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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN1: The Brahmajāla Sutta — The All-embracing Net of Views

I. Talk on Wanderers

1Thus have I heard.[n.11] Beside the Rhys Davids translation (RD) there is also the somewhat abridged version by Mrs A.A.G. Bennett in Long Discourses of the Buddha (Bombay 1964, Suttas 1-16 only), and that by David Maurice in The Lion’s Roar (London 1962), both of which I have occasionally found useful. I have also consulted the German partial translation (Suttas 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11, 13, 16, 21, 26, 27) by R.O. Franke (1913), and, as far as my limited knowledge of Thai would allow, the Thai translation (2nd ed., Bangkok 2521 (1978)). Brahma- in the title has the meaning of ‘supreme’. On one occasion the Exalted One was travelling along the highway between Rājagaha and Nālandā[n.12] Nālandā, afterwards the seat of a famous Buddhist university, was about 12 km north of Rajagaha (modem Rajgir), the Magadhan capital. together with a great company of bhikkhus, with about five hundred bhikkhus. At the same time the wanderer Suppiya[n.13] A follower of Sañjaya Belatthaputta (see DN 2.33f.). Sāriputta and Moggallana, the Buddha's most famous disciples, were originally followers of Sañjaya, and it was their defection, besides the loss of his gains, that angered Suppiya (DA). was also travelling along the highway between Rājagaha and Nālandā together with his pupil, the youth Brahmadatta. Along the way, the wanderer Suppiya spoke in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saṅgha. But his pupil, the youth Brahmadatta, spoke in many ways in praise of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saṅgha. Thus these two, teacher and pupil, followed closely behind the Exalted One and the company of bhikkhus, making assertions in direct contradiction to each other.

2Then the Exalted One together with the company of bhikkhus entered the royal rest-house in the Ambalaṭṭhika garden in order to pass the night. The wanderer Suppiya together with his pupil, the youth Brahmadatta, also entered the royal resthouse in the Ambalaṭṭhika garden in order to pass the night. There, too, the wanderer Suppiya spoke in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saṅgha, while his pupil Brahmadatta spoke in many ways in their praise. Thus these two, teacher and pupil, dwelt together making assertions in direct contradiction to each other.

3When dawn broke a number of bhikkhus, after rising, assembled in the pavilion. As they sat together, the following conversation sprang up among them: "It is wonderful and marvellous, friends, how the Exalted One, he who knows and sees, the Worthy One, the perfectly enlightened Buddha, has so thoroughly penetrated the diversity in the dispositions of beings. For this wanderer Suppiya spoke in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saṅgha, while his own pupil, the youth Brahmadatta, spoke in many ways in their praise. These two, teacher and pupil, followed closely behind the Exalted One and the company of bhikkhus, making assertions in direct contradiction to each other."

4Then the Exalted One, realizing the turn their discussion had taken, entered the pavilion, sat down on the prepared seat, and addressed the bhikkhus: "What kind of discussion were you holding just now, bhikkhus? What was the subject of your conversation?"

The bhikkhus replied: "When dawn had broken, Lord, after rising we assembled in the pavilion. As we sat here, the following conversation sprang up among us: 'It is wonderful and marvellous friends, how the Exalted One, he who knows and sees, the Worthy One, the perfectly enlightened Buddha, has so thoroughly penetrated the diversity in the dispositions of beings. For this wanderer Suppiya spoke in many ways in dispraise of the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saṅgha, while his own pupil, the youth Brahmadatta, spoke in many ways in their praise. These two, teacher and pupil, followed closely behind the Exalted One and the company of bhikkhus, making assertions in direct contradiction to each other.' This, Lord, was the conversation we were having when the Exalted One arrived."

5"If, bhikkhus, others speak in dispraise of me, or in dispraise of the Dhamma, or in dispraise of the Saṅgha, you should not give way to resentment, displeasure, or animosity against them in your heart. For if you were to become angry or upset in such a situation, you would only be creating an obstacle for yourselves. If you were to become angry or upset when others speak in dispraise of us, would you be able to recognize whether their statements are rightly or wrongly spoken?"


"Certainly not, Lord."

6"If, bhikkhus, others speak in dispraise of me, or in dispraise of the Dhamma, or in dispraise of the Saṅgha, you should unravel what is false and point it out as false, saying: 'For such and such a reason this is false, this is untrue, there is no such thing in us, this is not found among us. [n.14] Lit. 'That is not in us'.

7"And if, bhikkhus, others speak in praise of me, or in praise of the Dhamma, or in praise of the Saṅgha, you should not give way to jubilation, joy, and exultation in your heart. For if you were to become jubilant, joyful, and exultant in such a situation, you would only be creating an obstacle for yourselves. If others speak in praise of me, or in praise of the Dhamma, or in praise of the Saṅgha, you should acknowledge what is fact as fact, saying: 'For such and such a reason this is a fact, this is true, there is such a thing in us, this is found among us.'

2. The Analysis of Virtue

2.1. The Short Section on Virtue (Cūḷasīla)[18] These three sections on morality occur verbatim in all of the first 13 Suttas and may once have formed a separate 'tract' (RD).

8"It is, bhikkhus, only to trifling and insignificant matters, to the minor details of mere moral virtue[n.15] DA points out that 'morality is inferior in comparison with higher qualities, for morality does not reach the excellence of concentration, nor concentration the excellence of wisdom.' that a worldling[n.16] An 'ordinary person' who, not having broken through the first three fetters (personality-view, doubt, attachment to rites and rituals), has not yet 'entered the stream' and so started on the higher (supramundane) path. would refer when speaking in praise of the Tathāgata.[n.17] The Buddha’s usual way of referring to himself. And what are those trifling and insignificant matters, those minor details of mere moral virtue, to which he would refer?

9 "'Having abandoned the destruction of life, the recluse Gotama abstains from the destruction of life. He has laid aside the rod and the sword, and dwells conscientious, full of kindness, compassionate for the welfare of all living beings.' It is in this way, bhikkhus, that the worldling[n.19] This 'refrain' is repeated throughout. would speak when speaking in praise of the Tathāgata.

10"Or he might say: 'Having abandoned taking what is not given, the recluse Gotama abstains from taking what is not given. Accepting and expecting only what is given, he dwells in honesty and rectitude of heart.'

11"Or he might say: 'Having abandoned unchaste living, the recluse Gotama lives the life of chastity. He dwells remote (from women), and abstains from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse.[n.20] Brahmacariyā is the supreme or holy life, i.e. celibacy. DA points out that it involves refraining from other forms of erotic behaviour besides intercourse.

12"Or he might say: 'Having abandoned false speech, the recluse Gotama abstains from falsehood. He speaks only the truth, he lives devoted to truth; trustworthy and reliable, he does not deceive anyone in the world.'

13"Or he might say: 'Having abandoned slander, the recluse Gotama abstains from slander. He does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide others from the people here, nor does he repeat here what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide these from the people there. Thus he is a reconciler of those who are divided and a promoter of friendships. Rejoicing, delighting, and exulting in concord, he speaks only words that are conducive to concord.'

14"Or he might say: 'Having abandoned harsh speech, the recluse Gotama abstains from harsh speech. He speaks only such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, endearing, going to the heart, urbane, amiable, and agreeable to many people.'

15"Or he might say: 'Having abandoned idle chatter, the recluse Gotama abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual, speaks on the good, on the Dhamma and the Discipline.[n.21] Atthavādī: attha may also mean 'that which is profitable' (see next note). His words are worth treasuring: they are timely, backed by reason, definite and connected with the good.[n.22] Atthasaṁhhitaṁ: here the meaning of attha as 'the profitable' is clear.


16"Or he might say: 'The recluse Gotama abstains from damaging seed and plant life.

17He eats only in one part of the day, refraining from food at night and from eating at improper times.[n.23] i.e. between midday and the following dawn.

18He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and witnessing unsuitable shows.

19He abstains from wearing garlands, embellishing himself with scents, and beautifying himself with unguents.

20He abstains from sleeping in high and luxurious beds.

21He abstains from accepting gold and silver.[n.24] Para. 9–20 embrace the first four precepts undertaken by novices (sāmaṇeras). The elaboration of the different forms of wrong speech here (and elsewhere) reflects the importance of controlling the tongue. Curiously, there is no mention of abstaining from intoxicants, but instead a reference to 'damaging seeds and crops'. The next five items correspond to the novices' precepts 6–10.


22–28He abstains from accepting uncooked grain, raw meat, women and girls, male and female slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and swine, elephants, cattle, horses and mares.


29He abstains from accepting fields and lands.[n.25] The Buddha did, however, accept land from Anāthapiṇdika and others for the Saṅgha.

30He abstains from running messages and errands.

31He abstains from buying and selling …

32… and from dealing with false weights, false metals, and false measures.

33He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, deception, and fraud.

34He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, robbery, plunder, and violence.' "It is in this way, bhikkhus, that the worldling would speak when speaking in praise of the Tathāgata.

2.2. The Intermediate Section on Virtue (Majjhimasīla)

35"Or he might say: 'Whereas some honourable recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, continuously cause damage to seed and plant life—to plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buds, and seeds—the recluse Gotama abstains from damaging seed and plant life.'


36"Or he might say: 'Whereas some honourable recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of stored up goods such as stored up food, drinks, garments, vehicles, bedding, scents, and comestibles—the recluse Gotama abstains from the use of stored up goods'


37"Or he might say: 'Whereas some honourable recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, attend unsuitable shows, such as:

  • shows featuring dancing, singing, or instrumental music;
  • theatrical performances;
  • narrations of legends;
  • music played by hand-clapping, cymbals, and drums;
  • picture houses;[n.26] (Walshe has 'fairy-shows')Sobha-nagarakaṁ: 'of the city Sobha' (this was the city of the gandhabbas or heavenly musicians). RD thinks of a ballet with fairy scenes. BB renders it 'picture houses' — which surely gives the wrong impression for modern readers!
  • acrobatic performances;[n.27] Caṇḍālaṁ vaṁsaṁ dhopanaṁ: rather obscure. The performers were presumably low-caste. DA thinks of an iron ball (used for juggling?).
  • combats of elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks and quails;
  • stick-fights, boxing and wrestling, sham-fights, roll-calls, battle-arrays, and regimental reviews—

the recluse Gotama abstains from attending such unsuitable shows.'


38"Or he might say: "Whereas some honourable recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, indulge in the following games that are a basis for negligence:

  • Aṭṭhapada[n.28] Chess, with a board of 64 or 100 squares, originated in India. Though previously not unknown, it was popularised in Europe by the Crusaders.
  • dasapada (a game played on a ten-row chess-board);
  • ākāsa[n.29] Mental chess, played without a board. (a game of the same type played by imagining a board in the air);
  • parihārapatha ("hopscotch," a diagram is drawn on the ground and one has to jump in the allowable spaces avoiding the lines);
  • santika ("spellicans," assembling the pieces in a pile, removing and returning them without disturbing the pile);
  • khalika (dice games);
  • ghaṭika (hitting a short stick with a long stick);
  • salākahattha (a game played by dipping the hand in paint or dye, striking the ground or a wall, and requiring the participants to show the figure of an elephant, a horse etc.);
  • akkha (ball games);
  • paṅgacīra (blowing through toy pipes made of leaves);
  • vaṅkaka (ploughing with miniature ploughs);
  • mokkhacika (turning somersaults);
  • cingulika (playing with paper windmills);
  • pattāḷaka (playing with toy measures);
  • rathaka (playing with toy chariots);
  • dhanuka (playing with toy bows);
  • akkharika (guessing at letters written in the air or on one's back);[n.30] Written in the air, or on one's back. Writing was known, but was not used by the Buddha or other teachers of the day.
  • manesika (guessing others' thoughts);[n.31] A guessing game, not telepathy.
  • yathāvajja (games involving mimicry of deformities)—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such games and recreations.'


