ, na tathāgataṁ yāci: 'tiṭṭhatu, bhante, bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti. Sace tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgataṁ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṁ adhivāseyya, tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṁ dukkaṭaṁ, tuyhevetaṁ aparaddhaṁ.

52Ekamidāhaṁ, Ānanda, samayaṁ idheva vesāliyaṁ viharāmi gotamake cetiye … pe … idheva vesāliyaṁ viharāmi sattambe cetiye … idheva vesāliyaṁ viharāmi bahuputte cetiye … idheva vesāliyaṁ viharāmi sārandade cetiye … idāneva kho tāhaṁ, Ānanda, ajja cāpāle cetiye āmantesiṁ: 'ramaṇīyā, Ānanda, vesālī, ramaṇīyaṁ udenaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ gotamakaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ sattambaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ bahuputtaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ sārandadaṁ cetiyaṁ, ramaṇīyaṁ cāpālaṁ cetiyaṁ.


Yassa kassaci, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā. Tathāgatassa kho, Ānanda, cattāro iddhipādā bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, so ākaṅkhamāno, Ānanda, tathāgato kappaṁ vā tiṭṭheyya kappāvasesaṁ vā'ti.

Evampi kho tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgatena oḷārike nimitte kayiramāne oḷārike obhāse kayiramāne nāsakkhi paṭivijjhituṁ, na tathāgataṁ yāci:

'tiṭṭhatu bhagavā kappaṁ, tiṭṭhatu sugato kappaṁ bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti.


Sace tvaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgataṁ yāceyyāsi, dveva te vācā tathāgato paṭikkhipeyya, atha tatiyakaṁ adhivāseyya. Tasmātihānanda, tuyhevetaṁ dukkaṭaṁ, tuyhevetaṁ aparaddhaṁ.

53Nanu etaṁ, Ānanda, mayā paṭikacceva akkhātaṁ: 'sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo. Taṁ kutettha, Ānanda, labbhā, yaṁ taṁ jātaṁ bhūtaṁ saṅkhataṁ palokadhammaṁ, taṁ vata mā palujjīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati'. Yaṁ kho panetaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgatena cattaṁ vantaṁ muttaṁ pahīnaṁ paṭinissaṭṭhaṁ ossaṭṭho āyusaṅkhāro, ekaṁsena vācā bhāsitā:

'na ciraṁ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṁ māsānaṁ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī'ti. Tañca tathāgato jīvitahetu puna paccāvamissatīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

 

āyāmānanda, yena mahāvanaṁ kūṭāgārasālā tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.

Atha kho bhagavā āyasmatā ānandena saddhiṁ yena mahāvanaṁ kūṭāgārasālā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi:

"gaccha tvaṁ, Ānanda, yāvatikā bhikkhū vesāliṁ upanissāya viharanti, te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṁ sannipātehī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā yāvatikā bhikkhū vesāliṁ upanissāya viharanti, te sabbe upaṭṭhānasālāyaṁ sannipātetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "sannipatito, bhante, bhikkhusaṅgho, yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṁ maññatī"ti.

54Atha kho bhagavā yenupaṭṭhānasālā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

"tasmātiha, bhikkhave, ye te mayā dhammā abhiññā desitā, te vo sādhukaṁ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

Katame ca te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā, ye vo sādhukaṁ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.


Seyyathidaṁ—

cattāro satipaṭṭhānā,
cattāro sammappadhānā,
cattāro iddhipādā,
pañcindriyāni,
pañca balāni,
satta bojjhaṅgā,
ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo.

Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā mayā abhiññā desitā, ye vo sādhukaṁ uggahetvā āsevitabbā bhāvetabbā bahulīkātabbā, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan"ti.


55Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi:

"handa dāni, bhikkhave, āmantayāmi vo, vayadhammā saṅkhārā, appamādena sampādetha. Naciraṁ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Ito tiṇṇaṁ māsānaṁ accayena tathāgato parinibbāyissatī"ti. Idamavoca bhagavā.


Idaṁ vatvāna sugato athāparaṁ etadavoca satthā:

"Paripakko vayo mayhaṁ,
parittaṁ mama jīvitaṁ;
Pahāya vo gamissāmi,
kataṁ me saraṇamattano.


Appamattā satīmanto,
susīlā hotha bhikkhavo;
Susamāhitasaṅkappā,
sacittamanurakkhatha.

Yo imasmiṁ dhammavinaye,
appamatto vihassati;
Pahāya jātisaṁsāraṁ,
dukkhassantaṁ karissatī"ti.

Tatiyo bhāṇavāro.

21. Nāgāpalokita

56Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya vesāliṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Vesāliyaṁ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nāgāpalokitaṁ vesāliṁ apaloketvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "Idaṁ pacchimakaṁ, Ānanda, tathāgatassa vesāliyā dassanaṁ bhavissati. āyāmānanda, yena bhaṇḍagāmo tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.


"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.

Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ yena bhaṇḍagāmo tadavasari. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā bhaṇḍagāme viharati.

Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "catunnaṁ, bhikkhave, dhammānaṁ ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.


Katamesaṁ catunnaṁ?

Ariyassa, bhikkhave, sīlassa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Ariyassa, bhikkhave, samādhissa ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Ariyāya, bhikkhave, paññāya ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Ariyāya, bhikkhave, vimuttiyā ananubodhā appaṭivedhā evamidaṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ sandhāvitaṁ saṁsaritaṁ mamañceva tumhākañca.

Tayidaṁ, bhikkhave, ariyaṁ sīlaṁ anubuddhaṁ paṭividdhaṁ, ariyo samādhi anubuddho paṭividdho, ariyā paññā anubuddhā paṭividdhā, ariyā vimutti anubuddhā paṭividdhā, ucchinnā bhavataṇhā, khīṇā bhavanetti, natthi dāni punabbhavo"ti.


Idamavoca bhagavā. Idaṁ vatvāna sugato athāparaṁ etadavoca satthā:

"Sīlaṁ samādhi paññā ca,
vimutti ca anuttarā;
Anubuddhā ime dhammā,
gotamena yasassinā.

Iti buddho abhiññāya,
dhammamakkhāsi bhikkhunaṁ;
Dukkhassantakaro satthā,
cakkhumā parinibbuto"ti.

Tatrāpi sudaṁ bhagavā bhaṇḍagāme viharanto etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti:


"iti sīlaṁ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.

22. Catumahāpadesakathā

57Atha kho bhagavā bhaṇḍagāme yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena hatthigāmo, yena ambagāmo, yena jambugāmo, yena bhoganagaraṁ tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā bhoganagare viharati ānande cetiye.

Tatra kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "cattārome, bhikkhave, mahāpadese desessāmi, taṁ suṇātha, sādhukaṁ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca:


58"Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'sammukhā metaṁ, āvuso, bhagavato sutaṁ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṁ, ayaṁ dhammo ayaṁ vinayo idaṁ satthusāsanan'ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṁ neva abhinanditabbaṁ nappaṭikkositabbaṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṁ uggahetvā sutte osāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni.

Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte osaranti, na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; imassa ca bhikkhuno duggahitan'ti. Iti hetaṁ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva osaranti, vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; imassa ca bhikkhuno suggahitan'ti. Idaṁ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṁ mahāpadesaṁ dhāreyyātha. (1)

Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'amukasmiṁ nāma āvāse saṅgho viharati sathero sapāmokkho. Tassa me saṅghassa sammukhā sutaṁ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṁ, ayaṁ dhammo ayaṁ vinayo idaṁ satthusāsanan'ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṁ neva abhinanditabbaṁ nappaṭikkositabbaṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṁ uggahetvā sutte osāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni.

Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte osaranti, na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; tassa ca saṅghassa duggahitan'ti. Itihetaṁ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva osaranti, vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; tassa ca saṅghassa suggahitan'ti. Idaṁ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṁ mahāpadesaṁ dhāreyyātha. (2)

Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'amukasmiṁ nāma āvāse sambahulā therā bhikkhū viharanti bahussutā āgatāgamā dhammadharā vinayadharā mātikādharā. Tesaṁ me therānaṁ sammukhā sutaṁ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṁ—ayaṁ dhammo ayaṁ vinayo idaṁ satthusāsanan'ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṁ neva abhinanditabbaṁ … pe … na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; tesañca therānaṁ duggahitan'ti. Itihetaṁ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni … pe … vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; tesañca therānaṁ suggahitan'ti. Idaṁ, bhikkhave, tatiyaṁ mahāpadesaṁ dhāreyyātha. (3)

Idha pana, bhikkhave, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'amukasmiṁ nāma āvāse eko thero bhikkhu viharati bahussuto āgatāgamo dhammadharo vinayadharo mātikādharo. Tassa me therassa sammukhā sutaṁ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṁ—ayaṁ dhammo ayaṁ vinayo idaṁ satthusāsanan'ti. Tassa, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno bhāsitaṁ neva abhinanditabbaṁ nappaṭikkositabbaṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā tāni padabyañjanāni sādhukaṁ uggahetvā sutte osāretabbāni, vinaye sandassetabbāni. Tāni ce sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni na ceva sutte osaranti, na ca vinaye sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ na ceva tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; tassa ca therassa duggahitan'ti. Itihetaṁ, bhikkhave, chaḍḍeyyātha.


Tāni ca sutte osāriyamānāni vinaye sandassiyamānāni sutte ceva osaranti, vinaye ca sandissanti, niṭṭhamettha gantabbaṁ: 'addhā idaṁ tassa bhagavato vacanaṁ; tassa ca therassa suggahitan'ti. Idaṁ, bhikkhave, catutthaṁ mahāpadesaṁ dhāreyyātha. (4)


Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro mahāpadese dhāreyyāthā"ti.