39"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of high and luxurious beds and seats, such as:

  • spacious couches;
  • thrones with animal figures carved on the supports[n.32] Pallanka: (whence, ultimately, our 'palanquin'), also means 'sitting cross-legged' (see notes n.519, and n.520).; long-haired coverlets;
  • multi-coloured patchwork coverlets; white woollen coverlets;
  • woollen coverlets embroidered with flowers; quilts stuffed with cotton;
  • woollen coverlets embroidered with animal figures;
  • woollen coverlets with hair on both sides or on one side; bedspreads embroidered with gems;
  • silk coverlets;
  • dance-hall carpets;
  • elephant, horse or chariot rugs; rugs of antelope-skins;
  • choice spreads made of kadali-deer hides; spreads with red awnings overhead;
  • couches with red cushions for the head and feet—

the recluse Gotama abstains from the use of such high and luxurious beds and seats.'


40"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of such devices for embellishing and beautifying themselves as the following: rubbing scented powders into the body, massaging with oils, bathing in perfumed water, kneading the limbs, mirrors, ointments, garlands, scents, unguents, face-powders, make-up, bracelets, head-bands, decorated walking sticks, ornamented medicine-tubes, rapiers, sunshades, embroidered sandals, turbans, diadems, yaktail whisks, and long-fringed white robes—the recluse Gotama abstains from the use of such devices for embellishment and beautification.'


41"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in frivolous chatter, such as: talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state; talk about armies, dangers and wars; talk about food, drink, garments, and lodgings; talk about garlands and scents; talk about relatives, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, and countries; talk about women and talk about heroes; street talk and talk by the well; talk about those departed in days gone by; rambling chit-chat; speculations about the world and about the sea; talk about gain and loss—[n.34] Lokakkhāyikaṁ: philosophical speculations of a materialist kind (DA). the recluse Gotama abstains from such frivolous chatter.[n.33] Tiracchāna-kathā: lit. 'animal-talk'. As animals walk parallel to the earth, so this kind of talk does not lead upward (DA).


42"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in wrangling argumentation,[n.35] Iti-bhavâbhava-kathā: also rendered 'profit and loss', but the philosophical sense (as in the Horner and Ñāṇamoli translations of MN 76) is preferable. (saying to one another):

"You don't understand this doctrine and discipline. I am the one who understands this doctrine and discipline."

"How can you understand this doctrine and discipline?"

"You're practising the wrong way. I'm practising the right way."

"I'm being consistent. You're inconsistent."

"What should have been said first you said last, what should have been said last you said first."

"What you took so long to think out has been confuted."

"Your doctrine has been refuted. You're defeated. Go, try to save your doctrine, or disentangle yourself now if you can"—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrangling argumentation.[n.36] Also at MN 77, and SN 46.9.


43"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in running messages and errands for kings, ministers of state, khattiyas, brahmins, householders, or youths, (who command them): "Go here, go there, take this, bring that from there"—the recluse Gotama abstains from running such messages and errands.'

44"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in scheming, talking, hinting, belittling others, and pursuing gain with gain—the recluse Gotama abstains from such kinds of scheming and talking.[n.37] For a detailed account of these practices, see VM 1.61–82.

"It is in this way, bhikkhus, that a worldling would speak when speaking in praise of the Tathāgata.

2.3. The Long Section on Virtue (Mahāsīla)

45"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • prophesying long life, prosperity etc., or the reverse, from the marks on a person's limbs, hands, feet;[n.38] Angaṁ: including soles as well as palms. divining by means of omens and signs;
  • making auguries on the basis of thunderbolts and celestial portents;
  • interpreting ominous dreams;
  • telling fortunes from marks on the body;
  • making auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice; offering fire oblations;
  • offering oblations from a ladle;
  • offering oblations of husks, rice powder, rice grains, ghee, and oil to the gods;
  • offering oblations from the mouth;
  • offering blood-sacrifices to the gods;
  • making predictions based on the fingertips;
  • determining whether the site for a proposed house or garden is propitious or not;
  • making predictions for officers of state;
  • the knowledge of charms to lay demons in a cemetery;
  • the knowledge of charms to cure one possessed by ghosts;
  • the knowledge of charms to be pronounced by one living in an earthen house;[n.39] Knowing charms to be used by one dwelling in an earthen house.
  • the snake craft (for curing snake bites and charming snakes);
  • the poison craft (for neutralizing or making poison)
  • the scorpion craft and rat craft (for curing scorpion stings and rat bites, respectively);
  • the bird craft and crow craft (for understanding the cries of birds and crows);
  • foretelling the number of years that a man has to live;
  • the knowledge of charms to give protection from arrows;
  • reciting charms to understand the language of animals—
  • the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts.'

46"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as interpreting the significance of the colour, shape, and other features of the following items to determine whether they portend fortune or misfortune for their owners: gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears, arrows, bows, other weapons, women, men, boys, girls, slaves, slave-women, elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, goats, rams, fowl, quails, lizards, rabbits,[n.40] Kaṇṇika-lakkhaṇaṁ: from kaṇṇa 'ear'. DA thinks it means either ear-rings or house-gables, both of which are incongruous here. I follow the Thai translation which, probably following an old tradition, has tun 'bamboo-rat' (see McFarland, Thai-English Dictionary, p. 371). Franke says 'an animal that is always mentioned with the hare', and considers that it must mean an animal with long ears. tortoises, and other animals—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts.'


47"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as making predictions to the effect that:

  • the king will march forth;[n.41] Raññaṁ (gen. pl.): i.e. the joint leaders of a republican state.
  • the king will not march forth;
  • our king will attack and the enemy king will retreat;
  • the enemy king will attack and our king will retreat;
  • our king will triumph and the enemy king will be defeated;
  • the enemy king will triumph and our king will be defeated;
  • thus there will be victory for one and defeat for the other—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts.'


48"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as predicting:

  • there will be an eclipse of the moon, an eclipse of the sun, an eclipse of a constellation;
  • the sun and the moon will go on their proper courses;
  • there will be an aberration of the sun and moon;
  • the constellations will go on their proper courses;
  • there will be an aberration of a constellation;
  • there will be a fall of meteors; there will be a skyblaze; there will be an earthquake;
  • there will be an earth-roar;
  • there will be a rising and setting, a darkening and brightening, of the moon, sun, and constellations;
  • such will be the result of the moon's eclipse, such the result of the sun's eclipse, (and so on down to)
  • such will be the result of the rising and setting, darkening and brightening of the moon, sun, and constellations—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts.'


49"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as predicting:

  • there will be abundant rain
  • there will be a drought
  • there will be a good harvest
  • there will be a famine
  • there will be security
  • there will be danger
  • there will be sickness
  • there will be health
  • or they earn their living by accounting, computation, calculation, the composing of poetry, and speculations about the world—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts.'


50"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • arranging auspicious dates for marriages, both those in which the bride is brought in (from another family) and those in which she is sent out (to another family)
  • arranging auspicious dates for betrothals and divorces
  • arranging auspicious dates for the accumulation or expenditure of money
  • reciting charms to make people lucky or unlucky
  • rejuvenating the fetuses of abortive women[n.42] Viruddha-gabbha-karaṇaṁ: Or perhaps 'reviving the foetus'.
  • reciting spells to bind a man's tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make him lose control over his hands, to make him lose control over his jaw, or to bring on deafness
  • obtaining oracular answers to questions by means of a mirror, a girl, or a god
  • worshipping the sun
  • worshipping Mahābrahmā
  • bringing forth flames from the mouth
  • invoking the goddess of luck—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts.'


51"Or he might say: 'Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • promising gifts to deities in return for favours
  • fulfilling such promises
  • demonology
  • reciting spells after entering an earthen house
  • inducing virility and impotence
  • preparing and consecrating sites for a house
  • giving ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing
  • offering sacrificial fires
  • administering emetics, purgatives, expectorants and phlegmagogues[n.43] It is the practice of medicine for gain that is here condemned.
  • administering medicine through the ear and through the nose
  • administering ointments and counter-ointments
  • practising fine surgery on the eyes and ears
  • practising general surgery on the body
  • practising as a children's doctor
  • the application of medicinal roots
  • the binding on of medicinal herbs—

the recluse Gotama abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts.'

52"These, bhikkhus, are those trifling and insignificant matters, those minor details of mere moral virtue, that a worldling would refer to when speaking in praise of the Tathāgata.

3. Views

3.1. Speculations about the Past (Pubbantakappika)

53"There are, bhikkhus, other dhammas, deep, difficult to see, difficult to understand, peaceful and sublime, beyond the sphere of reasoning, subtle, comprehensible only to the wise, which the Tathāgata, having realized for himself with direct knowledge, propounds to others; and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak. And what are these dhammas?

54"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the past, who hold settled views about the past, and who on eighteen grounds assert various conceptual theorems referring to the past. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins frame their speculations?

3.1.1. Eternalism (Sassatavāda): Views 1–4

55"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who are eternalists, and who on four grounds proclaim the self and the world to be eternal. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?

56"In the first case, bhikkhus, some recluse or a brahmin, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated, [purified, clarified, unblemished, devoid of corruptions], he recollects his numerous past lives: that is, (he recollects) one birth, two, three, four, or five births; ten, twenty, thirty, forty, or fifty births; a hundred, a thousand, or a hundred thousand births; many hundreds of births, many thousands of births, many hundreds of thousands of births. (He recalls:) 'Then I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away thence, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away thence, I re-arose here.' Thus he recollects his numerous past lives in their modes and their details.

57"He speaks thus: 'The self and the world are eternal, barren, steadfast as a mountain peak,[n.45] I.e., producing nothing new. standing firm like a pillar. And though these beings roam and wander (through the round of existence), pass away and re-arise, yet the self and the world remain the same just like eternity itself. What is the reason? Because I, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, attain to such a degree of mental concentration that with my mind thus concentrated, I recollect my numerous past lives in their modes and their details. For this reason I know this: the self and the world are eternal, barren, steadfast as a mountain peak, standing firm like a pillar. And though these beings roam and wander (through the round of existence), pass away and re-arise, yet the self and the world remain the same just like eternity itself.'


58"This, bhikkhus, is the first case.


59"In the second case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins eternalists, who proclaim the self and the world to be eternal?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or brahmin, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he recollects his numerous past lives: that is, (he recollects his past lives throughout) one aeon of world-contraction and expansion,[n.46] Saṁvaṭṭaṁ-vivaṭṭaṁ: 'The PED definitions should be reversed' (BB). See VM 13.28ff. throughout two, three, four, five, or ten aeons of world-contraction and expansion. (He recalls:) 'Then I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away thence, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away thence, I re-arose here.' Thus he recollects his numerous past lives in their modes and their details.


60"He speaks thus: 'The self and the world are eternal, barren, steadfast as a mountain peak, standing firm like a pillar. And though these beings roam and wander (through the round of existence), pass away and re-arise, yet the self and the world remain the same just like eternity itself. What is the reason? "

(The remainder is exactly the same as §57 except for the extent of time recollected.)


61"This, bhikkhus, is the second reason.


62"In the third case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins eternalists, who proclaim the self and the world to be eternal?

"Herein, bhikkhus, some recluse or brahmin, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he recollects his numerous past lives: that is, (he recollects his past lives throughout) ten aeons of world-contraction and expansion, throughout twenty, thirty, or forty aeons of world-contraction and expansion … (As above) … Thus he recollects his numerous past lives in their modes and their details.

63"He speaks thus: 'The self and the world are eternal, barren, steadfast as a mountain peak, standing firm like a pillar. And though these beings roam and wander (through the round of existence), pass away and re-arise, yet the self and the world remain the same just like eternity itself. What is the reason?

(As above except for the extent of time.)


64"This, bhikkhus, is the third case.


65"In the fourth case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins eternalists, who proclaim the self and the world to be eternal?

"Herein, bhikkhus, some recluse or brahmin is a rationalist, an investigator. He declares his view—hammered out by reason, deduced from his investigations, following his own flight of thought—thus: "The self and the world are eternal, barren, steadfast as a mountain peak, standing firm like a pillar. And though these beings roam and wander (through the round of existence), pass away and re-arise, yet the self and the world remain the same just like eternity itself.'


"This, bhikkhus, is the fourth case.