Tatrapi sudaṁ bhagavā bhoganagare viharanto ānande cetiye etadeva bahulaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ dhammiṁ kathaṁ karoti:

"iti sīlaṁ, iti samādhi, iti paññā. Sīlaparibhāvito samādhi mahapphalo hoti mahānisaṁso. Samādhiparibhāvitā paññā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṁsā. Paññāparibhāvitaṁ cittaṁ sammadeva āsavehi vimuccati, seyyathidaṁ—kāmāsavā, bhavāsavā, avijjāsavā"ti.

23. Kammāraputtacundavatthu

59Atha kho bhagavā bhoganagare yathābhirantaṁ viharitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena pāvā tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ yena pāvā tadavasari. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā pāvāyaṁ viharati cundassa kammāraputtassa ambavane.

Assosi kho cundo kammāraputto: " bhagavā kira pāvaṁ anuppatto, pāvāyaṁ viharati mayhaṁ ambavane"ti. Atha kho cundo kammāraputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho cundaṁ kammāraputtaṁ bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṁsesi. Atha kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassito samādapito samuttejito sampahaṁsito bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:"adhivāsetu me, bhante, bhagavā svātanāya bhattaṁ saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṁghenā"ti.

Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena. Atha kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavato adhivāsanaṁ viditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkāmi.


Atha kho cundo kammāraputto tassā rattiyā accayena sake nivesane paṇītaṁ khādanīyaṁ bhojanīyaṁ paṭiyādāpetvā pahūtañca sūkaramaddavaṁ bhagavato kālaṁ ārocāpesi: "kālo, bhante, niṭṭhitaṁ bhattan"ti.


Atha kho bhagavā cundaṁ kammāraputtaṁ āmantesi:

"yaṁ te, cunda, sūkaramaddavaṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ, taṁ sobbhe nikhaṇāhi. Nāhaṁ taṁ, cunda, passāmi sadevake loke samārake sabrahmake sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiyā pajāya sadevamanussāya, yassa taṁ paribhuttaṁ sammā pariṇāmaṁ gaccheyya aññatra tathāgatassā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho cundo kammāraputto bhagavato paṭissutvā yaṁ ahosi sūkaramaddavaṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ, taṁ sobbhe nikhaṇitvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi.

Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho cundaṁ kammāraputtaṁ bhagavā dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṁsetvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.


60Atha kho bhagavato cundassa kammāraputtassa bhattaṁ bhuttāvissa kharo ābādho uppajji, lohitapakkhandikā pabāḷhā vedanā vattanti māraṇantikā. Tā sudaṁ bhagavā sato sampajāno adhivāsesi avihaññamāno. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena kusinārā tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.

Cundassa bhattaṁ bhuñjitvā,
kammārassāti me sutaṁ;
Ābādhaṁ samphusī dhīro,
pabāḷhaṁ māraṇantikaṁ.

Bhuttassa ca sūkaramaddavena,
Byādhippabāḷho udapādi satthuno;
Virecamāno bhagavā avoca,
"Gacchāmahaṁ kusināraṁ nagaran"ti.

24. Pānīyāharaṇa

61Atha kho bhagavā maggā okkamma yena aññataraṁ rukkhamūlaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "ingha me tvaṁ, Ānanda, catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ paññapehi, kilantosmi, Ānanda, nisīdissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ paññapesi. Nisīdi bhagavā paññatte āsane. Nisajja kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "ingha me tvaṁ, Ānanda, pānīyaṁ āhara, pipāsitosmi, Ānanda, pivissāmī"ti.

Evaṁ vutte, āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "idāni, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni atikkantāni, taṁ cakkacchinnaṁ udakaṁ parittaṁ luḷitaṁ āvilaṁ sandati. Ayaṁ, bhante, kakudhā nadī avidūre acchodakā sātodakā sītodakā setodakā suppatitthā ramaṇīyā. Ettha bhagavā pānīyañca pivissati, gattāni ca sītī karissatī"ti.

Dutiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "ingha me tvaṁ, Ānanda, pānīyaṁ āhara, pipāsitosmi, Ānanda, pivissāmī"ti.

Dutiyampi kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "idāni, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni atikkantāni, taṁ cakkacchinnaṁ udakaṁ parittaṁ luḷitaṁ āvilaṁ sandati. Ayaṁ, bhante, kakudhā nadī avidūre acchodakā sātodakā sītodakā setodakā suppatitthā ramaṇīyā. Ettha bhagavā pānīyañca pivissati, gattāni ca sītīkarissatī"ti.

Tatiyampi kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "ingha me tvaṁ, Ānanda, pānīyaṁ āhara, pipāsitosmi, Ānanda, pivissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā pattaṁ gahetvā yena sā nadikā tenupasaṅkami. Atha kho sā nadikā cakkacchinnā parittā luḷitā āvilā sandamānā, āyasmante ānande upasaṅkamante acchā vippasannā anāvilā sandittha.

Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi: "acchariyaṁ vata bho, abbhutaṁ vata bho, tathāgatassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā. Ayañhi sā nadikā cakkacchinnā parittā luḷitā āvilā sandamānā mayi upasaṅkamante acchā vippasannā anāvilā sandatī"ti.

Pattena pānīyaṁ ādāya yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "acchariyaṁ, bhante, abbhutaṁ, bhante, tathāgatassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā. Idāni sā bhante nadikā cakkacchinnā parittā luḷitā āvilā sandamānā mayi upasaṅkamante acchā vippasannā anāvilā sandittha. Pivatu bhagavā pānīyaṁ pivatu sugato pānīyan"ti. Atha kho bhagavā pānīyaṁ apāyi.

25. Pukkusamallaputtavatthu

62Tena kho pana samayena pukkuso mallaputto āḷārassa kālāmassa sāvako kusinārāya pāvaṁ addhānamaggappaṭipanno hoti. Addasā kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavantaṁ aññatarasmiṁ rukkhamūle nisinnaṁ. Disvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "acchariyaṁ, bhante, abbhutaṁ, bhante, santena vata, bhante, pabbajitā vihārena viharanti.

Bhūtapubbaṁ, bhante, āḷāro kālāmo addhānamaggappaṭipanno maggā okkamma avidūre aññatarasmiṁ rukkhamūle divāvihāraṁ nisīdi. Atha kho, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni āḷāraṁ kālāmaṁ nissāya nissāya atikkamiṁsu. Atha kho, bhante, aññataro puriso tassa sakaṭasatthassa piṭṭhito piṭṭhito āgacchanto yena āḷāro kālāmo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āḷāraṁ kālāmaṁ etadavoca:

'api, bhante, pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni atikkantāni addasā'ti?

'Na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, addasan'ti.

'Kiṁ pana, bhante, saddaṁ assosī'ti?

'Na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, saddaṁ assosin'ti.

'Kiṁ pana, bhante, sutto ahosī'ti?

'Na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, sutto ahosin'ti.

'Kiṁ pana, bhante, saññī ahosī'ti?

'Evamāvuso'ti.

'So tvaṁ, bhante, saññī samāno jāgaro pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni nissāya nissāya atikkantāni neva addasa, na pana saddaṁ assosi; apisu te, bhante, saṅghāṭi rajena okiṇṇā'ti?

'Evamāvuso'ti.


Atha kho, bhante, tassa purisassa etadahosi: 'acchariyaṁ vata bho, abbhutaṁ vata bho, santena vata bho pabbajitā vihārena viharanti. Yatra hi nāma saññī samāno jāgaro pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni nissāya nissāya atikkantāni neva dakkhati, na pana saddaṁ sossatī'ti. Āḷāre kālāme uḷāraṁ pasādaṁ pavedetvā pakkāmī"ti.

63"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, pukkusa, katamaṁ nu kho dukkarataraṁ vā durabhisambhavataraṁ vā—yo vā saññī samāno jāgaro pañcamattāni sakaṭasatāni nissāya nissāya atikkantāni neva passeyya, na pana saddaṁ suṇeyya; yo vā saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva passeyya, na pana saddaṁ suṇeyyā"ti?


"Kiñhi, bhante, karissanti pañca vā sakaṭasatāni cha vā sakaṭasatāni satta vā sakaṭasatāni aṭṭha vā sakaṭasatāni nava vā sakaṭasatāni, sakaṭasahassaṁ vā sakaṭasatasahassaṁ vā. Atha kho etadeva dukkaratarañceva durabhisambhavatarañca yo saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva passeyya, na pana saddaṁ suṇeyyā"ti.


"Ekamidāhaṁ, pukkusa, samayaṁ ātumāyaṁ viharāmi bhusāgāre. Tena kho pana samayena deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā avidūre bhusāgārassa dve kassakā bhātaro hatā cattāro ca balibaddā. Atha kho, pukkusa, ātumāya mahājanakāyo nikkhamitvā yena te dve kassakā bhātaro hatā cattāro ca balibaddā tenupasaṅkami.

'kiṁ nu kho eso, āvuso, mahājanakāyo sannipatito'ti? 'Idāni, bhante, deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā dve kassakā bhātaro hatā cattāro ca balibaddā. Ettheso mahājanakāyo sannipatito. Tvaṁ pana, bhante, kva ahosī'ti? 'Idheva kho ahaṁ, āvuso, ahosin'ti. 'Kiṁ pana, bhante, addasā'ti? 'Na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, addasan'ti. 'Kiṁ pana, bhante, saddaṁ assosī'ti? 'Na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, saddaṁ assosin'ti. 'Kiṁ pana, bhante, sutto ahosī'ti? 'Na kho ahaṁ, āvuso, sutto ahosin'ti. 'Kiṁ pana, bhante, saññī ahosī'ti? 'Evamāvuso'ti. 'So tvaṁ, bhante, saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva addasa, na pana saddaṁ assosī'ti? 'Evamāvuso'ti?