66"It is on these four grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are eternalists proclaim the self and the world to be eternal. Whatever recluses and brahmins there may be who proclaim the self and the world to be eternal, all of them do so on these four grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

67"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands. And he understands: 'These standpoints, thus assumed and thus misapprehended, lead to such a future destination, to such a state in the world beyond.' He understands as well what transcends this, yet even that understanding he does not misapprehend. And because he is free from misapprehension, he has realized within himself the state of perfect peace. Having understood as they really are the origin and the passing away of feelings, their satisfaction, their unsatisfactoriness, and the escape from them, the Tathāgata, bhikkhus, is emancipated through non-clinging.

68"These are those dhammas, bhikkhus, that are deep, difficult to see, difficult to understand, peaceful and sublime, beyond the sphere of reasoning, subtle, comprehensible only to the wise, which the Tathāgata, having realized for himself with direct knowledge, propounds to others; and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.1.2. Partial-Eternalism (Ekaccasassatavāda):
Views 5–8

69"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who are eternalists in regard to some things and non-eternalists in regard to other things, and who on four grounds proclaim the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?

70"There comes a time, bhikkhus, when after the lapse of a long period this world contracts (disintegrates). While the world is contracting, beings for the most part are reborn in the Ābhassara Brahma-world.[n.47] This is part of the world of Form (rūpaloka) which escapes destruction. There they dwell, mind-made, feeding on rapture, self-luminous, moving through the air, abiding in glory. And they continue thus for a long, long period of time.

71"But sooner or later, bhikkhus, after the lapse of a long period, there comes a time when this world begins to expand once again. While the world is expanding, an empty palace of Brahmā appears. Then a certain being, due to the exhaustion of his life-span or the exhaustion of his merit,[n.48] The life-span of beings is fixed in some realms, and variable in others. Merit (puñña) is karmically wholesome action, leading to a favourable rebirth. passes away from the Ābhassara plane and re-arises in the empty palace of Brahmā. There he dwells, mind made, feeding on rapture, self-luminous, moving through the air, abiding in glory. And he continues thus for a long, long period of time.

72"Then, as a result of dwelling there all alone for so long a time, there arises in him dissatisfaction and agitation, (and he yearns): 'Oh, that other beings might come to this place!' Just at that moment, due to the exhaustion of their life-span or the exhaustion of their merit, certain other beings pass away from the Ābhassara plane and re-arise in the palace of Brahmā, in companionship with him. There they dwell, mind-made,[n.49] Manomayā: mentally created, not sexually generated. They are devas. In another sense, all dhammas are said to be mind-made (Dhp. 1–2). feeding on rapture,[n.50] self-luminous, moving through the air, abiding in glory. And they continue thus for a long, long period of time.

73"Thereupon the being who re-arose there first thinks to himself: 'I am[n.51] Brahmā is allotted a relatively humble position, and his creator-role explained away, in Buddhism. See also MN 49.8 (= MLS i, 391). the Great Brahmā, the Vanquisher, the Unvanquished, the Universal Seer, the Wielder of Power, the Lord, the Maker and Creator, the Supreme Being, the Ordainer, the Almighty, the Father of all that are and are to be. And these beings have been created by me. What is the reason? Because first I made the wish: "Oh, that other beings might come to this place!" And after I made this resolution, now these beings have come.'

74"And the beings who re-arose there after him also think: 'This must be Brahmā, the Great Brahmā, the Vanquisher, the Unvanquished, the Universal Seer, the Wielder of Power, the Lord, the Maker and Creator, the Supreme Being, the Ordainer, the Almighty, the Father of all that are and are to be. And we have been created by him. What is the reason? Because we see that he was here first, and we appeared here after him.'

75"Herein, bhikkhus, the being who re-arose there first possesses longer life, greater beauty, and greater authority than the beings who re-arose there after him.

76"Now, bhikkhus, this comes to pass, that a certain being, after passing away from that plane, takes rebirth in this world. Having come to this world, he goes forth from home to homelessness. When he has gone forth, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, he attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he recollects his immediately preceding life, but none previous to that.

77He speaks thus: 'We were created by him, by Brahmā, the Great Brahmā, the Vanquisher, the Unvanquished, the Universal Seer, the Wielder of Power, the Lord, the Maker and Creator, the Supreme Being, the Ordainer, the Almighty, the Father of all that are and are to be. He is permanent, stable, eternal, not subject to change, and he will remain the same just like eternity itself. But we, who have been created by him and have come to this world, are impermanent, unstable, short-lived, doomed to perish.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the first case.


78"In the second case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins eternalists in regard to some things and non-eternalists in regard to other things, proclaiming the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal?


"There are, bhikkhus, certain gods called 'corrupted by play.[n.52] Khiḍḍapadosikā: these devas and the next group are mentioned only here and in Suttas 20, 24. They illustrate the consequences of desire and aversion even in the (relatively) 'higher' worlds. Moral progress is virtually impossible outside the human state, so that they are actually fortunate to fall back to that state. Mindfulness (sati) is all-important. DA says the bodies of these devas are so delicate that if by forgetfulness they miss a single meal they will pass away from that place. Even if they eat immediately afterwards, it is too late!

These gods spend an excessive time indulging in the delights of laughter and play. As a consequence they become forgetful and, when they become forgetful, they pass away from that plane.

79"Now, bhikkhus, this comes to pass, that a certain being, after passing away from that plane, takes rebirth in this world. Having come to this world, he goes forth from home to homelessness. When he has gone forth, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, he attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he recollects his immediately preceding life, but none previous to that.

80He speaks thus: 'Those honourable gods who are not corrupted by play do not spend an excessive time indulging in the delights of laughter and play. As a consequence they do not become forgetful, and because they do not become forgetful they do not pass away from that plane. Those gods are permanent, stable, eternal, not subject to change, and they will remain the same just like eternity itself. But we were gods corrupted by play. We spent an excessive time indulging in the delights of laughter and play, and as a consequence we became forgetful. When we became forgetful we passed away from that plane. Coming to this world, now we are impermanent, unstable, short lived, doomed to perish.'

"This bhikkhus, is the second case.


81"In the third case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins eternalists in regard to some things and non-eternalists in regard to other things, proclaiming the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal?

"There are, bhikkhus, certain gods called 'corrupted by mind.' These gods contemplate one another with excessive envy. As a consequence their minds becomes corrupted by anger towards one another. When their minds are corrupted by anger, their bodies and minds become exhausted and consequently, they pass away from that plane.

82"Now, bhikkhus, this comes to pass, that a certain being, after passing away from that plane, takes rebirth in this world. Having come to this world, he goes forth from home to homelessness. When he has gone forth, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, he attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he recollects his immediately preceding life, but none previous to that.

83He speaks thus: 'Those honourable gods who are not corrupted by mind do not contemplate each other with excessive envy. As a result, their minds do not become corrupted by anger towards one another, their bodies and minds do not become exhausted, and they do not pass away from that plane. Those gods are permanent, stable, not subject to change, and they will remain the same just like eternity itself. But we were gods corrupted by mind. We contemplated each other with excessive envy and as a result our minds became corrupted by anger towards one another. When our minds were corrupted by anger, our bodies and minds became exhausted and consequently, we passed away from that plane. Coming to this world, now we are impermanent, unstable, short-lived, doomed to perish.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the third case.


84"In the fourth case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins eternalists in regard to some things and non-eternalists in regard to other things, proclaiming the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal?

"Herein, bhikkhus, recluse or a certain brahmin is a rationalist,[n.53] Takkī: BB renders this 'rationalist', which is somewhat misleading (Walshe) an investigator. He declares his view—hammered out by reason, deduced from his investigations, following his own flight of thought—thus: 'That which is called "the eye," "the ear," "the nose," "the tongue," and "the body"—that self is impermanent, unstable, non-eternal, subject to change. But that which is called "mind"[n.54] Manopadosikā. DA says these dwell on the plane of the Four Great Kings (i.e. only just above the human realm). Interestingly, if only one of the devas gets angry while the other remains calm, this prevents the first from passing away, which would seem to illustrate the sentiment of Dhp. 5, 6. These devas are not essentially different from those mentioned in verses 1–2, though on a lower level. (citta)[n.55] Citta: more or less synonymous with mano 'mind', but often used much like 'heart' in English ('to know in one's heart', etc.). or "mentality" (mano) or "consciousness" (viññāṇa)—that self is permanent, stable, eternal, not subject to change, and it will remain the same just like eternity itself.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the fourth case.


85"It is on these four grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are partial-eternalists proclaim the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal. Whatever recluses and brahmins there may be who proclaim the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal, all of them do so on these four grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

86"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands. And he understands: 'These standpoints, thus assumed and thus misapprehended, lead to such a future destination, to such a state in the world beyond.' He understands as well what transcends this, yet even that understanding he does not misapprehend. And because he is free from misapprehension, he has realized within himself the state of perfect peace. Having understood as they really are the origin and the passing away of feelings, their satisfaction, their unsatisfactoriness, and the escape from them, the Tathāgata, bhikkhus, is emancipated through non-clinging.

87"These are those dhammas, bhikkhus, that are deep, difficult to see, difficult to understand, peaceful and sublime, beyond the sphere of reasoning, subtle, comprehensible only to the wise, which the Tathāgata, having realized for himself with direct knowledge, propounds to others; and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.1.3. Doctrines of the Finitude and Infinity of the World (Antānantavāda): Views 9–12

88"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who are extensionists,[n.56] Antânantikā: or 'Extensionists' (RD). and who on four grounds proclaim the world to be finite or infinite. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?

89"In the first case, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he abides perceiving the world as finite.

90He speaks thus: 'The world is finite and bounded. What is the reason? Because I attain to such concentration of mind that I abide perceiving the world as finite. For that reason I know this: the world is finite and bounded.'


"This, bhikkhus, is the first case.


91"In the second case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins extensionists, proclaiming the world to be finite or infinite?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he abides perceiving the world as infinite.

92He speaks thus: 'The world is infinite and boundless. Those recluses and brahmins who declare the world to be finite and bounded speak falsely. The world is infinite and boundless. What is the reason? Because I attain to such concentration of mind that I abide perceiving the world as infinite. For this reason I know this: the world is infinite and boundless.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the second case.


93"In the third case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins extensionists, proclaiming the world to be finite or infinite?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he abides perceiving the world as finite in the upward and downward directions, but as infinite across.

94He speaks thus: 'The world is both finite and infinite. Those recluses and brahmins who declare the world to be finite and bounded speak falsely; and those recluses and brahmins who declare the world to be infinite and boundless also speak falsely. The world is both finite and infinite. For what reason? Because I attain to such concentration of mind that I abide perceiving the world as finite in the upward and downward directions, but as infinite across. For this reason I know this: the world is both finite and infinite.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the third case.


95"In the fourth case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins extensionists, proclaiming the world to be finite or infinite?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin is a rationalist, an investigator. He declares his view—hammered out by reason, deduced from his investigations, following his own flight of thought—thus: 'The world is neither finite nor infinite. Those recluses and brahmins who declare the world to be finite and bounded, those who declare it to be infinite and boundless, and those who declare it to be both finite and infinite—all these speak falsely. The world is neither finite nor infinite.[n.57] DA associates these various views with the higher jhānas, obtained with the aid of the kasiṇas (coloured discs, etc., cf. VM chs. 4, 5). DA says: '(1) Without having extended the counterpart sign to the boundaries of the world-sphere, he abides perceiving the world as finite. (2) But he who has extended the kasiṇa-image to the boundaries of the world-sphere perceives the world to be infinite. (3) Not extending the sign in the upward and downward directions, but extending it across, he perceives the world as finite in the upward and downward directions, and infinite across. (4) The rationalist doctrine should be understood by the method stated.' [This is unexplained, though the Sub-Commentary attempts an explanation: 'If the self were finite, its rebirth in distant places could not be recollected. And if it were infinite, one living in this world would be able to experience the happiness of the heavenly worlds and the suffering of the hells, etc. If one holds it to be both finite and infinite, one would incur the errors of both the previous positions. Therefore the self cannot be declared to be either finite or infinite.'"] (Translated by BB, pp. 172, 171).

"This, bhikkhus, is the fourth case.


96"It is on these four grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins, who are extensionists proclaim the world to be finite of infinite. Whatever recluses or brahmins there may be who proclaim the world to be finite or infinite, all of them do so on these four grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.


97–98. "This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … (repeat §§51–52 in full) … and it is concerning these that those who would praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.1.4. Doctrines of Endless Equivocation (Amarāvikkhepavāda): Views 13–16

99"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who are endless equivocators.[n.58] Amarā-vikheppikā can be interpreted as either 'eel-wriggling' (RD) or 'endless equivocation' (BB): amarā (lit. 'deathless') is the name of a slippery fish, perhaps an eel, which escapes capture by wriggling (DA). A deliberate pun may well be intended. When questioned about this or that point, on four grounds they resort to evasive statements and to endless equivocation. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins do so?

100"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin does not understand as it really is what is wholesome and what is unwholesome. He thinks: 'I do not understand as it really is what is wholesome and what is unwholesome. If, without understanding, I were to declare something to be wholesome or unwholesome, my declaration might be false. If my declaration should be false, that would distress me, and that distress would be an obstacle for me.[n.59] Either for the higher training or for a heavenly rebirth (DA). Cf. verse 5, where the former is certainly meant. Therefore, out of fear and loathing of making a false statement,[n.60] Due to moral shame and moral dread (hiri-ottappa) (DA), i.e. shame at doing what is wrong, and dread of it. These two qualities are called 'guardians of the world' (cf. Nyānaponika Thera, Abhidhamma Studies, 2nd. ed., Colombo 1965, p. 80). Thus it is recognised that the first three classes of 'eel-wrigglers' have a moral conscience. Their equivocation stems from lack of understanding, not of scruple. he does not declare anything to be wholesome or unwholesome. But when he is questioned about this or that point, he resorts to evasive statements and to endless equivocation: "I do not take it thus, nor do I take it in that way, nor do I take it in some other way. I do not say that it is not, nor do I say that it is neither this nor that.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the first case.


101"In the second case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins endless equivocators, resorting to evasive statements and to endless equivocation?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin does not understand as it really is what is wholesome and what is unwholesome. He thinks: 'I do not understand as it really is what is wholesome and what is unwholesome. If, without understanding, I were to declare something to be wholesome or unwholesome, desire and lust or hatred and aversion might arise in me. Should desire and lust or hated and aversion arise in me, that would be clinging on my part. Such clinging would distress me, and that distress would be an obstacle for me.' Therefore, out of fear and loathing of clinging, he does not declare anything to be wholesome or unwholesome. But when questioned about this or that point he resorts to evasive statements and to endless equivocation: 'I do not take it thus, nor do I take it in that way, nor do I take it in some other way. I do not say that it is not, nor do I say that it is neither this nor that.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the second case.


102"In the third case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins endless equivocators, resorting to evasive statements and to endless equivocation?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin does not understand as it really is what is wholesome and what is unwholesome. He thinks: 'I do not understand as it really is what is wholesome and what is unwholesome. Now, there are recluses and brahmins who are wise, clever, experienced in controversy, who wander about demolishing the views of others with their wisdom. If, without understanding, I were to declare something to be wholesome or unwholesome, they might cross-examine me about my views, press me for reasons and refute my statements. If they should do so, I might not be able to reply. If I could not reply, that would distress me, and that distress would be an obstacle for me.' Therefore, out of fear and loathing of being cross-examined, he does not declare anything to be wholesome or unwholesome. But, when questioned about this or that point, he resorts to evasive statements and to endless equivocation: 'I do not take it thus, nor do I take it in that way, nor do I take it in some other way. I do not say that it is not, nor do I say that it is neither this nor that.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the third case.


103"In the fourth case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins endless equivocators, resorting to evasive statements and to endless equivocation?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin is dull and stupid.[n.61] The following views are attributed in DN 2.33f. to Sañjaya (see n.13). Due to his dullness and stupidity, when he is questioned about this or that point, he resorts to evasive statements and to endless equivocation: 'If you ask me whether there is a world beyond—if I thought there is another world, I would declare that there is. But I do not take it thus, nor do I take it in that way, nor do I take it in some other way. I do not say that it is not, nor do I say that is neither this nor that.'

"Similarly, when asked any of the following questions, he resorts to the same evasive statements and to endless equivocation:[n.62] The four 'alternatives' of Indian logic: a thing (a) is, (b) is not, (c) both is and is not, (d) neither is nor is not.

    1. Is there no world beyond?
    2. Is it that there both is and is not a world beyond?
    3. Is it that there neither is nor is not a world beyond?
    1. Are there beings spontaneously reborn?
    2. Are there no beings spontaneously reborn?
    3. Is it that there both are and are not beings spontaneously reborn?
    4. Is it that there neither are nor are not beings spontaneously reborn?
    1. Is there fruit and result of good and bad action?
    2. Is there no fruit and result of good and bad action?
    3. Is it that there both is and is not fruit and result of good and bad action?
    4. Is it that there neither is nor is not fruit and result of good and bad action?
    1. Does the Tathāgata exist after death?[n.63] See also DN 9.30 and n.219.
    2. Does the Tathāgata not exist after death?
    3. Does the Tathāgata both exist and not exist after death?
    4. Does the Tathāgata neither exist nor not exist after death?

"This bhikkhus, is the fourth case.


104"It is on these four grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are endless equivocators resort to evasive statements and to endless equivocation when questioned about this or that point. Whatever recluses or brahmins there may be who resort to evasive statements and to endless equivocation, all of them do so on these four grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … . and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.1.5. Doctrines of Fortuitous Origination (Adhiccasamuppannavāda): Views 17–18

105"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins, who are fortuitous originationists, and who on two grounds proclaim the self and the world to originate fortuitously. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?

106"There are, bhikkhus, certain gods called 'non-percipient beings.'[n.64] Having attained a high absorption, and fearing the perils of conscious existence, they have wished for, and gained, an unconscious state. With the first stirring of perception, however, they fall away from that realm (DA). When perception arises in them, those gods pass away from that plane. Now, bhikkhus, this comes to pass, that a certain being, after passing away from that plane, takes rebirth in this world. Having come to this world, he goes forth from home to homelessness. When he has gone forth, by means of ardour, endeavour, application, diligence, and right reflection, he attains to such a degree of mental concentration that with his mind thus concentrated he recollects the arising of perception, but nothing previous to that. He speaks thus: 'The self and the world originate fortuitously. What is the reason? Because previously I did not exist, but now I am. Not having been, I sprang into being.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the first case.


107"In the second case, owing to what, with reference to what, are some honourable recluses and brahmins fortuitous originationists, proclaiming the self and the world to originate fortuitously?

"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin is a rationalist, an investigator. He declares his view—hammered out by reason, deduced from his investigations, following his own flight of thought—thus: 'The self and the world originate fortuitously.'

"This, bhikkhus, is the second case.


108"It is on these two grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are fortuitous originationists proclaim the self and the world to originate fortuitously. Whatever recluses or brahmins there may be who proclaim the self and the world to originate fortuitously, all of them do so on these two grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.


109"It is on these eighteen grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the past and hold settled views about the past assert various conceptual theorems referring to the past. Whatever recluses or brahmins are speculators about the past, hold settled views about the past, and assert various conceptual theorems referring to the past, all of them do so on these eighteen grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

110"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands. And he understands: 'These standpoints, thus assumed and thus misapprehended, lead to such a future destination, to such in the world beyond.' He understands as well what transcends this, yet even that understanding he does not misapprehend. And because he is free from misapprehension, he has realized within himself the state of perfect peace. Having understood as they really are the origin and the passing away of feelings, their satisfaction, their unsatisfactoriness, and the escape from them, the Tathāgata, bhikkhus, is emancipated through non-clinging.

111"These are those dhammas, bhikkhus, that are deep, difficult to see, difficult to understand, peaceful and sublime, beyond the sphere of reasoning, subtle, comprehensible only to the wise, which the Tathāgata, having realized for himself with direct knowledge, propounds to others; and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.2 Speculations about the Future (Aparantakappika)

112"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the future, who hold settled views about the future, and who on forty-four grounds assert various conceptual theorems referring to the future. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins frame their speculations?

3.2.1. Doctrines of Percipient Immortality
(Saññīvādā): Views 19–34

113"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of percipient immortality and who on sixteen grounds proclaim the self to survive percipient after death. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?


114–129"They proclaim: 'The self is immutable after death, percipient, and:

    1. material[n.65] The view of the Ajivikas (DA): see DN 2.19–20 and nn.102–109 there. Cf. A.L. Basham, History and Doctrine of the Ājīvikas, (London 1951).
    2. immaterial[n.66] This is the view of the Jains. DA says the other views mentioned are based on various meditational experiences.
    3. both material and immaterial
    4. neither material nor immaterial
    1. finite
    2. infinite
    3. both finite and infinite
    4. neither finite nor infinite
    1. of uniform perception
    2. of diversified perception
    3. of limited perception
    4. of boundless perception
    1. exclusively happy
    2. exclusively miserable
    3. both happy and miserable
    4. neither happy nor miserable.'

130"It is on these sixteen grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of percipient immortality proclaim the self to survive percipient after death. Whatever recluses or brahmins maintain a doctrine of percipient immortality, all of them do so on these sixteen grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understand … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.2.2. Doctrines of Non-percipient Immortality
(Asaññīvādā): Views 35–42

131"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of non-percipient immortality, and who on eight grounds proclaim the self to survive non-percipient after death. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?


132–139"They proclaim: 'The self is immutable after death, non-percipient, and:

    1. material
    2. immaterial
    3. both material and immaterial
    4. neither material nor immaterial
    1. finite
    2. infinite
    3. both finite and infinite
    4. neither finite nor infinite.'

140"It is on these eight grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of non-percipient immortality proclaim the self to survive non-percipient after death. Whatever recluses or brahmins maintain a doctrine of non—percipient immortality, all of them do so on these eight grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.2.3. Doctrines of Neither Percipient Nor Non-Percipient Immortality (Nevasaññī-nāsaññīvādā): Views 43–50

141"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of neither percipient nor non-percipient immortality and who on eight grounds proclaim the self to survive neither percipient nor non-percipient after death. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?


142–149"They proclaim: 'The self is immutable after death, neither percipient nor non-percipient, and:

    1. material
    2. immaterial
    3. both material and immaterial
    4. neither material nor immaterial
    1. finite
    2. infinite
    3. both finite and infinite
    4. neither finite nor infinite.[n.67] The Sub-Commentary (see BB, p. 190) is helpful here: (1) is based on experience of the unconscious realm (see n.65), (2) takes perception to be the self, (3) takes the material, or material and immaterial dhammas + perception to be the self, (4) is based on reasoning, (5–8) are to be understood as at n.57.

150"It is on these eight grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of neither percipient nor non-percipient immortality proclaim the self to survive neither percipient nor non-percipient after death. Whatever recluses or brahmins maintain a doctrine of neither percipient nor non-percipient immortality, all of them do so on these eight grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.2.4. Annihilationism (Ucchedavādā): Views 51–57

151"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who are annihilationists and who on seven grounds proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?

152"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin asserts the following doctrine and view: 'The self, good sir, has material form; it is composed of the four primary elements[n.70] 'Earth' (paṭhavī) or extension, 'water' (āpo) or cohesion, 'fire' (tejo) or temperature, 'air' (vāyo) or motion: the traditional names for the four qualities present, in varying proportions, in all matter. and originates from father and mother.[n.69] In the Buddhist view, there is additionally required the presence of the gandhabba or 'being-to-be-born', i.e. the arising of a new 'continuity of consciousness' dependent on that of some being just deceased. Cf. MN 38.1–7. Since this self, good sir, is annihilated and destroyed with the breakup of the body and does not exist after death, at this point the self is completely annihilated.' In this way some proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being.