64Atha kho, pukkusa, tassa purisassa etadahosi: 'acchariyaṁ vata bho, abbhutaṁ vata bho, santena vata bho pabbajitā vihārena viharanti. Yatra hi nāma saññī samāno jāgaro deve vassante deve gaḷagaḷāyante vijjullatāsu niccharantīsu asaniyā phalantiyā neva dakkhati, na pana saddaṁ sossatī'ti. Mayi uḷāraṁ pasādaṁ pavedetvā maṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkāmī"ti.


Evaṁ vutte, pukkuso mallaputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "esāhaṁ, bhante, yo me āḷāre kālāme pasādo taṁ mahāvāte vā ophuṇāmi sīghasotāya vā nadiyā pavāhemi.


Abhikkantaṁ, bhante, abhikkantaṁ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: 'cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī'ti; evamevaṁ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṁghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gatan"ti.


Atha kho pukkuso mallaputto aññataraṁ purisaṁ āmantesi: "ingha me tvaṁ, bhaṇe, siṅgīvaṇṇaṁ yugamaṭṭhaṁ dhāraṇīyaṁ āharā"ti.


"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho so puriso pukkusassa mallaputtassa paṭissutvā taṁ siṅgīvaṇṇaṁ yugamaṭṭhaṁ dhāraṇīyaṁ āhari. Atha kho pukkuso mallaputto taṁ siṅgīvaṇṇaṁ yugamaṭṭhaṁ dhāraṇīyaṁ bhagavato upanāmesi: "Idaṁ, bhante, siṅgīvaṇṇaṁ yugamaṭṭhaṁ dhāraṇīyaṁ, taṁ me bhagavā paṭiggaṇhātu anukampaṁ upādāyā"ti.

"Tena hi, pukkusa, ekena maṁ acchādehi, ekena ānandan"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavato paṭissutvā ekena bhagavantaṁ acchādeti, ekena āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ. Atha kho bhagavā pukkusaṁ mallaputtaṁ dhammiyā kathāya sandassesi samādapesi samuttejesi sampahaṁsesi. Atha kho pukkuso mallaputto bhagavatā dhammiyā kathāya sandassito samādapito samuttejito sampahaṁsito uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkāmi.


65Atha kho āyasmā Ānando acirapakkante pukkuse mallaputte taṁ siṅgīvaṇṇaṁ yugamaṭṭhaṁ dhāraṇīyaṁ bhagavato kāyaṁ upanāmesi. Taṁ bhagavato kāyaṁ upanāmitaṁ hataccikaṁ viya khāyati.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "acchariyaṁ, bhante, abbhutaṁ, bhante, yāva parisuddho, bhante, tathāgatassa chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. Idaṁ, bhante, siṅgīvaṇṇaṁ yugamaṭṭhaṁ dhāraṇīyaṁ bhagavato kāyaṁ upanāmitaṁ hataccikaṁ viya khāyatī"ti.

"Evametaṁ, Ānanda, evametaṁ, Ānanda, dvīsu kālesu ativiya tathāgatassa kāyo parisuddho hoti chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto.


Katamesu dvīsu?

Yañca, Ānanda, rattiṁ tathāgato anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambujjhati, yañca rattiṁ anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati. Imesu kho, Ānanda, dvīsu kālesu ativiya tathāgatassa kāyo parisuddho hoti chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto. Ajja kho panānanda, rattiyā pacchime yāme kusinārāyaṁ upavattane mallānaṁ sālavane antarena yamakasālānaṁ tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati.

Āyāmānanda, yena kakudhā nadī tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.


Singīvaṇṇaṁ yugamaṭṭhaṁ,
pukkuso abhihārayi;
Tena acchādito satthā,
hemavaṇṇo asobhathāti.

 

66Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ yena kakudhā nadī tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā kakudhaṁ nadiṁ ajjhogāhetvā nhatvā ca pivitvā ca paccuttaritvā yena ambavanaṁ tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ cundakaṁ āmantesi: "ingha me tvaṁ, cundaka, catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ paññapehi, kilantosmi, cundaka, nipajjissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā cundako bhagavato paṭissutvā catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ paññapesi. Atha kho bhagavā dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṁ kappesi pāde pādaṁ accādhāya sato sampajāno uṭṭhānasaññaṁ manasikaritvā. Āyasmā pana cundako tattheva bhagavato purato nisīdi.

Gantvāna buddho nadikaṁ kakudhaṁ,
Acchodakaṁ sātudakaṁ vippasannaṁ;
Ogāhi satthā akilantarūpo,
Tathāgato appaṭimo ca loke.

Nhatvā ca pivitvā cudatāri satthā,
Purakkhato bhikkhugaṇassa majjhe;
Vattā pavattā bhagavā idha dhamme,
Upāgami ambavanaṁ mahesi.

Āmantayi cundakaṁ nāma bhikkhuṁ,
Catugguṇaṁ santhara me nipajjaṁ;
So codito bhāvitattena cundo,
Catugguṇaṁ santhari khippameva;
Nipajji satthā akilantarūpo,
Cundopi tattha pamukhe nisīdīti.

67Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "siyā kho panānanda, cundassa kammāraputtassa koci vippaṭisāraṁ uppādeyya: 'tassa te, āvuso cunda, alābhā tassa te dulladdhaṁ, yassa te tathāgato pacchimaṁ piṇḍapātaṁ paribhuñjitvā parinibbuto'ti.

Cundassa, Ānanda, kammāraputtassa evaṁ vippaṭisāro paṭivinetabbo: 'tassa te, āvuso cunda, lābhā tassa te suladdhaṁ, yassa te tathāgato pacchimaṁ piṇḍapātaṁ paribhuñjitvā parinibbuto. Sammukhā metaṁ, āvuso cunda, bhagavato sutaṁ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṁ – dveme piṇḍapātā samasamaphalā samavipākā, ativiya aññehi piṇḍapātehi mahapphalatarā ca mahānisaṁsatarā ca.


Katame dve?

Yañca piṇḍapātaṁ paribhuñjitvā tathāgato anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambujjhati, yañca piṇḍapātaṁ paribhuñjitvā tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbāyati. Ime dve piṇḍapātā samasamaphalā samavipākā, ativiya aññehi piṇḍapātehi mahapphalatarā ca mahānisaṁsatarā ca.

Āyusaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitaṁ, vaṇṇasaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitaṁ, sukhasaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitaṁ, yasasaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitaṁ, saggasaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitaṁ, ādhipateyyasaṁvattanikaṁ āyasmatā cundena kammāraputtena kammaṁ upacitan'ti. Cundassa, Ānanda, kammāraputtassa evaṁ vippaṭisāro paṭivinetabbo"ti.


Atha kho bhagavā etamatthaṁ viditvā tāyaṁ velāyaṁ imaṁ udānaṁ udānesi:

"Dadato puññaṁ pavaḍḍhati,
Saṁyamato veraṁ na cīyati;
Kusalo ca jahāti pāpakaṁ,
Rāgadosamohakkhayā sanibbuto"ti.

Catuttho bhāṇavāro.

26. Yamakasālā

68Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ Ānandaṁ āmantesi: "āyāmānanda, yena hiraññavatiyā nadiyā pārimaṁ tīraṁ, yena kusinārā upavattanaṁ mallānaṁ sālavanaṁ tenupasaṅkamissāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi. Atha kho bhagavā mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ yena hiraññavatiyā nadiyā pārimaṁ tīraṁ, yena kusinārā upavattanaṁ mallānaṁ sālavanaṁ tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "ingha me tvaṁ, Ānanda, antarena yamakasālānaṁ uttarasīsakaṁ mañcakaṁ paññapehi, kilantosmi, Ānanda, nipajjissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā antarena yamakasālānaṁ uttarasīsakaṁ mañcakaṁ paññapesi. Atha kho bhagavā dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṁ kappesi pāde pādaṁ accādhāya sato sampajāno.

Tena kho pana samayena yamakasālā sabbaphāliphullā honti akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa sarīraṁ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṁ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṁ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya.

69Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "sabbaphāliphullā kho, Ānanda, yamakasālā akālapupphehi. Te tathāgatassa sarīraṁ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi mandāravapupphāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṁ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi candanacuṇṇāni antalikkhā papatanti, tāni tathāgatassa sarīraṁ okiranti ajjhokiranti abhippakiranti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi tūriyāni antalikkhe vajjanti tathāgatassa pūjāya. Dibbānipi saṅgītāni antalikkhe vattanti tathāgatassa pūjāya.

Na kho, Ānanda, ettāvatā tathāgato sakkato vā hoti garukato vā mānito vā pūjito vā apacito vā. Yo kho, Ānanda, bhikkhu vā bhikkhunī vā upāsako vā upāsikā vā dhammānudhammappaṭipanno viharati sāmīcippaṭipanno anudhammacārī, so tathāgataṁ sakkaroti garuṁ karoti māneti pūjeti apaciyati, paramāya pūjāya. Tasmātihānanda, dhammānudhammappaṭipannā viharissāma sāmīcippaṭipannā anudhammacārinoti. Evañhi vo, Ānanda, sikkhitabban"ti.

27. Upavāṇatthera

70Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā upavāṇo bhagavato purato ṭhito hoti bhagavantaṁ bījayamāno. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ upavāṇaṁ apasāresi: "apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī"ti.

Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi: "Ayaṁ kho āyasmā upavāṇo dīgharattaṁ bhagavato upaṭṭhāko santikāvacaro samīpacārī. Atha ca pana bhagavā pacchime kāle āyasmantaṁ upavāṇaṁ apasāreti: 'apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī'ti. Ko nu kho hetu, ko paccayo, yaṁ bhagavā āyasmantaṁ upavāṇaṁ apasāreti: 'apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī'"ti?

Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, bhante, āyasmā upavāṇo dīgharattaṁ bhagavato upaṭṭhāko santikāvacaro samīpacārī. Atha ca pana bhagavā pacchime kāle āyasmantaṁ upavāṇaṁ apasāreti: 'apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī'ti. Ko nu kho, bhante, hetu, ko paccayo, yaṁ bhagavā āyasmantaṁ upavāṇaṁ apasāreti: 'apehi, bhikkhu, mā me purato aṭṭhāsī'"ti?

"Yebhuyyena, Ānanda, dasasu lokadhātūsu devatā sannipatitā tathāgataṁ dassanāya. Yāvatā, Ānanda, kusinārā upavattanaṁ mallānaṁ sālavanaṁ samantato dvādasa yojanāni, natthi so padeso vālaggakoṭinittudanamattopi mahesakkhāhi devatāhi apphuṭo. Devatā, Ānanda, ujjhāyanti: 'dūrā ca vatamha āgatā tathāgataṁ dassanāya. Kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Ayañca mahesakkho bhikkhu bhagavato purato ṭhito ovārento, na mayaṁ labhāma pacchime kāle tathāgataṁ dassanāyā'"ti.


71"Kathaṁbhūtā pana, bhante, bhagavā devatā manasikarotī"ti?

"Santānanda, devatā ākāse pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti: 'atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antaradhāyissatī'ti.

Santānanda, devatā pathaviyaṁ pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti: 'atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antaradhāyissatī'ti.

Yā pana tā devatā vītarāgā, tā satā sampajānā adhivāsenti: 'aniccā saṅkhārā, taṁ kutettha labbhā'"ti.

28. Catusaṁvejanīyaṭhāna

72"Pubbe, bhante, disāsu vassaṁvuṭṭhā bhikkhū āgacchanti tathāgataṁ dassanāya. Te mayaṁ labhāma manobhāvanīye bhikkhū dassanāya, labhāma payirupāsanāya. Bhagavato pana mayaṁ, bhante, accayena na labhissāma manobhāvanīye bhikkhū dassanāya, na labhissāma payirupāsanāyā"ti.


"Cattārimāni, Ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyāni saṁvejanīyāni ṭhānāni. Katamāni cattāri?


'Idha tathāgato jāto'ti, Ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.


'Idha tathāgato anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho'ti, Ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.


'Idha tathāgatena anuttaraṁ dhammacakkaṁ pavattitan'ti, Ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.


'Idha tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto'ti, Ānanda, saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyaṁ saṁvejanīyaṁ ṭhānaṁ.


Imāni kho, Ānanda, cattāri saddhassa kulaputtassa dassanīyāni saṁvejanīyāni ṭhānāni.


Āgamissanti kho, Ānanda, saddhā bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo: 'idha tathāgato jāto'tipi, 'idha tathāgato anuttaraṁ sammāsambodhiṁ abhisambuddho'tipi, 'idha tathāgatena anuttaraṁ dhammacakkaṁ pavattitan'tipi, 'idha tathāgato anupādisesāya nibbānadhātuyā parinibbuto'tipi. Ye hi keci, Ānanda, cetiyacārikaṁ āhiṇḍantā pasannacittā kālaṁ karissanti, sabbe te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjissantī"ti.

29. Ānandapucchākathā

73"Kathaṁ mayaṁ, bhante, mātugāme paṭipajjāmā"ti?

"Adassanaṁ, ānandā"ti.

"Dassane, bhagavā, sati kathaṁ paṭipajjitabban"ti?

"Anālāpo, ānandā"ti.

"Ālapantena pana, bhante, kathaṁ paṭipajjitabban"ti?

"Sati, Ānanda, upaṭṭhāpetabbā"ti.

74"Kathaṁ mayaṁ, bhante, tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjāmā"ti?

"Abyāvaṭā tumhe, Ānanda, hotha tathāgatassa sarīrapūjāya. Ingha tumhe, Ānanda, sāratthe ghaṭatha anuyuñjatha, sāratthe appamattā ātāpino pahitattā viharatha. Santānanda, khattiyapaṇḍitāpi brāhmaṇapaṇḍitāpi gahapatipaṇḍitāpi tathāgate abhippasannā, te tathāgatassa sarīrapūjaṁ karissantī"ti.


75"Kathaṁ pana, bhante, tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabban"ti?

"Yathā kho, Ānanda, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti, evaṁ tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabban"ti.

"Kathaṁ pana, bhante, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjantī"ti?

"Rañño, Ānanda, cakkavattissa sarīraṁ ahatena vatthena veṭhenti, ahatena vatthena veṭhetvā vihatena kappāsena veṭhenti, vihatena kappāsena veṭhetvā ahatena vatthena veṭhenti. Etenupāyena pañcahi yugasatehi rañño cakkavattissa sarīraṁ veṭhetvā āyasāya teladoṇiyā pakkhipitvā aññissā āyasāya doṇiyā paṭikujjitvā sabbagandhānaṁ citakaṁ karitvā rañño cakkavattissa sarīraṁ jhāpenti. Cātumahāpathe rañño cakkavattissa thūpaṁ karonti. Evaṁ kho, Ānanda, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti.

Yathā kho, Ānanda, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti, evaṁ tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabbaṁ. Cātumahāpathe tathāgatassa thūpo kātabbo. Tattha ye mālaṁ vā gandhaṁ vā cuṇṇakaṁ vā āropessanti vā abhivādessanti vā cittaṁ vā pasādessanti tesaṁ taṁ bhavissati dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya.

30. Thūpārahapuggala

76Cattārome, Ānanda, thūpārahā. Katame cattāro?

  • Tathāgato arahaṁ sammāsambuddho thūpāraho,
  • paccekasambuddho thūpāraho,
  • tathāgatassa sāvako thūpāraho,
  • rājā cakkavattī thūpārahoti.

Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca tathāgato arahaṁ sammāsambuddho thūpāraho? 'Ayaṁ tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa thūpo'ti, Ānanda, bahujanā cittaṁ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti. Idaṁ kho, Ānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca tathāgato arahaṁ sammāsambuddho thūpāraho.

Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca paccekasambuddho thūpāraho? 'Ayaṁ tassa bhagavato paccekasambuddhassa thūpo'ti, Ānanda, bahujanā cittaṁ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti. Idaṁ kho, Ānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca paccekasambuddho thūpāraho.

Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca tathāgatassa sāvako thūpāraho? 'Ayaṁ tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa sāvakassa thūpo'ti, Ānanda, bahujanā cittaṁ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti. Idaṁ kho, Ānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca tathāgatassa sāvako thūpāraho.

Kiñcānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca rājā cakkavattī thūpāraho? 'Ayaṁ tassa dhammikassa dhammarañño thūpo'ti, Ānanda, bahujanā cittaṁ pasādenti. Te tattha cittaṁ pasādetvā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti. Idaṁ kho, Ānanda, atthavasaṁ paṭicca rājā cakkavattī thūpāraho. Ime kho, Ānanda, cattāro thūpārahā"ti.

31. Ānandaacchariyadhamma

77Atha kho āyasmā ānando vihāraṁ pavisitvā kapisīsaṁ ālambitvā rodamāno aṭṭhāsi: "ahañca vatamhi sekho sakaraṇīyo, satthu ca me parinibbānaṁ bhavissati, yo mama anukampako"ti.

Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "kahaṁ nu kho, bhikkhave, ānando"ti?

"Eso, bhante, āyasmā ānando vihāraṁ pavisitvā kapisīsaṁ ālambitvā rodamāno ṭhito: 'ahañca vatamhi sekho sakaraṇīyo, satthu ca me parinibbānaṁ bhavissati, yo mama anukampako'"ti.

Atha kho bhagavā aññataraṁ bhikkhuṁ āmantesi: "ehi tvaṁ, bhikkhu, mama vacanena ānandaṁ āmantehi: 'satthā taṁ, āvuso Ānanda, āmantetī'"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho so bhikkhu bhagavato paṭissutvā yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca:

"satthā taṁ, āvuso Ānanda, āmantetī"ti. "Evamāvuso"ti kho āyasmā ānando tassa bhikkhuno paṭissutvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ bhagavā etadavoca:

"Alaṁ, Ānanda, mā soci mā paridevi, nanu etaṁ, Ānanda, mayā paṭikacceva akkhātaṁ: 'sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo'; taṁ kutettha, Ānanda, labbhā. Yaṁ taṁ jātaṁ bhūtaṁ saṅkhataṁ palokadhammaṁ, 'taṁ vata tathāgatassāpi sarīraṁ mā palujjī'ti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

Dīgharattaṁ kho te, Ānanda, tathāgato paccupaṭṭhito mettena kāyakammena hitena sukhena advayena appamāṇena, mettena vacīkammena hitena sukhena advayena appamāṇena, mettena manokammena hitena sukhena advayena appamāṇena. Katapuññosi tvaṁ, Ānanda, padhānamanuyuñja, khippaṁ hohisi anāsavo"ti.

78Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "yepi te, bhikkhave, ahesuṁ atītamaddhānaṁ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, tesampi bhagavantānaṁ etapparamāyeva upaṭṭhākā ahesuṁ, seyyathāpi mayhaṁ ānando. Yepi te, bhikkhave, bhavissanti anāgatamaddhānaṁ arahanto sammāsambuddhā, tesampi bhagavantānaṁ etapparamāyeva upaṭṭhākā bhavissanti, seyyathāpi mayhaṁ ānando.

Paṇḍito, bhikkhave, ānando; medhāvī, bhikkhave, ānando. Jānāti 'ayaṁ kālo tathāgataṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṁ bhikkhūnaṁ, ayaṁ kālo bhikkhunīnaṁ, ayaṁ kālo upāsakānaṁ, ayaṁ kālo upāsikānaṁ, ayaṁ kālo rañño rājamahāmattānaṁ titthiyānaṁ titthiyasāvakānan'ti.


79Cattārome, bhikkhave, acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ānande. Katame cattāro?

Sace, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā ānandaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṁ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti.