153"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self is completely annihilated. For there is, good sir, another self—divine,[n.71] Kāmâvacara: belonging to the sensuous sphere (kāmaloka), the lowest of the three worlds. feeding on edible nutriment.[n.72] Kabalinkārâhāra generally means 'material food'. Here it denotes the kind of nutriment on which the lower devas subsist. That you neither know nor see, but I know it and see it. Since this self, good sir, is annihilated and destroyed with the breakup of the body and does not exist after death, at this point the self is completely annihilated.' In this way others proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being.

154"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self is completely annihilated. For there is, good sir, another self—divine, having material form, mind-made,[n.73] 'Produced by the jhāna-mind' (DA). complete in all its limbs and organs, not destitute of any faculties. That you neither know nor see, but I know it and see it. Since this self, good sir, is annihilated and destroyed with the breakup of the body and does not exist after death, at this point the self is completely annihilated.' In this way others proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being.

155"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self is completely annihilated. For there is, good sir, another self belonging to the base of infinite space,[n.74] The next four correspond to the 4th–7th 'liberations' (DN 15.49) or the four higher, 'formless' jhanas. (reached by) the complete surmounting of perceptions of material form, by the disappearance of perceptions of resistance, by non-attention to perceptions of diversity, (by contemplating) "Space is infinite." That you neither know nor see, but I know it and see it. Since this self, good sir, is annihilated and destroyed with the breakup of the body and does not exist after death, at this point the self is completely annihilated.'[n.75] DA says this one takes the divine form (dibb'atthabhāva), i.e. the form of the devas of the sensuous sphere, for the self. The assumption is that this survives the break-up of the physical body for a period of time (of unspecified duration), 'annihilation' occurring at its cessation, and similarly with the remaining 'selves'. As BB points out (p. 32), 'Only the first form of annihilationism is materialistic; six admit that the doctrine can take on a spiritual garb.' In this way others proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being.

156"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self is completely annihilated. For there is, good sir, another self belonging to the base of infinite consciousness, (reached by) completely surmounting the base of infinite space (by contemplating): "Consciousness is infinite." That you neither know nor see. But I know it and see it. Since this self, good sir, is annihilated and destroyed with the breakup of the body and does not exist after death—at this point the self is completely annihilated.' In this way some proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being.

157"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self is completely annihilated. For there is, good sir, another self belonging to the base of nothingness, (reached by) completely surmounting the base of infinite consciousness (by contemplating): "There is nothing." That you neither know nor see. But I know it and see it. Since this self, good sir, is annihilated and destroyed with the breakup of the body and does not exist after death—at this point the self is completely annihilated.' In this way some proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being.

158"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self is completely annihilated. For there is, good sir, another self belonging to the base of neither perception nor non-perception, (reached by) completely surmounting the base of nothingness (by contemplating): "This is the peaceful, this is the sublime." That you neither know nor see. But I know it and see it. Since this self, good sir, is annihilated and destroyed with the breakup of the body and does not exist after death—at this point the self is completely annihilated.' In this way some proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being.

159"It is on these seven grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are annihilationists proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being. Whatever recluses or brahmins proclaim the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being, all of them do so on these seven grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

3.2.5. Doctrines of Nibbāna Here and Now (diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā): Views 58–62

160"There are, bhikkhus, some recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of Nibbāna here and now and who, on five grounds, proclaim Nibbāna here and now[n.76] This is not, of course, the real Nibbāna of Buddhism. DA says it means the subsiding of suffering (dukkhavūpasama) in this very individual form (subsiding being something far short of cessation). The New Sub-Commentary (quoted by BB, p. 197) adds: 'It is not the supreme fruit and not the unconditioned element (asaṅkhata-dhātu = nibbāna), for these are beyond the domain of these theorists.' for an existent being. And owing to what, with reference to what, do these honourable recluses and brahmins proclaim their views?

161"Herein, bhikkhus, a certain recluse or a brahmin asserts the following doctrine or view: 'When this self, good sir, furnished and supplied with the five strands of sense pleasures, revels in them—at this point the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now.' In this way some proclaim supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being.

162"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now. What is the reason? Because, good sir, sense pleasures are impermanent, suffering, subject to change, and through their change and transformation there arise sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair. But when the self, quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, enters and abides in the first jhāna,[n.77] The various jhānas are mistaken for Nibbāna. which is accompanied by initial and sustained thought[n.78] Vitakka-vicāra: otherwise rendered 'initial and sustained thought', and the like. I am indebted to L.S. Cousins for the suggestion that I should adopt the Ven. Ñāṇamoli's original rendering 'thinking and pondering' (altered by the editor) in his MN translation (forthcoming). Cf. n.611. and contains the rapture[n.79] Pīti: a difficult word to translate. Renderings vary from 'interest' through 'zest' to 'rapture'. It is classified not as a feeling (vedanā) but as part of the group of mental formations (saṅkhārā), i.e. as a mental reaction. BDic says: 'It may be described psychologically as "joyful interest"' — for which the simplest term would seem to be 'delight'. and happiness[n.80] Sukha: pleasant feeling, physical or mental (though for the latter the word somanassa exists). The difference between this and pīti may seem subtle but is important. born of seclusion—at this point, good sir, the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now.' In this way others proclaim supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being.

163"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now. What is the reason? Because that jhāna contains initial and sustained thought; therefore it is declared to be gross. But when, with the subsiding of initial and sustained thought, the self enters and abides in the second jhāna, which is accompanied by internal confidence and unification of mind, is free from initial and sustained thought, and contains the rapture and happiness born of concentration[n.81] Samādhi here has its basic meaning of 'concentration'. —at this point, good sir, the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now.' In this way others proclaim supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being.

164"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now. What is the reason? It is declared to be gross because of the mental exhilaration connected with rapture that exists there. But when, with the fading away of rapture, one abides in equanimity, mindful and clearly comprehending, and still experiencing happiness with the body, enters and abides in the third jhāna, so that the ariyans announce: "He abides happily, in equanimity and mindfulness"—at this point, good sir, the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now.' In this way some proclaim supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being.

165"To him another says: 'There is, good sir, such a self as you assert. That I do not deny. But it is not at that point that the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now. What is the reason? It is declared to be gross because a mental concern, 'Happiness,' exists there. But when, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of previous joy and grief, one enters and abides in the fourth jhāna, which is without pleasure and pain and contains purification of mindfulness[n.82] Sampajāna: not 'self-possessed' as so many translators have repeated after RD. through equanimity—[n.83] Upekkhaka. at this point, good sir, the self attains supreme Nibbāna here and now.' In this way some proclaim supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

166"It is on these five grounds, bhikkhus, that these recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of Nibbāna here and now proclaim supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being. Whatever recluses or brahmins proclaim supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being, all of them do so on these five grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.


"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

167"It is on these forty-four grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the future and hold settled views about the future assert various conceptual theorems referring to the future. Whatever recluses or brahmins, bhikkhus, are speculators about the future, hold settled views about the future, and assert various conceptual theorems referring to the future, all of them do so on these forty-four grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands … and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

168"It is on these sixty-two grounds, bhikkhus, that those recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the past, speculators about the future, and speculators about the past and the future together, who hold settled views about the past and the future, assert various conceptual theorems referring to the past and the future.

169"Whatever recluses or brahmins, bhikkhus, are speculators about the past or speculators about the future or speculators about the past and the future together, hold settled views about the past and the future, and assert various conceptual theorems referring to the past and the future, all of them do so on these sixty-two grounds or on a certain one of them. Outside of these there is none.

170"This, bhikkhus, the Tathāgata understands. And he understands: 'These standpoints, thus assumed and thus misapprehended, lead to such a future destination, to such a state in the world beyond.' He understands as well what transcends this, yet even that understanding he does not misapprehend. And because he is free from misapprehension, he has realized within himself the state of perfect peace. Having understood as they really are the origin and the passing away of feelings, their satisfaction, their unsatisfactoriness, and the escape from them, the Tathāgata, bhikkhus, is emancipated through non-clinging.

171"These are those dhammas, bhikkhus, that are deep, difficult to see, difficult to understand, peaceful and sublime, beyond the sphere of reasoning, subtle, comprehensible only to the wise, which the Tathāgata, having realized for himself with direct knowledge, propounds to others; and it is concerning these that those who would rightly praise the Tathāgata in accordance with reality would speak.

4. The Round of Conditions and Emancipation from the Round

4.1. Agitation and Vacillation (Paritassitavipphandita)

172Therein, bhikkhus, when those recluses and brahmins who are eternalists proclaim on four grounds the self and the world to be eternal—that is only the feeling of those who do not know and do not see; that is only the agitation and vacillation of those who are immersed in craving.

173"When those recluses and brahmins who are eternalists in regard to some things and non-eternalists in regard to other things proclaim on four grounds the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal—that too is only the feeling of those who do not know and do not see; that is only the agitation and vacillation of those who are immersed in craving.


174"When those recluses and brahmins who are extensionists proclaim on four grounds the world to be finite or infinite:

175"When those recluses and brahmins who are endless equivocators on four grounds resort to evasive statements and endless equivocation when questioned on this or that point:

176"When those recluses and brahmins who are fortuitous originationists proclaim on two grounds the self and the world to originate fortuitously:


177"When those recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the past and hold settled views about the past assert on eighteen grounds various conceptual theorems referring to the past:

178"When those recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of percipient immortality proclaim on sixteen grounds the self to survive percipient after death:

179"When those recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of non-percipient immortality proclaim on eight grounds the self to survive non-percipient after death:

180"When those recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of neither percipient nor non-percipient immortality proclaim on eight grounds the self to survive neither percipient nor non-percipient after death:

181"When those recluses and brahmins who are annihilationists proclaim on seven grounds the annihilation, destruction, and extermination of an existent being:

182"When those recluses and brahmins who maintain a doctrine of Nibbāna here and now proclaim on five grounds supreme Nibbāna here and now for an existent being:

183"When those recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the future and hold settled views about the future assert on forty-four grounds various conceptual theorems referring to the future:

184"When those recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the past, speculators about the future, speculators about the past and the future together, who hold settled views about the past and the future, assert on sixty-two grounds various conceptual theorems referring to the past and the future—that too is only the feeling of those who do not know and do not see; that is only the agitation and vacillation of those who are immersed in craving.

4.2. Conditioned by Contact (Phassapaccayavāra)

185"Therein, bhikkhus, when those recluses who are eternalists proclaim on four grounds the self and the world to be eternal—that is conditioned by contact.[n.84] Phassa is the 'contact' between sense-base and its object, e.g. eye and visible object. Such contact is the basis of feeling (vedanā) That they can experience that feeling without contact—such a case is impossible.


186"When those recluses and brahmins who are eternalists in regard to some things and non-eternalists in regard to other things proclaim on four grounds the self and the world to be partly eternal and partly non-eternal—that too is conditioned by contact. That they can experience that feeling without contact—such a case is impossible.


187–196"When those recluses and brahmins who are extensionists proclaim their views; when those who are fortuitous originationists proclaim their views; when those who are speculators about the past and hold settled views about the past assert on eighteen grounds various conceptual theorems referring to the past; when those who maintain a doctrine of percipient immortality, non-percipient immortality, or neither percipient nor non-percipient immortality proclaim their views; when those who are annihilationists proclaim their views; when those who maintain a doctrine of Nibbāna here and now proclaim their views; when those who are speculators about the future and hold settled views about the future assert on forty-four grounds various conceptual theorems referring to the future—that too is conditioned by contact. That they can experience that feeling without contact—such a case is impossible.


197"When those recluses and brahmins who are speculators about the past, speculators about the future, speculators about the past and the future together, who hold settled views about the past and the future, assert on sixty-two grounds various conceptual theorems referring to the past and the future—that too is conditioned by contact. That they can experience that feeling without contact—such a case is impossible.

4.3. Dependent Origination (Netaṁṭhānaṁvijjativāra)

198–210Now, when those ascetics and brahmins theorize about the past and the future on these sixty-two grounds, all of them experience this by repeated contact through the six fields of contact. Their feeling is a condition for craving. Craving is a condition for grasping. Grasping is a condition for continued existence. Continued existence is a condition for rebirth. Rebirth is a condition for old age and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, sadness, and distress to come to be.