Sace, bhikkhave, bhikkhunīparisā ānandaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṁ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhunīparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti.

Sace, bhikkhave, upāsakaparisā ānandaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṁ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, upāsakaparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti.

Sace, bhikkhave, upāsikāparisā ānandaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṁ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, upāsikāparisā hoti, atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti.

Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ānande.


Cattārome, bhikkhave, acchariyā abbhutā dhammā raññe cakkavattimhi. Katame cattāro?

Sace, bhikkhave, khattiyaparisā rājānaṁ cakkavattiṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce rājā cakkavattī bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, khattiyaparisā hoti. Atha kho rājā cakkavattī tuṇhī hoti.

Sace bhikkhave, brāhmaṇaparisā … pe … gahapatiparisā … pe … samaṇaparisā rājānaṁ cakkavattiṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce rājā cakkavattī bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, samaṇaparisā hoti. Atha kho rājā cakkavattī tuṇhī hoti. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, cattārome acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ānande. Sace, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā ānandaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṁ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, bhikkhuparisā hoti. Atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti.

Sace, bhikkhave bhikkhunīparisā … pe … upāsakaparisā … pe … upāsikāparisā ānandaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamati, dassanena sā attamanā hoti. Tatra ce ānando dhammaṁ bhāsati, bhāsitenapi sā attamanā hoti. Atittāva, bhikkhave, upāsikāparisā hoti. Atha kho ānando tuṇhī hoti.

Ime kho, bhikkhave, cattāro acchariyā abbhutā dhammā ānande"ti.

32. Mahāsudassanasuttadesanā

80Evaṁ vutte, āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: " mā, bhante, bhagavā imasmiṁ khuddakanagarake ujjaṅgalanagarake sākhānagarake parinibbāyi. Santi, bhante, aññāni mahānagarāni, seyyathidaṁ—campā rājagahaṁ sāvatthī sāketaṁ kosambī bārāṇasī; ettha bhagavā parinibbāyatu. Ettha bahū khattiyamahāsālā, brāhmaṇamahāsālā gahapatimahāsālā tathāgate abhippasannā. Te tathāgatassa sarīrapūjaṁ karissantī"ti "mā hevaṁ, Ānanda, avaca; mā hevaṁ, Ānanda, avaca: 'khuddakanagarakaṁ ujjaṅgalanagarakaṁ sākhānagarakan'ti.

Bhūtapubbaṁ, Ānanda, rājā mahāsudassano nāma ahosi cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato.


Rañño, Ānanda, mahāsudassanassa ayaṁ kusinārā kusāvatī nāma rājadhānī ahosi, puratthimena ca pacchimena ca dvādasayojanāni āyāmena; uttarena ca dakkhiṇena ca sattayojanāni vitthārena. Kusāvatī, Ānanda, rājadhānī iddhā ceva ahosi phītā ca bahujanā ca ākiṇṇamanussā ca subhikkhā ca. Seyyathāpi, Ānanda, devānaṁ āḷakamandā nāma rājadhānī iddhā ceva hoti phītā ca bahujanā ca ākiṇṇayakkhā ca subhikkhā ca; evameva kho, Ānanda, kusāvatī rājadhānī iddhā ceva ahosi phītā ca bahujanā ca ākiṇṇamanussā ca subhikkhā ca. Kusāvatī, Ānanda, rājadhānī dasahi saddehi avivittā ahosi divā ceva rattiñca, seyyathidaṁ—hatthisaddena assasaddena rathasaddena bherisaddena mudiṅgasaddena vīṇāsaddena gītasaddena saṅkhasaddena sammasaddena pāṇitāḷasaddena 'asnātha pivatha khādathā'ti dasamena saddena.

Gaccha tvaṁ, Ānanda, kusināraṁ pavisitvā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ ārocehi: 'ajja kho, vāseṭṭhā, rattiyā pacchime yāme tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Abhikkamatha, vāseṭṭhā, abhikkamatha, vāseṭṭhā. Mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha—amhākañca no gāmakkhette tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ ahosi, na mayaṁ labhimhā pacchime kāle tathāgataṁ dassanāyā'"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paṭissutvā nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya attadutiyo kusināraṁ pāvisi.

33. Mallānaṁvandanā

81Tena kho pana samayena kosinārakā mallā sandhāgāre sannipatitā honti kenacideva karaṇīyena. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ sandhāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ ārocesi: "ajja kho, vāseṭṭhā, rattiyā pacchime yāme tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Abhikkamatha, vāseṭṭhā, abhikkamatha, vāseṭṭhā. Mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha: 'amhākañca no gāmakkhette tathāgatassa parinibbānaṁ ahosi, na mayaṁ labhimhā pacchime kāle tathāgataṁ dassanāyā'"ti.

Idamāyasmato ānandassa vacanaṁ sutvā mallā ca mallaputtā ca mallasuṇisā ca mallapajāpatiyo ca aghāvino dummanā cetodukkhasamappitā appekacce kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti vivaṭṭanti: "atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbāyissati, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antaradhāyissatī"ti. Atha kho mallā ca mallaputtā ca mallasuṇisā ca mallapajāpatiyo ca aghāvino dummanā cetodukkhasamappitā yena upavattanaṁ mallānaṁ sālavanaṁ yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkamiṁsu.


Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi: "Sace kho ahaṁ kosinārake malle ekamekaṁ bhagavantaṁ vandāpessāmi, avandito bhagavā kosinārakehi mallehi bhavissati, athāyaṁ ratti vibhāyissati. Yannūnāhaṁ kosinārake malle kulaparivattaso kulaparivattaso ṭhapetvā bhagavantaṁ vandāpeyyaṁ: 'itthannāmo, bhante, mallo saputto sabhariyo sapariso sāmacco bhagavato pāde sirasā vandatī'"ti.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando kosinārake malle kulaparivattaso kulaparivattaso ṭhapetvā bhagavantaṁ vandāpesi: "itthannāmo, bhante, mallo saputto sabhariyo sapariso sāmacco bhagavato pāde sirasā vandatī"ti.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando etena upāyena paṭhameneva yāmena kosinārake malle bhagavantaṁ vandāpesi.

34. Subhaddaparibbājakavatthu

82Tena kho pana samayena subhaddo nāma paribbājako kusinārāyaṁ paṭivasati. Assosi kho subhaddo paribbājako: "ajja kira rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissatī"ti.

Atha kho subhaddassa paribbājakassa etadahosi: "sutaṁ kho pana metaṁ paribbājakānaṁ vuḍḍhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ: 'kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā'ti. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Atthi ca me ayaṁ kaṅkhādhammo uppanno, evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ samaṇe gotame, 'pahoti me samaṇo gotamo tathā dhammaṁ desetuṁ, yathāhaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyan'"ti.

Atha kho subhaddo paribbājako yena upavattanaṁ mallānaṁ sālavanaṁ, yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "sutaṁ metaṁ, bho Ānanda, paribbājakānaṁ vuḍḍhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ: 'kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā'ti. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Atthi ca me ayaṁ kaṅkhādhammo uppanno—evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ samaṇe gotame 'pahoti me samaṇo gotamo tathā dhammaṁ desetuṁ, yathāhaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyan'ti. Sādhāhaṁ, bho Ānanda, labheyyaṁ samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ dassanāyā"ti.


Evaṁ vutte, āyasmā ānando subhaddaṁ paribbājakaṁ etadavoca: "Alaṁ, āvuso subhadda, mā tathāgataṁ viheṭhesi, kilanto bhagavā"ti.

Dutiyampi kho subhaddo paribbājako … pe … tatiyampi kho subhaddo paribbājako āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "sutaṁ metaṁ, bho Ānanda, paribbājakānaṁ vuḍḍhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ: 'kadāci karahaci tathāgatā loke uppajjanti arahanto sammāsambuddhā'ti. Ajjeva rattiyā pacchime yāme samaṇassa gotamassa parinibbānaṁ bhavissati. Atthi ca me ayaṁ kaṅkhādhammo uppanno—evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ samaṇe gotame, 'pahoti me samaṇo gotamo tathā dhammaṁ desetuṁ, yathāhaṁ imaṁ kaṅkhādhammaṁ pajaheyyan'ti. Sādhāhaṁ, bho Ānanda, labheyyaṁ samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ dassanāyā"ti.

Tatiyampi kho āyasmā ānando subhaddaṁ paribbājakaṁ etadavoca: "Alaṁ, āvuso subhadda, mā tathāgataṁ viheṭhesi, kilanto bhagavā"ti.

83Assosi kho bhagavā āyasmato ānandassa subhaddena paribbājakena saddhiṁ imaṁ kathāsallāpaṁ. Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "Alaṁ, Ānanda, mā subhaddaṁ vāresi, labhataṁ, Ānanda, subhaddo tathāgataṁ dassanāya. Yaṁ kiñci maṁ subhaddo pucchissati, sabbaṁ taṁ aññāpekkhova pucchissati, no vihesāpekkho. Yañcassāhaṁ puṭṭho byākarissāmi, taṁ khippameva ājānissatī"ti.


Atha kho āyasmā ānando subhaddaṁ paribbājakaṁ etadavoca: "gacchāvuso subhadda, karoti te bhagavā okāsan"ti.

Atha kho subhaddo paribbājako yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodi, sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi.

Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho subhaddo paribbājako bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "yeme, bho gotama, samaṇabrāhmaṇā saṅghino gaṇino gaṇācariyā ñātā yasassino titthakarā sādhusammatā bahujanassa, seyyathidaṁ— pūraṇo kassapo, makkhali gosālo, ajito kesakambalo, pakudho kaccāyano, sañcayo belaṭṭhaputto, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto, sabbete sakāya paṭiññāya abbhaññiṁsu, sabbeva na abbhaññiṁsu, udāhu ekacce abbhaññiṁsu, ekacce na abbhaññiṁsū"ti?

"Alaṁ, subhadda, tiṭṭhatetaṁ: 'sabbete sakāya paṭiññāya abbhaññiṁsu, sabbeva na abbhaññiṁsu, udāhu ekacce abbhaññiṁsu, ekacce na abbhaññiṁsū'ti. Dhammaṁ te, subhadda, desessāmi; taṁ suṇāhi sādhukaṁ manasikarohi, bhāsissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho subhaddo paribbājako bhagavato paccassosi. Bhagavā etadavoca:

84"Yasmiṁ kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo na upalabbhati, samaṇopi tattha na upalabbhati. Dutiyopi tattha samaṇo na upalabbhati. Tatiyopi tattha samaṇo na upalabbhati. Catutthopi tattha samaṇo na upalabbhati.

Yasmiñca kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo upalabbhati, samaṇopi tattha upalabbhati, dutiyopi tattha samaṇo upalabbhati, tatiyopi tattha samaṇo upalabbhati, catutthopi tattha samaṇo upalabbhati.

Imasmiṁ kho, subhadda, dhammavinaye ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo upalabbhati, idheva, subhadda, samaṇo, idha dutiyo samaṇo, idha tatiyo samaṇo, idha catuttho samaṇo, suññā parappavādā samaṇebhi aññehi.

Ime ca, subhadda, bhikkhū sammā vihareyyuṁ, asuñño loko arahantehi assāti.

Ekūnatiṁso vayasā subhadda,
Yaṁ pabbajiṁ kiṅkusalānuesī;
Vassāni paññāsa samādhikāni,
Yato ahaṁ pabbajito subhadda;
Ñāyassa dhammassa padesavattī,
Ito bahiddhā samaṇopi natthi.

Dutiyopi samaṇo natthi. Tatiyopi samaṇo natthi. Catutthopi samaṇo natthi. Suññā parappavādā samaṇebhi aññehi. Ime ca, subhadda, bhikkhū sammā vihareyyuṁ, asuñño loko arahantehi assā"ti.

85Evaṁ vutte, subhaddo paribbājako bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Abhikkantaṁ, bhante, abhikkantaṁ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: 'cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī'ti; evamevaṁ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Labheyyāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṁ, labheyyaṁ upasampadan"ti.

"Yo kho, subhadda, aññatitthiyapubbo imasmiṁ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhati pabbajjaṁ, ākaṅkhati upasampadaṁ, so cattāro māse parivasati. Catunnaṁ māsānaṁ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Api ca mettha puggalavemattatā viditā"ti

"Sace, bhante, aññatitthiyapubbā imasmiṁ dhammavinaye ākaṅkhantā pabbajjaṁ ākaṅkhantā upasampadaṁ cattāro māse parivasanti, catunnaṁ māsānaṁ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājenti upasampādenti bhikkhubhāvāya. Ahaṁ cattāri vassāni parivasissāmi, catunnaṁ vassānaṁ accayena āraddhacittā bhikkhū pabbājentu upasampādentu bhikkhubhāvāyā"ti.

Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "tenahānanda, subhaddaṁ pabbājehī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando bhagavato paccassosi.

Atha kho subhaddo paribbājako āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "lābhā vo, āvuso Ānanda; suladdhaṁ vo, āvuso Ānanda, ye ettha satthu sammukhā antevāsikābhisekena abhisittā"ti.

Alattha kho subhaddo paribbājako bhagavato santike pabbajjaṁ, alattha upasampadaṁ.

Acirūpasampanno kho panāyasmā subhaddo eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto nacirasseva—yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajanti—tadanuttaraṁ brahmacariyapariyosānaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi.

"Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā"ti abbhaññāsi.

Aññataro kho panāyasmā subhaddo arahataṁ ahosi. So bhagavato pacchimo sakkhisāvako ahosīti.

Pañcamo bhāṇavāro.

35. Tathāgatapacchimavācā

86Atha kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ Ānandaṁ āmantesi: "Siyā kho panānanda, tumhākaṁ evamassa: 'atītasatthukaṁ pāvacanaṁ, natthi no satthā'ti. Na kho panetaṁ, Ānanda, evaṁ daṭṭhabbaṁ. Yo vo, Ānanda, mayā dhammo ca vinayo ca desito paññatto, so vo mamaccayena satthā.

The next two paragraphs seem to have been removed from the Pali by the Burmese Sixth Council.


Yathā kho panānanda etarahi bhikkhū aññamaññaṁ āvusovādena samudācaranti, na kho mamaccayena evaṁ samudācaritabbaṁ. Theratarena ānanda bhikkhunā navakataro bhikkhu nāmena vā gottena vā āvusovādena vā samudācaritabbo, navakatarena bhikkhunā therataro bhikkhu bhanteti vā āyasmāti vā samudācaritabbo.

Ākaṅkhamāno ānanda saṅgho mamaccayena khuddānukhuddakāni sikkhāpadāni samūhanatu.


Channassa, Ānanda, bhikkhuno mamaccayena brahmadaṇḍo dātabbo"ti.

"Katamo pana, bhante, brahmadaṇḍo"ti?

"Channo, Ānanda, bhikkhu yaṁ iccheyya, taṁ vadeyya. So bhikkhūhi neva vattabbo, na ovaditabbo, na anusāsitabbo"ti.


87Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā, pucchatha, bhikkhave, mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha: 'sammukhībhūto no satthā ahosi, na mayaṁ sakkhimhā bhagavantaṁ sammukhā paṭipucchitun'"ti. Evaṁ vutte, te bhikkhū tuṇhī ahesuṁ.

Dutiyampi kho bhagavā … pe … tatiyampi kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā, pucchatha, bhikkhave, mā pacchā vippaṭisārino ahuvattha: 'sammukhībhūto no satthā ahosi, na mayaṁ sakkhimhā bhagavantaṁ sammukhā paṭipucchitun'"ti. Tatiyampi kho te bhikkhū tuṇhī ahesuṁ.

Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "siyā kho pana, bhikkhave, satthugāravenapi na puccheyyātha. Sahāyakopi, bhikkhave, sahāyakassa ārocetū"ti. Evaṁ vutte, te bhikkhū tuṇhī ahesuṁ.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "acchariyaṁ, bhante, abbhutaṁ, bhante, evaṁ pasanno ahaṁ, bhante, imasmiṁ bhikkhusaṅghe, 'natthi ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā'"ti.

"Pasādā kho tvaṁ, Ānanda, vadesi, ñāṇameva hettha, Ānanda, tathāgatassa. Natthi imasmiṁ bhikkhusaṅghe ekabhikkhussāpi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā buddhe vā dhamme vā saṅghe vā magge vā paṭipadāya vā. Imesañhi, Ānanda, pañcannaṁ bhikkhusatānaṁ yo pacchimako bhikkhu, so sotāpanno avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyaṇo"ti.

88Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "handa dāni, bhikkhave, āmantayāmi vo, vayadhammā saṅkhārā appamādena sampādethā"ti. Ayaṁ tathāgatassa pacchimā vācā.

36. Parinibbutakathā

89Atha kho bhagavā paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, paṭhamajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, dutiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, tatiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā catutthaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, catutthajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samāpajji, ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samāpajji, viññāṇañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samāpajji, ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samāpajji, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpajji.


Atha kho āyasmā ānando āyasmantaṁ anuruddhaṁ etadavoca: "parinibbuto, bhante anuruddha, bhagavā"ti.

"Nāvuso Ānanda, bhagavā parinibbuto, saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpanno"ti.

Atha kho bhagavā saññāvedayitanirodhasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samāpajji, nevasaññānāsaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samāpajji, ākiñcaññāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samāpajji, viññāṇañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samāpajji, ākāsānañcāyatanasamāpattiyā vuṭṭhahitvā catutthaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, catutthajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, tatiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, dutiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, paṭhamajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, dutiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, tatiyajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā catutthaṁ jhānaṁ samāpajji, catutthajjhānā vuṭṭhahitvā samanantarā bhagavā parinibbāyi.


90Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā mahābhūmicālo ahosi bhiṁsanako salomahaṁso. Devadundubhiyo ca phaliṁsu. Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā brahmāsahampati imaṁ gāthaṁ abhāsi:

91"Sabbeva nikkhipissanti,
bhūtā loke samussayaṁ;
Yattha etādiso satthā,
loke appaṭipuggalo;
Tathāgato balappatto,
sambuddho parinibbuto"ti.


92Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā sakko devānamindo imaṁ gāthaṁ abhāsi:


"Aniccā vata saṅkhārā,
uppādavayadhammino;
Uppajjitvā nirujjhanti,
tesaṁ vūpasamo sukho"ti.


93Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā āyasmā anuruddho imā gāthāyo abhāsi:


"Nāhu assāsapassāso,
ṭhitacittassa tādino;
Anejo santimārabbha,
yaṁ kālamakarī muni.

Asallīnena cittena,
vedanaṁ ajjhavāsayi;
Pajjotasseva nibbānaṁ,
vimokkho cetaso ahū"ti.


Parinibbute bhagavati saha parinibbānā āyasmā ānando imaṁ gāthaṁ abhāsi:


"Tadāsi yaṁ bhiṁsanakaṁ,
tadāsi lomahaṁsanaṁ;
Sabbākāravarūpete,
sambuddhe parinibbute"ti.


94Parinibbute bhagavati ye te tattha bhikkhū avītarāgā appekacce bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti vivaṭṭanti, "atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antarahito"ti. Ye pana te bhikkhū vītarāgā, te satā sampajānā adhivāsenti: "aniccā saṅkhārā, taṁ kutettha labbhā"ti.