4.4. Exposition of the Round (Diṭṭhigatikādhiṭṭhānavaṭṭakathā)

211"Therein, bhikkhus, those recluses and brahmins who are eternalists and proclaim on four grounds the self and the world to be eternal; and those who are eternalists in regard to some things and non-eternalists in regard to others; and those who are extensionists; and those who are endless equivocators; and those who are fortuitous originationists; and those who are speculators about the past; and those who maintain a doctrine of percipient immortality; and those who maintain a doctrine of non-percipient immortality; and those who maintain a doctrine of neither percipient nor non-percipient immortality; and those who are annihilationists; and those who maintain a doctrine of Nibbāna here and now; and those who are speculators about the future; and those who are speculators about the past, speculators about the future, speculators about the past and the future together, hold settled views about the past and the future and assert on sixty-two grounds various conceptual theorems referring to the past and the future—all these recluses and brahmins experience these feelings only by repeated contacts through the six bases of contact.[n.85] Eye, ear, nose, tongue, body as base of the tactile sense, and mind (which is always the sixth sense in Buddhism). With feeling as condition, there arises in them craving; with craving as condition, clinging arises; with clinging as condition, existence; with existence as condition, birth; and with birth as condition, ageing and death, sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair arise.[n.86] This is the first, partial, exposition of dependent origination (paṭicca-samuppāda) in the Canon. See DN14 and DN15.

5. The Ending of the Round (Vivaṭṭakathādi)

212"When, bhikkhus, a bhikkhu understands as they really are the origin and passing away of the six bases of contact, their satisfaction, unsatisfactoriness, and the escape from them, then he understands what transcends all these views.

213"Whatever recluses or brahmins, bhikkhus, are speculators about the past, speculators about the future, speculators about the past and the future together, hold settled views about the past and the future and assert various conceptual theorems referring to the past and the future—all are trapped in this net with its sixty-two divisions. Whenever they emerge, they emerge caught within this net, trapped and contained within this very net.

214"Just as, bhikkhus, a skillful fisherman or a fisherman's apprentice, after spreading a fine-meshed net over a small pool of water, might think: 'Whatever sizeable creatures there are in this pool, all are trapped within this net, trapped and contained in this very net'—in the same way, all those recluses and brahmins are trapped in this net with its sixty-two divisions. Whenever they emerge, they emerge caught within this net, trapped and contained within this very net.


215"The body of the Tathāgata, bhikkhus, stands with the leash that bound it to existence cut.[n.87] All that formerly bound him to the cycle of rebirth. As long as his body stands, gods and men shall see him. But with the breakup of the body and the exhaustion of the life-faculty, gods and men shall see him no more.

216"Just as, bhikkhus, when the stalk of a bunch of mangoes has been cut, all the mangoes connected to the stalk follow along with it, in the same way, the body of the Tathāgata stands with the leash that bound it to existence cut. As long as his body stands, gods and men shall see him. But with the breakup of the body and the exhaustion of the life-faculty, gods and men shall see him no more."


217When this was said, the Venerable Ānanda said to the Exalted One: "It is wonderful, venerable sir, it is marvelous! What is the title, venerable sir, of this exposition of the Dhamma?"

"Ānanda, you may remember this exposition of the Dhamma as the Net of the Good, as the Net of the Dhamma, as the Supreme Net, as the Net of Views. You may remember it also as the Incomparable Victory in Battle."

218Thus spoke the Exalted One. Elated in mind, the bhikkhus delighted in the word of the Exalted One. And while this exposition was being spoken, the ten-thousandfold world system shook.

Here ends the Brahmajāla Sutta.

1. Paribbājakakathā

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā antarā ca rājagahaṁ antarā ca nāḷandaṁ addhānamaggappaṭipanno hoti mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi. Suppiyopi kho paribbājako antarā ca rājagahaṁ antarā ca nāḷandaṁ addhānamaggappaṭipanno hoti saddhiṁ antevāsinā brahmadattena māṇavena. Tatra sudaṁ suppiyo paribbājako anekapariyāyena buddhassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṁghassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati; suppiyassa pana paribbājakassa antevāsī brahmadatto māṇavo anekapariyāyena buddhassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṁghassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati. Itiha te ubho ācariyantevāsī aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā bhagavantaṁ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhā honti bhikkhusaṁghañca.

2Atha kho bhagavā ambalaṭṭhikāyaṁ rājāgārake ekarattivāsaṁ upagacchi saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṁghena. Suppiyopi kho paribbājako ambalaṭṭhikāyaṁ rājāgārake ekarattivāsaṁ upagacchi antevāsinā brahmadattena māṇavena. Tatrapi sudaṁ suppiyo paribbājako anekapariyāyena buddhassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṁghassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati; suppiyassa pana paribbājakassa antevāsī brahmadatto māṇavo anekapariyāyena buddhassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṁghassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati. Itiha te ubho ācariyantevāsī aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā viharanti.

3Atha kho sambahulānaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ rattiyā paccūsasamayaṁ paccuṭṭhitānaṁ maṇḍalamāḷe sannisinnānaṁ sannipatitānaṁ ayaṁ saṅkhiyadhammo udapādi: "acchariyaṁ, āvuso, abbhutaṁ, āvuso, yāvañcidaṁ tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena sattānaṁ nānādhimuttikatā suppaṭividitā. Ayañhi suppiyo paribbājako anekapariyāyena buddhassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṅghassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati; suppiyassa pana paribbājakassa antevāsī brahmadatto māṇavo anekapariyāyena buddhassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṅghassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati. Itihame ubho ācariyantevāsī aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā bhagavantaṁ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhā honti bhikkhusaṅghañcā"ti.

4Atha kho bhagavā tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ imaṁ saṅkhiyadhammaṁ viditvā yena maṇḍalamāḷo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "kāya nuttha, bhikkhave, etarahi kathāya sannisinnā sannipatitā, kā ca pana vo antarākathā vippakatā"ti?

Evaṁ vutte, te bhikkhū bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: "idha, bhante, amhākaṁ rattiyā paccūsasamayaṁ paccuṭṭhitānaṁ maṇḍalamāḷe sannisinnānaṁ sannipatitānaṁ ayaṁ saṅkhiyadhammo udapādi: 'acchariyaṁ, āvuso, abbhutaṁ, āvuso, yāvañcidaṁ tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena sattānaṁ nānādhimuttikatā suppaṭividitā. Ayañhi suppiyo paribbājako anekapariyāyena buddhassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṅghassa avaṇṇaṁ bhāsati; suppiyassa pana paribbājakassa antevāsī brahmadatto māṇavo anekapariyāyena buddhassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, dhammassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati, saṅghassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsati. Itihame ubho ācariyantevāsī aññamaññassa ujuvipaccanīkavādā bhagavantaṁ piṭṭhito piṭṭhito anubandhā honti bhikkhusaṅghañcā'ti. Ayaṁ kho no, bhante, antarākathā vippakatā, atha bhagavā anuppatto"ti.

5"Mamaṁ vā, bhikkhave, pare avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, dhammassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, saṅghassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, tatra tumhehi na āghāto na appaccayo na cetaso anabhiraddhi karaṇīyā. Mamaṁ vā, bhikkhave, pare avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, dhammassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, saṅghassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, tatra ce tumhe assatha kupitā vā anattamanā vā, tumhaṁ yevassa tena antarāyo. Mamaṁ vā, bhikkhave, pare avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, dhammassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, saṅghassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, tatra ce tumhe assatha kupitā vā anattamanā vā, api nu tumhe paresaṁ subhāsitaṁ dubbhāsitaṁ ājāneyyāthā"ti?


"No hetaṁ, bhante".

6"Mamaṁ vā, bhikkhave, pare avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, dhammassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, saṅghassa vā avaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, tatra tumhehi abhūtaṁ abhūtato nibbeṭhetabbaṁ: 'itipetaṁ abhūtaṁ, itipetaṁ atacchaṁ, natthi cetaṁ amhesu, na ca panetaṁ amhesu saṁvijjatī'ti.

7Mamaṁ vā, bhikkhave, pare vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, dhammassa vā vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, saṁghassa vā vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, tatra tumhehi na ānando na somanassaṁ na cetaso uppilāvitattaṁ karaṇīyaṁ. Mamaṁ vā, bhikkhave, pare vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, dhammassa vā vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, saṁghassa vā vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, tatra ce tumhe assatha ānandino sumanā uppilāvitā tumhaṁ yevassa tena antarāyo. Mamaṁ vā, bhikkhave, pare vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, dhammassa vā vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, saṁghassa vā vaṇṇaṁ bhāseyyuṁ, tatra tumhehi bhūtaṁ bhūtato paṭijānitabbaṁ: 'itipetaṁ bhūtaṁ, itipetaṁ tacchaṁ, atthi cetaṁ amhesu, saṁvijjati ca panetaṁ amhesū'ti.

2. Sīla

2.1. Cūḷasīla

8Appamattakaṁ kho panetaṁ, bhikkhave, oramattakaṁ sīlamattakaṁ, yena puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya. Katamañca taṁ, bhikkhave, appamattakaṁ oramattakaṁ sīlamattakaṁ, yena puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya?

9'Pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo nihitadaṇḍo, nihitasattho, lajjī, dayāpanno, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharatī'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

10'Adinnādānaṁ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo dinnādāyī dinnapāṭikaṅkhī, athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharatī'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

11'Abrahmacariyaṁ pahāya brahmacārī samaṇo gotamo ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

12'Musāvādaṁ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo saccavādī saccasandho theto paccayiko avisaṁvādako lokassā'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

13'Pisuṇaṁ vācaṁ pahāya pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo, ito sutvā na amutra akkhātā imesaṁ bhedāya, amutra vā sutvā na imesaṁ akkhātā amūsaṁ bhedāya. Iti bhinnānaṁ vā sandhātā, sahitānaṁ vā anuppadātā samaggārāmo samaggarato samagganandī samaggakaraṇiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

14'Pharusaṁ vācaṁ pahāya pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo, yā sā vācā nelā kaṇṇasukhā pemanīyā hadayaṅgamā porī bahujanakantā bahujanamanāpā tathārūpiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

15'Samphappalāpaṁ pahāya samphappalāpā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī, nidhānavatiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā kālena sāpadesaṁ pariyantavatiṁ atthasaṁhitan'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


16'Bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave … pe … .

17'Ekabhattiko samaṇo gotamo rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā … .

18Naccagītavāditavisūkadassanā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

19mālāgandhavilepanadhāraṇamaṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

20Uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

21Jātarūparajatapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .


22Āmakadhaññapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

23Āmakamaṁsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

24Itthikumārikapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

25Dāsidāsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

26Ajeḷakapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

27Kukkuṭasūkarapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

28Hatthigavassavaḷavapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .


29Khettavatthupaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

30Dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

31Kayavikkayā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

32Tulākūṭakaṁsakūṭamānakūṭā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

33Ukkoṭanavañcananikatisāciyogā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo … .

34Chedanavadhabandhanaviparāmosaālopasahasākārā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

Cūḷasīlaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

2.2. Majjhimasīla

35'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ—mūlabījaṁ khandhabījaṁ phaḷubījaṁ aggabījaṁ bījabījameva pañcamaṁ; iti evarūpā bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


36'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ sannidhikāraparibhogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ—annasannidhiṁ pānasannidhiṁ vatthasannidhiṁ yānasannidhiṁ sayanasannidhiṁ gandhasannidhiṁ āmisasannidhiṁ iti vā iti evarūpā sannidhikāraparibhogā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


37'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ visūkadassanaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ—naccaṁ gītaṁ vāditaṁ pekkhaṁ akkhānaṁ pāṇissaraṁ vetāḷaṁ kumbhathūṇaṁ sobhanakaṁ caṇḍālaṁ vaṁsaṁ dhovanaṁ hatthiyuddhaṁ assayuddhaṁ mahiṁsayuddhaṁ usabhayuddhaṁ ajayuddhaṁ meṇḍayuddhaṁ kukkuṭayuddhaṁ vaṭṭakayuddhaṁ daṇḍayuddhaṁ muṭṭhiyuddhaṁ nibbuddhaṁ uyyodhikaṁ balaggaṁ senābyūhaṁ anīkadassanaṁ iti vā iti evarūpā visūkadassanā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


38'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ jūtappamādaṭṭhānānuyogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ—aṭṭhapadaṁ dasapadaṁ ākāsaṁ parihārapathaṁ santikaṁ khalikaṁ ghaṭikaṁ salākahatthaṁ akkhaṁ paṅgacīraṁ vaṅkakaṁ mokkhacikaṁ cingulikaṁ pattāḷhakaṁ rathakaṁ dhanukaṁ akkharikaṁ manesikaṁ yathāvajjaṁ iti vā iti evarūpā jūtappamādaṭṭhānānuyogā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


39'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ uccāsayanamahāsayanaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ—āsandiṁ pallaṅkaṁ gonakaṁ cittakaṁ paṭikaṁ paṭalikaṁ tūlikaṁ vikatikaṁ uddalomiṁ ekantalomiṁ kaṭṭissaṁ koseyyaṁ kuttakaṁ hatthattharaṁ assattharaṁ rathattharaṁ ajinappaveṇiṁ kadalimigapavarapaccattharaṇaṁ sauttaracchadaṁ ubhatolohitakūpadhānaṁ iti vā iti evarūpā uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


40'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ maṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānānuyogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ – ucchādanaṁ parimaddanaṁ nhāpanaṁ sambāhanaṁ ādāsaṁ añjanaṁ mālāgandhavilepanaṁ mukhacuṇṇaṁ mukhalepanaṁ hatthabandhaṁ sikhābandhaṁ daṇḍaṁ nāḷikaṁ asiṁ chattaṁ citrupāhanaṁ uṇhīsaṁ maṇiṁ vālabījaniṁ odātāni vatthāni dīghadasāni iti vā iti evarūpā maṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānānuyogā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


41'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ tiracchānakathaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ— rājakathaṁ corakathaṁ mahāmattakathaṁ senākathaṁ bhayakathaṁ yuddhakathaṁ annakathaṁ pānakathaṁ vatthakathaṁ sayanakathaṁ mālākathaṁ gandhakathaṁ ñātikathaṁ yānakathaṁ gāmakathaṁ nigamakathaṁ nagarakathaṁ janapadakathaṁ itthikathaṁ sūrakathaṁ visikhākathaṁ kumbhaṭṭhānakathaṁ pubbapetakathaṁ nānattakathaṁ lokakkhāyikaṁ samuddakkhāyikaṁ itibhavābhavakathaṁ iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānakathāya paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


42'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ viggāhikakathaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ—na tvaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānāsi, ahaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānāmi, kiṁ tvaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānissasi, micchā paṭipanno tvamasi, ahamasmi sammā paṭipanno, sahitaṁ me, asahitaṁ te, purevacanīyaṁ pacchā avaca, pacchāvacanīyaṁ pure avaca, adhiciṇṇaṁ te viparāvattaṁ, āropito te vādo, niggahito tvamasi, cara vādappamokkhāya, nibbeṭhehi vā sace pahosīti iti vā iti evarūpāya viggāhikakathāya paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


43'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti, seyyathidaṁ—  raññaṁ, rājamahāmattānaṁ, khattiyānaṁ, brāhmaṇānaṁ, gahapatikānaṁ, kumārānaṁ "idha gaccha, amutrāgaccha, idaṁ hara, amutra idaṁ āharā"ti iti vā iti evarūpā dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

44'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te kuhakā ca honti, lapakā ca nemittikā ca nippesikā ca, lābhena lābhaṁ nijigīsitāro ca iti evarūpā kuhanalapanā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—

Iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

Majjhimasīlaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

2.3. Mahāsīla

45'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—aṅgaṁ nimittaṁ uppātaṁ supinaṁ lakkhaṇaṁ mūsikacchinnaṁ aggihomaṁ dabbihomaṁ thusahomaṁ kaṇahomaṁ taṇḍulahomaṁ sappihomaṁ telahomaṁ mukhahomaṁ lohitahomaṁ aṅgavijjā vatthuvijjā khattavijjā sivavijjā bhūtavijjā bhūrivijjā ahivijjā visavijjā vicchikavijjā mūsikavijjā sakuṇavijjā vāyasavijjā pakkajjhānaṁ saraparittāṇaṁ migacakkaṁ iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


46'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—  maṇilakkhaṇaṁ vatthalakkhaṇaṁ daṇḍalakkhaṇaṁ satthalakkhaṇaṁ asilakkhaṇaṁ usulakkhaṇaṁ dhanulakkhaṇaṁ āvudhalakkhaṇaṁ itthilakkhaṇaṁ purisalakkhaṇaṁ kumāralakkhaṇaṁ kumārilakkhaṇaṁ dāsalakkhaṇaṁ dāsilakkhaṇaṁ hatthilakkhaṇaṁ assalakkhaṇaṁ mahiṁsalakkhaṇaṁ usabhalakkhaṇaṁ golakkhaṇaṁ ajalakkhaṇaṁ meṇḍalakkhaṇaṁ kukkuṭalakkhaṇaṁ vaṭṭakalakkhaṇaṁ godhālakkhaṇaṁ kaṇṇikālakkhaṇaṁ kacchapalakkhaṇaṁ migalakkhaṇaṁ iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—

Iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


47'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—raññaṁ niyyānaṁ bhavissati, raññaṁ aniyyānaṁ bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ upayānaṁ bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ apayānaṁ bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ upayānaṁ bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ apayānaṁ bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ jayo bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ parājayo bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ jayo bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ parājayo bhavissati, iti imassa jayo bhavissati, imassa parājayo bhavissati iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—

Iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


48'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—  candaggāho bhavissati, sūriyaggāho bhavissati, nakkhattaggāho bhavissati, candimasūriyānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, candimasūriyānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, nakkhattānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, nakkhattānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, ukkāpāto bhavissati, disāḍāho bhavissati, bhūmicālo bhavissati, devadudrabhi bhavissati, candimasūriyanakkhattānaṁ uggamanaṁ ogamanaṁ saṁkilesaṁ vodānaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipāko candaggāho bhavissati, evaṁvipāko sūriyaggāho bhavissati, evaṁvipāko nakkhattaggāho bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ candimasūriyānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ candimasūriyānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ nakkhattānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ nakkhattānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipāko ukkāpāto bhavissati, evaṁvipāko disāḍāho bhavissati, evaṁvipāko bhūmicālo bhavissati, evaṁvipāko devadudrabhi bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ candimasūriyanakkhattānaṁ uggamanaṁ ogamanaṁ saṁkilesaṁ vodānaṁ bhavissati iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—

Iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


49'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—  suvuṭṭhikā bhavissati, dubbuṭṭhikā bhavissati, subhikkhaṁ bhavissati, dubbhikkhaṁ bhavissati, khemaṁ bhavissati, bhayaṁ bhavissati, rogo bhavissati, ārogyaṁ bhavissati, muddā, gaṇanā, saṅkhānaṁ, kāveyyaṁ, lokāyataṁ iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—

Iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


50'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—  āvāhanaṁ vivāhanaṁ saṁvaraṇaṁ vivaraṇaṁ saṁkiraṇaṁ vikiraṇaṁ subhagakaraṇaṁ dubbhagakaraṇaṁ viruddhagabbhakaraṇaṁ jivhānibandhanaṁ hanusaṁhananaṁ hatthābhijappanaṁ hanujappanaṁ kaṇṇajappanaṁ ādāsapañhaṁ kumārikapañhaṁ devapañhaṁ ādiccupaṭṭhānaṁ mahatupaṭṭhānaṁ abbhujjalanaṁ sirivhāyanaṁ iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—

Iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.


51'Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—  santikammaṁ paṇidhikammaṁ bhūtakammaṁ bhūrikammaṁ vassakammaṁ vossakammaṁ vatthukammaṁ vatthuparikammaṁ ācamanaṁ nhāpanaṁ juhanaṁ vamanaṁ virecanaṁ uddhaṁvirecanaṁ adhovirecanaṁ sīsavirecanaṁ kaṇṇatelaṁ nettatappanaṁ natthukammaṁ añjanaṁ paccañjanaṁ sālākiyaṁ sallakattiyaṁ dārakatikicchā mūlabhesajjānaṁ anuppadānaṁ osadhīnaṁ paṭimokkho iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato samaṇo gotamo'ti—

Iti vā hi, bhikkhave, puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

52Idaṁ kho, bhikkhave, appamattakaṁ oramattakaṁ sīlamattakaṁ, yena puthujjano tathāgatassa vaṇṇaṁ vadamāno vadeyya.

Mahāsīlaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

3. Diṭṭhi

3.1. Pubbantakappika

53Atthi, bhikkhave, aññeva dhammā gambhīrā duddasā duranubodhā santā paṇītā atakkāvacarā nipuṇā paṇḍitavedanīyā, ye tathāgato sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti, yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ. Katame ca te, bhikkhave, dhammā gambhīrā duddasā duranubodhā santā paṇītā atakkāvacarā nipuṇā paṇḍitavedanīyā, ye tathāgato sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti, yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ?

54Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā pubbantānudiṭṭhino, pubbantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti aṭṭhārasahi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha pubbantakappikā pubbantānudiṭṭhino pubbantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti aṭṭhārasahi vatthūhi?

3.1.1. Sassatavāda

55Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā, sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi?

56Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Seyyathidaṁ—ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṁsampi jātiyo cattālīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekānipi jātisatāni anekānipi jātisahassāni anekānipi jātisatasahassāni: 'amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṁgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṁgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno'ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati.

57So evamāha: 'sassato attā ca loko ca vañjho kūṭaṭṭho esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhito; te ca sattā sandhāvanti saṁsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthi tveva sassatisamaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ahañhi ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusāmi, yathāsamāhite citte anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi. Seyyathidaṁ—ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṁsampi jātiyo cattālīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekānipi jātisatāni anekānipi jātisahassāni anekānipi jātisatasahassāni: "amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno"ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi.


58Imināmahaṁ etaṁ jānāmi: "yathā sassato attā ca loko ca vañjho kūṭaṭṭho esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhito; te ca sattā sandhāvanti saṁsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthi tveva sassatisaman"'ti. Idaṁ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (1: 1)


59Dutiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Seyyathidaṁ—ekampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭaṁ dvepi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni tīṇipi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni cattāripi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni pañcapi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni dasapi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni: 'amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno'ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati.


60So evamāha: 'sassato attā ca loko ca vañjho kūṭaṭṭho esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhito; te ca sattā sandhāvanti saṁsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthi tveva sassatisamaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ahañhi ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusāmi yathāsamāhite citte anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi. Seyyathidaṁ—ekampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭaṁ dvepi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni tīṇipi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni cattāripi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni pañcapi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni dasapi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni: "amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno"ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi.


61Imināmahaṁ etaṁ jānāmi: "yathā sassato attā ca loko ca vañjho kūṭaṭṭho esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhito, te ca sattā sandhāvanti saṁsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthi tveva sassatisaman"'ti. Idaṁ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (2: 2)


62Tatiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Seyyathidaṁ—dasapi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni vīsampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni tiṁsampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni cattālīsampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni: 'amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno'ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati.

63So evamāha: 'sassato attā ca loko ca vañjho kūṭaṭṭho esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhito; te ca sattā sandhāvanti saṁsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthi tveva sassatisamaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ahañhi ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusāmi, yathāsamāhite citte anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi. Seyyathidaṁ—dasapi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni vīsampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni tiṁsampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni cattālīsampi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭāni: "amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno"ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi.