95Atha kho āyasmā anuruddho bhikkhū āmantesi: "Alaṁ, āvuso, mā socittha mā paridevittha. Nanu etaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā paṭikacceva akkhātaṁ: 'sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo'. Taṁ kutettha, āvuso, labbhā. 'Yaṁ taṁ jātaṁ bhūtaṁ saṅkhataṁ palokadhammaṁ, taṁ vata mā palujjī'ti, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Devatā, āvuso, ujjhāyantī"ti. "Kathaṁbhūtā pana, bhante, āyasmā anuruddho devatā manasi karotī"ti?

"Santāvuso Ānanda, devatā ākāse pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti: 'atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antarahito'ti.


Santāvuso Ānanda, devatā pathaviyā pathavīsaññiniyo kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti: 'atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antarahito'ti. Yā pana tā devatā vītarāgā, tā satā sampajānā adhivāsenti: 'aniccā saṅkhārā, taṁ kutettha labbhā'"ti.

Atha kho āyasmā ca anuruddho āyasmā ca ānando taṁ rattāvasesaṁ dhammiyā kathāya vītināmesuṁ.


96Atha kho āyasmā anuruddho āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi: "gacchāvuso Ānanda, kusināraṁ pavisitvā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ ārocehi: 'parinibbuto, vāseṭṭhā, bhagavā, yassadāni kālaṁ maññathā'"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā ānando āyasmato anuruddhassa paṭissutvā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya attadutiyo kusināraṁ pāvisi.

 

Tena kho pana samayena kosinārakā mallā sandhāgāre sannipatitā honti teneva karaṇīyena. Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ sandhāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ ārocesi: "parinibbuto, vāseṭṭhā, bhagavā, yassadāni kālaṁ maññathā"ti. Idamāyasmato ānandassa vacanaṁ sutvā mallā ca mallaputtā ca mallasuṇisā ca mallapajāpatiyo ca aghāvino dummanā cetodukkhasamappitā appekacce kese pakiriya kandanti, bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti: "atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antarahito"ti.

37. Buddhasarīrapūjā

97Atha kho kosinārakā mallā purise āṇāpesuṁ: "Tena hi, bhaṇe, kusinārāyaṁ gandhamālañca sabbañca tāḷāvacaraṁ sannipātethā"ti.

Atha kho kosinārakā mallā gandhamālañca sabbañca tāḷāvacaraṁ pañca ca dussayugasatāni ādāya yena upavattanaṁ mallānaṁ sālavanaṁ, yena bhagavato sarīraṁ tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavato sarīraṁ naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṁ karontā mānentā pūjentā celavitānāni karontā maṇḍalamāḷe paṭiyādentā ekadivasaṁ vītināmesuṁ.

Atha kho kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ etadahosi: "ativikālo kho ajja bhagavato sarīraṁ jhāpetuṁ, sve dāni mayaṁ bhagavato sarīraṁ jhāpessāmā"ti.

Atha kho kosinārakā mallā bhagavato sarīraṁ naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṁ karontā mānentā pūjentā celavitānāni karontā maṇḍalamāḷe paṭiyādentā dutiyampi divasaṁ vītināmesuṁ, tatiyampi divasaṁ vītināmesuṁ, catutthampi divasaṁ vītināmesuṁ, pañcamampi divasaṁ vītināmesuṁ, chaṭṭhampi divasaṁ vītināmesuṁ.


Atha kho sattamaṁ divasaṁ kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ etadahosi: "Mayaṁ bhagavato sarīraṁ naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṁ karontā mānentā pūjentā dakkhiṇena dakkhiṇaṁ nagarassa haritvā bāhirena bāhiraṁ dakkhiṇato nagarassa bhagavato sarīraṁ jhāpessāmā"ti.

98Tena kho pana samayena aṭṭha mallapāmokkhā sīsaṁnhātā ahatāni vatthāni nivatthā: "Mayaṁ bhagavato sarīraṁ uccāressāmā"ti na sakkonti uccāretuṁ.

Atha kho kosinārakā mallā āyasmantaṁ anuruddhaṁ etadavocuṁ: "ko nu kho, bhante anuruddha, hetu ko paccayo, yenime aṭṭha mallapāmokkhā sīsaṁnhātā ahatāni vatthāni nivatthā: 'mayaṁ bhagavato sarīraṁ uccāressāmā'ti na sakkonti uccāretun"ti?

"Aññathā kho, vāseṭṭhā, tumhākaṁ adhippāyo, aññathā devatānaṁ adhippāyo"ti.

"Kathaṁ pana, bhante, devatānaṁ adhippāyo"ti?

"Tumhākaṁ kho, vāseṭṭhā, adhippāyo: 'mayaṁ bhagavato sarīraṁ naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṁ karontā mānentā pūjentā dakkhiṇena dakkhiṇaṁ nagarassa haritvā bāhirena bāhiraṁ dakkhiṇato nagarassa bhagavato sarīraṁ jhāpessāmā'ti;

devatānaṁ kho, vāseṭṭhā, adhippāyo: 'mayaṁ bhagavato sarīraṁ dibbehi naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṁ karontā mānentā pūjentā uttarena uttaraṁ nagarassa haritvā uttarena dvārena nagaraṁ pavesetvā majjhena majjhaṁ nagarassa haritvā puratthimena dvārena nikkhamitvā puratthimato nagarassa makuṭabandhanaṁ nāma mallānaṁ cetiyaṁ ettha bhagavato sarīraṁ jhāpessāmā'"ti.

"Yathā, bhante, devatānaṁ adhippāyo, tathā hotū"ti.

99Tena kho pana samayena kusinārā yāva sandhisamalasaṅkaṭīrā jaṇṇumattena odhinā mandāravapupphehi santhatā hoti. Atha kho devatā ca kosinārakā ca mallā bhagavato sarīraṁ dibbehi ca mānusakehi ca naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkarontā garuṁ karontā mānentā pūjentā uttarena uttaraṁ nagarassa haritvā uttarena dvārena nagaraṁ pavesetvā majjhena majjhaṁ nagarassa haritvā puratthimena dvārena nikkhamitvā puratthimato nagarassa makuṭabandhanaṁ nāma mallānaṁ cetiyaṁ ettha ca bhagavato sarīraṁ nikkhipiṁsu.

100Atha kho kosinārakā mallā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavocuṁ: "Kathaṁ mayaṁ, bhante Ānanda, tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjāmā"ti?

"Yathā kho, vāseṭṭhā, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti, evaṁ tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabban"ti.

"Kathaṁ pana, bhante Ānanda, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjantī"ti?

"Rañño, vāseṭṭhā, cakkavattissa sarīraṁ ahatena vatthena veṭhenti, ahatena vatthena veṭhetvā vihatena kappāsena veṭhenti, vihatena kappāsena veṭhetvā ahatena vatthena veṭhenti. Etena upāyena pañcahi yugasatehi rañño cakkavattissa sarīraṁ veṭhetvā āyasāya teladoṇiyā pakkhipitvā aññissā āyasāya doṇiyā paṭikujjitvā sabbagandhānaṁ citakaṁ karitvā rañño cakkavattissa sarīraṁ jhāpenti. Cātumahāpathe rañño cakkavattissa thūpaṁ karonti.

Evaṁ kho, vāseṭṭhā, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti. Yathā kho, vāseṭṭhā, rañño cakkavattissa sarīre paṭipajjanti, evaṁ tathāgatassa sarīre paṭipajjitabbaṁ. Cātumahāpathe tathāgatassa thūpo kātabbo. Tattha ye mālaṁ vā gandhaṁ vā cuṇṇakaṁ vā āropessanti vā abhivādessanti vā cittaṁ vā pasādessanti, tesaṁ taṁ bhavissati dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāyā"ti.

Atha kho kosinārakā mallā purise āṇāpesuṁ: "Tena hi, bhaṇe, mallānaṁ vihataṁ kappāsaṁ sannipātethā"ti.

Atha kho kosinārakā mallā bhagavato sarīraṁ ahatena vatthena veṭhetvā vihatena kappāsena veṭhesuṁ, vihatena kappāsena veṭhetvā ahatena vatthena veṭhesuṁ. Etena upāyena pañcahi yugasatehi bhagavato sarīraṁ veṭhetvā āyasāya teladoṇiyā pakkhipitvā aññissā āyasāya doṇiyā paṭikujjitvā sabbagandhānaṁ citakaṁ karitvā bhagavato sarīraṁ citakaṁ āropesuṁ.

38. Mahākassapattheravatthu

101Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā mahākassapo pāvāya kusināraṁ addhānamaggappaṭipanno hoti mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi. Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo maggā okkamma aññatarasmiṁ rukkhamūle nisīdi.

Tena kho pana samayena aññataro ājīvako kusinārāya mandāravapupphaṁ gahetvā pāvaṁ addhānamaggappaṭipanno hoti.

Addasā kho āyasmā mahākassapo taṁ ājīvakaṁ dūratova āgacchantaṁ, disvā taṁ ājīvakaṁ etadavoca: "apāvuso, amhākaṁ satthāraṁ jānāsī"ti?

"Āmāvuso, jānāmi, ajja sattāhaparinibbuto samaṇo gotamo. Tato me idaṁ mandāravapupphaṁ gahitan"ti.

Tattha ye te bhikkhū avītarāgā appekacce bāhā paggayha kandanti, chinnapātaṁ papatanti, āvaṭṭanti, vivaṭṭanti: "atikhippaṁ bhagavā parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ sugato parinibbuto, atikhippaṁ cakkhuṁ loke antarahito"ti.

Ye pana te bhikkhū vītarāgā, te satā sampajānā adhivāsenti: "aniccā saṅkhārā, taṁ kutettha labbhā"ti.


102Tena kho pana samayena subhaddo nāma vuddhapabbajito tassaṁ parisāyaṁ nisinno hoti. Atha kho subhaddo vuddhapabbajito te bhikkhū etadavoca: "Alaṁ, āvuso, mā socittha, mā paridevittha, sumuttā mayaṁ tena mahāsamaṇena. Upaddutā ca homa: 'idaṁ vo kappati, idaṁ vo na kappatī'ti. Idāni pana mayaṁ yaṁ icchissāma, taṁ karissāma, yaṁ na icchissāma, na taṁ karissāmā"ti.

Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo bhikkhū āmantesi: "Alaṁ, āvuso, mā socittha, mā paridevittha. Nanu etaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā paṭikacceva akkhātaṁ: 'sabbeheva piyehi manāpehi nānābhāvo vinābhāvo aññathābhāvo'. Taṁ kutettha, āvuso, labbhā. 'Yaṁ taṁ jātaṁ bhūtaṁ saṅkhataṁ palokadhammaṁ, taṁ tathāgatassāpi sarīraṁ mā palujjī'ti, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjatī"ti.

103Tena kho pana samayena cattāro mallapāmokkhā sīsaṁnhātā ahatāni vatthāni nivatthā: "Mayaṁ bhagavato citakaṁ āḷimpessāmā"ti na sakkonti āḷimpetuṁ. Atha kho kosinārakā mallā āyasmantaṁ anuruddhaṁ etadavocuṁ: "ko nu kho, bhante anuruddha, hetu ko paccayo, yenime cattāro mallapāmokkhā sīsaṁnhātā ahatāni vatthāni nivatthā: 'mayaṁ bhagavato citakaṁ āḷimpessāmā'ti na sakkonti āḷimpetun"ti?

"Aññathā kho, vāseṭṭhā, devatānaṁ adhippāyo"ti.

"Kathaṁ pana, bhante, devatānaṁ adhippāyo"ti?

"Devatānaṁ kho, vāseṭṭhā, adhippāyo: 'ayaṁ āyasmā mahākassapo pāvāya kusināraṁ addhānamaggappaṭipanno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi. Na tāva bhagavato citako pajjalissati, yāvāyasmā mahākassapo bhagavato pāde sirasā na vandissatī'"ti.

"Yathā, bhante, devatānaṁ adhippāyo, tathā hotū"ti.

104Atha kho āyasmā mahākassapo yena kusinārā makuṭabandhanaṁ nāma mallānaṁ cetiyaṁ, yena bhagavato citako tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekaṁsaṁ cīvaraṁ katvā añjaliṁ paṇāmetvā tikkhattuṁ citakaṁ padakkhiṇaṁ katvā bhagavato pāde sirasā vandi.

Tānipi kho pañcabhikkhusatāni ekaṁsaṁ cīvaraṁ katvā añjaliṁ paṇāmetvā tikkhattuṁ citakaṁ padakkhiṇaṁ katvā bhagavato pāde sirasā vandiṁsu. Vandite ca panāyasmatā mahākassapena tehi ca pañcahi bhikkhusatehi sayameva bhagavato citako pajjali.

105Jhāyamānassa kho pana bhagavato sarīrassa yaṁ ahosi chavīti vā cammanti vā maṁsanti vā nhārūti vā lasikāti vā, tassa neva chārikā paññāyittha, na masi; sarīrāneva avasissiṁsu. Seyyathāpi nāma sappissa vā telassa vā jhāyamānassa neva chārikā paññāyati, na masi; evameva bhagavato sarīrassa jhāyamānassa yaṁ ahosi chavīti vā cammanti vā maṁsanti vā nhārūti vā lasikāti vā, tassa neva chārikā paññāyittha, na masi; sarīrāneva avasissiṁsu. Tesañca pañcannaṁ dussayugasatānaṁ dveva dussāni na ḍayhiṁsu yañca sabbaabbhantarimaṁ yañca bāhiraṁ.

Daḍḍhe ca kho pana bhagavato sarīre antalikkhā udakadhārā pātubhavitvā bhagavato citakaṁ nibbāpesi. Udakasālatopi abbhunnamitvā bhagavato citakaṁ nibbāpesi. Kosinārakāpi mallā sabbagandhodakena bhagavato citakaṁ nibbāpesuṁ.

Atha kho kosinārakā mallā bhagavato sarīrāni sattāhaṁ sandhāgāre sattipañjaraṁ karitvā dhanupākāraṁ parikkhipāpetvā naccehi gītehi vāditehi mālehi gandhehi sakkariṁsu garuṁ kariṁsu mānesuṁ pūjesuṁ.

39. Sarīradhātuvibhajana

106Assosi kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesi: "Bhagavāpi khattiyo ahampi khattiyo, ahampi arahāmi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, ahampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmī"ti.

Assosuṁ kho vesālikā licchavī: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho vesālikā licchavī kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesuṁ: "Bhagavāpi khattiyo mayampi khattiyā, mayampi arahāma bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, mayampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmā"ti.

Assosuṁ kho kapilavatthuvāsī sakyā: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho kapilavatthuvāsī sakyā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesuṁ: "Bhagavā amhākaṁ ñātiseṭṭho, mayampi arahāma bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, mayampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmā"ti.

Assosuṁ kho allakappakā bulayo: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho allakappakā bulayo kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesuṁ: "Bhagavāpi khattiyo mayampi khattiyā, mayampi arahāma bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, mayampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmā"ti.

Assosuṁ kho rāmagāmakā koḷiyā: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho rāmagāmakā koḷiyā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesuṁ: "Bhagavāpi khattiyo mayampi khattiyā, mayampi arahāma bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, mayampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmā"ti.

Assosi kho veṭṭhadīpako brāhmaṇo: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho veṭṭhadīpako brāhmaṇo kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesi: "Bhagavāpi khattiyo ahampismi brāhmaṇo, ahampi arahāmi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, ahampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmī"ti.

Assosuṁ kho pāveyyakā mallā: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho pāveyyakā mallā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesuṁ: "Bhagavāpi khattiyo mayampi khattiyā, mayampi arahāma bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, mayampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmā"ti.

Evaṁ vutte, kosinārakā mallā te saṅghe gaṇe etadavocuṁ: "Bhagavā amhākaṁ gāmakkhette parinibbuto, na mayaṁ dassāma bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgan"ti.

107Evaṁ vutte, doṇo brāhmaṇo te saṅghe gaṇe etadavoca:

"Suṇantu bhonto mama ekavācaṁ,
Amhāka buddho ahu khantivādo;
Na hi sādhu yaṁ uttamapuggalassa,
Sarīrabhāge siyā sampahāro.

Sabbeva bhonto sahitā samaggā,
Sammodamānā karomaṭṭhabhāge;
Vitthārikā hontu disāsu thūpā,
Bahū janā cakkhumato pasannā"ti.

108"Tena hi, brāhmaṇa, tvaññeva bhagavato sarīrāni aṭṭhadhā samaṁ savibhattaṁ vibhajāhī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho doṇo brāhmaṇo tesaṁ saṅghānaṁ gaṇānaṁ paṭissutvā bhagavato sarīrāni aṭṭhadhā samaṁ suvibhattaṁ vibhajitvā te saṅghe gaṇe etadavoca: "imaṁ me bhonto tumbaṁ dadantu ahampi tumbassa thūpañca mahañca karissāmī"ti. Adaṁsu kho te doṇassa brāhmaṇassa tumbaṁ.

Assosuṁ kho pippalivaniyā moriyā: "Bhagavā kira kusinārāyaṁ parinibbuto"ti. Atha kho pippalivaniyā moriyā kosinārakānaṁ mallānaṁ dūtaṁ pāhesuṁ: "Bhagavāpi khattiyo mayampi khattiyā, mayampi arahāma bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgaṁ, mayampi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca karissāmā"ti.

"Natthi bhagavato sarīrānaṁ bhāgo, vibhattāni bhagavato sarīrāni. Ito aṅgāraṁ harathā"ti. Te tato aṅgāraṁ hariṁsu.

40. Dhātuthūpapūjā

109Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto rājagahe bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akāsi.

Vesālikāpi licchavī vesāliyaṁ bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akaṁsu.

Kapilavatthuvāsīpi sakyā kapilavatthusmiṁ bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akaṁsu.

Allakappakāpi bulayo allakappe bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akaṁsu.

Rāmagāmakāpi koḷiyā rāmagāme bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akaṁsu.

Veṭṭhadīpakopi brāhmaṇo veṭṭhadīpe bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akāsi.

Pāveyyakāpi mallā pāvāyaṁ bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akaṁsu.

Kosinārakāpi mallā kusinārāyaṁ bhagavato sarīrānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akaṁsu.

Doṇopi brāhmaṇo tumbassa thūpañca mahañca akāsi.

Pippalivaniyāpi moriyā pippalivane aṅgārānaṁ thūpañca mahañca akaṁsu.

Iti aṭṭha sarīrathūpā navamo tumbathūpo dasamo aṅgārathūpo. Evametaṁ bhūtapubbanti.

110Aṭṭhadoṇaṁ cakkhumato sarīraṁ,
Sattadoṇaṁ jambudīpe mahenti;
Ekañca doṇaṁ purisavaruttamassa,
Rāmagāme nāgarājā maheti.

Ekāhi dāṭhā tidivehi pūjitā,
Ekā pana gandhārapure mahīyati;
Kālingarañño vijite punekaṁ,
Ekaṁ pana nāgarājā maheti.

Tasseva tejena ayaṁ vasundharā,
Āyāgaseṭṭhehi mahī alaṅkatā;
Evaṁ imaṁ cakkhumato sarīraṁ,
Susakkataṁ sakkatasakkatehi.

Devindanāgindanarindapūjito,
Manussindaseṭṭhehi tatheva pūjito;
Taṁ vandatha pañjalikā labhitvā,
Buddho have kappasatehi dullabhoti.

Cattālīsa samā dantā,
kesā lomā ca sabbaso;
Devā hariṁsu ekekaṁ,
cakkavāḷaparamparāti.


Mahāparinibbānasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ tatiyaṁ