64Imināmahaṁ etaṁ jānāmi: "yathā sassato attā ca loko ca vañjho kūṭaṭṭho esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhito, te ca sattā sandhāvanti saṁsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthi tveva sassatisaman"'ti. Idaṁ, bhikkhave, tatiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (3: 3)


65Catutthe ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā takkī hoti vīmaṁsī, so takkapariyāhataṁ vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayaṁ paṭibhānaṁ evamāha: 'sassato attā ca loko ca vañjho kūṭaṭṭho esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhito; te ca sattā sandhāvanti saṁsaranti cavanti upapajjanti, atthi tveva sassatisaman'ti.


Idaṁ, bhikkhave, catutthaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (4: 4)


66Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva catūhi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena; natthi ito bahiddhā.

67Tayidaṁ, bhikkhave, tathāgato pajānāti: 'ime diṭṭhiṭṭhānā evaṁgahitā evaṁparāmaṭṭhā evaṁgatikā bhavanti evaṁabhisamparāyā'ti, tañca tathāgato pajānāti, tato ca uttaritaraṁ pajānāti; tañca pajānanaṁ na parāmasati, aparāmasato cassa paccattaññeva nibbuti viditā. Vedanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ viditvā anupādāvimutto, bhikkhave, tathāgato.

68Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā gambhīrā duddasā duranubodhā santā paṇītā atakkāvacarā nipuṇā paṇḍitavedanīyā, ye tathāgato sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti, yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

Paṭhamabhāṇavāro.

3.1.2. Ekaccasassatavāda

69Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi?

70Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo, yaṁ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena ayaṁ loko saṁvaṭṭati. Saṁvaṭṭamāne loke yebhuyyena sattā ābhassarasaṁvattanikā honti. Te tattha honti manomayā pītibhakkhā sayaṁpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino, ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭhanti.

71Hoti kho so, bhikkhave, samayo, yaṁ kadāci karahaci dīghassa addhuno accayena ayaṁ loko vivaṭṭati. Vivaṭṭamāne loke suññaṁ brahmavimānaṁ pātubhavati. Atha kho aññataro satto āyukkhayā vā puññakkhayā vā ābhassarakāyā cavitvā suññaṁ brahmavimānaṁ upapajjati. So tattha hoti manomayo pītibhakkho sayampabho antalikkhacaro subhaṭṭhāyī, ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭhati.

72Tassa tattha ekakassa dīgharattaṁ nivusitattā anabhirati paritassanā uppajjati: 'aho vata aññepi sattā itthattaṁ āgaccheyyun'ti. Atha aññepi sattā āyukkhayā vā puññakkhayā vā ābhassarakāyā cavitvā brahmavimānaṁ upapajjanti tassa sattassa sahabyataṁ. Tepi tattha honti manomayā pītibhakkhā sayaṁpabhā antalikkhacarā subhaṭṭhāyino, ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭhanti.

73Tatra, bhikkhave, yo so satto paṭhamaṁ upapanno tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahamasmi brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānaṁ. Mayā ime sattā nimmitā. Taṁ kissa hetu? Mamañhi pubbe etadahosi: "aho vata aññepi sattā itthattaṁ āgaccheyyun"ti. Iti mama ca manopaṇidhi, ime ca sattā itthattaṁ āgatā'ti.

74Yepi te sattā pacchā upapannā, tesampi evaṁ hoti: 'ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānaṁ. Iminā mayaṁ bhotā brahmunā nimmitā. Taṁ kissa hetu? Imañhi mayaṁ addasāma idha paṭhamaṁ upapannaṁ, mayaṁ panamha pacchā upapannā'ti.

75Tatra, bhikkhave, yo so satto paṭhamaṁ upapanno, so dīghāyukataro ca hoti vaṇṇavantataro ca mahesakkhataro ca. Ye pana te sattā pacchā upapannā, te appāyukatarā ca honti dubbaṇṇatarā ca appesakkhatarā ca.

76Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ, bhikkhave, vijjati, yaṁ aññataro satto tamhā kāyā cavitvā itthattaṁ āgacchati. Itthattaṁ āgato samāno agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati. Agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito samāno ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte taṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, tato paraṁ nānussarati.

77So evamāha: 'yo kho so bhavaṁ brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānaṁ, yena mayaṁ bhotā brahmunā nimmitā, so nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassati. Ye pana mayaṁ ahumhā tena bhotā brahmunā nimmitā, te mayaṁ aniccā addhuvā appāyukā cavanadhammā itthattaṁ āgatā'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (1: 5)


78Dutiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti?


Santi, bhikkhave, khiḍḍāpadosikā nāma devā, te ativelaṁ hassakhiḍḍāratidhammasamāpannā viharanti.

Tesaṁ ativelaṁ hassakhiḍḍāratidhammasamāpannānaṁ viharataṁ sati sammussati. Satiyā sammosā te devā tamhā kāyā cavanti.

79Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ, bhikkhave, vijjati yaṁ aññataro satto tamhā kāyā cavitvā itthattaṁ āgacchati. Itthattaṁ āgato samāno agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati. Agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito samāno ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte taṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, tato paraṁ nānussarati.

80So evamāha: 'ye kho te bhonto devā na khiḍḍāpadosikā, te na ativelaṁ hassakhiḍḍāratidhammasamāpannā viharanti. Tesaṁ na ativelaṁ hassakhiḍḍāratidhammasamāpannānaṁ viharataṁ sati na sammussati. Satiyā asammosā te devā tamhā kāyā na cavanti; niccā dhuvā sassatā avipariṇāmadhammā sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassanti. Ye pana mayaṁ ahumhā khiḍḍāpadosikā, te mayaṁ ativelaṁ hassakhiḍḍāratidhammasamāpannā viharimhā. Tesaṁ no ativelaṁ hassakhiḍḍāratidhammasamāpannānaṁ viharataṁ sati sammussati. Satiyā sammosā evaṁ mayaṁ tamhā kāyā cutā aniccā addhuvā appāyukā cavanadhammā itthattaṁ āgatā'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (2: 6)


81Tatiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti?

anti, bhikkhave, manopadosikā nāma devā, te ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyanti. Te ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyantā aññamaññamhi cittāni padūsenti. Te aññamaññaṁ paduṭṭhacittā kilantakāyā kilantacittā. Te devā tamhā kāyā cavanti.

82Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ, bhikkhave, vijjati yaṁ aññataro satto tamhā kāyā cavitvā itthattaṁ āgacchati. Itthattaṁ āgato samāno agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati. Agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito samāno ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte taṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, tato paraṁ nānussarati.

83So evamāha: 'ye kho te bhonto devā na manopadosikā, te nātivelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyanti. Te nātivelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyantā aññamaññamhi cittāni nappadūsenti. Te aññamaññaṁ appaduṭṭhacittā akilantakāyā akilantacittā. Te devā tamhā kāyā na cavanti, niccā dhuvā sassatā avipariṇāmadhammā sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassanti. Ye pana mayaṁ ahumhā manopadosikā, te mayaṁ ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyimhā. Te mayaṁ ativelaṁ aññamaññaṁ upanijjhāyantā aññamaññamhi cittāni padūsimhā, te mayaṁ aññamaññaṁ paduṭṭhacittā kilantakāyā kilantacittā. Evaṁ mayaṁ tamhā kāyā cutā aniccā addhuvā appāyukā cavanadhammā itthattaṁ āgatā'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, tatiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (3: 7)


84Catutthe ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā takkī hoti vīmaṁsī. So takkapariyāhataṁ vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayampaṭibhānaṁ evamāha: 'yaṁ kho idaṁ vuccati cakkhuṁ itipi sotaṁ itipi ghānaṁ itipi jivhā itipi kāyo itipi, ayaṁ attā anicco addhuvo asassato vipariṇāmadhammo. Yañca kho idaṁ vuccati cittanti vā manoti vā viññāṇanti vā ayaṁ attā nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassatī'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, catutthaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (4: 8)


85Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva catūhi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena; natthi ito bahiddhā.

86Tayidaṁ, bhikkhave, tathāgato pajānāti: 'ime diṭṭhiṭṭhānā evangahitā evaṁparāmaṭṭhā evangatikā bhavanti evaṁabhisamparāyā'ti. Tañca tathāgato pajānāti, tato ca uttaritaraṁ pajānāti, tañca pajānanaṁ na parāmasati, aparāmasato cassa paccattaññeva nibbuti viditā. Vedanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ viditvā anupādāvimutto, bhikkhave, tathāgato.

87Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā gambhīrā duddasā duranubodhā santā paṇītā atakkāvacarā nipuṇā paṇḍitavedanīyā, ye tathāgato sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti, yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

3.1.3. Antānantavāda

88Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi?

89Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte antasaññī lokasmiṁ viharati.

90So evamāha: 'antavā ayaṁ loko parivaṭumo. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ahañhi ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusāmi, yathāsamāhite citte antasaññī lokasmiṁ viharāmi. Imināmahaṁ etaṁ jānāmi: "yathā antavā ayaṁ loko parivaṭumo"'ti.


Idaṁ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti. (1: 9)


91Dutiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte anantasaññī lokasmiṁ viharati.

92So evamāha: 'ananto ayaṁ loko apariyanto. Ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṁsu: "antavā ayaṁ loko parivaṭumo"ti, tesaṁ musā. Ananto ayaṁ loko apariyanto. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ahañhi ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusāmi, yathāsamāhite citte anantasaññī lokasmiṁ viharāmi. Imināmahaṁ etaṁ jānāmi: "yathā ananto ayaṁ loko apariyanto"'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti. (2: 10)


93Tatiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte uddhamadho antasaññī lokasmiṁ viharati, tiriyaṁ anantasaññī.

94So evamāha: 'antavā ca ayaṁ loko ananto ca. Ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṁsu: "antavā ayaṁ loko parivaṭumo"ti, tesaṁ musā. Yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṁsu: "ananto ayaṁ loko apariyanto"ti, tesampi musā. Antavā ca ayaṁ loko ananto ca. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ahañhi ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusāmi, yathāsamāhite citte uddhamadho antasaññī lokasmiṁ viharāmi, tiriyaṁ anantasaññī. Imināmahaṁ etaṁ jānāmi: "yathā antavā ca ayaṁ loko ananto cā"'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, tatiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti. (3: 11)


95Catutthe ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā takkī hoti vīmaṁsī. So takkapariyāhataṁ vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayampaṭibhānaṁ evamāha: 'nevāyaṁ loko antavā, na panānanto. Ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṁsu: "antavā ayaṁ loko parivaṭumo"ti, tesaṁ musā. Yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṁsu: "ananto ayaṁ loko apariyanto"ti, tesampi musā. Yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṁsu: "antavā ca ayaṁ loko ananto cā"ti, tesampi musā. Nevāyaṁ loko antavā, na panānanto'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, catutthaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti. (4: 12)


96Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva catūhi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena; natthi ito bahiddhā.


97Tayidaṁ, bhikkhave, tathāgato pajānāti: 'ime diṭṭhiṭṭhānā evangahitā evaṁparāmaṭṭhā evangatikā bhavanti evaṁabhisamparāyā'ti. Tañca tathāgato pajānāti, tato ca uttaritaraṁ pajānāti, tañca pajānanaṁ na parāmasati, aparāmasato cassa paccattaññeva nibbuti viditā. Vedanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ viditvā anupādāvimutto, bhikkhave, tathāgato.

98Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā gambhīrā duddasā duranubodhā santā paṇītā atakkāvacarā nipuṇā paṇḍitavedanīyā, ye tathāgato sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti, yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

3.1.4. Amarāvikkhepavāda

99Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā, tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ catūhi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ catūhi vatthūhi?

100Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā 'idaṁ kusalan'ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti, 'idaṁ akusalan'ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho "Idaṁ kusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāmi, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāmi. Ahañce kho pana "Idaṁ kusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ appajānanto, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ appajānanto, "Idaṁ kusalan"ti vā byākareyyaṁ, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti vā byākareyyaṁ, taṁ mamassa musā. Yaṁ mamassa musā, so mamassa vighāto. Yo mamassa vighāto so mamassa antarāyo'ti. Iti so musāvādabhayā musāvādaparijegucchā nevidaṁ kusalanti byākaroti, na panidaṁ akusalanti byākaroti, tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭho samāno vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjati amarāvikkhepaṁ: 'evantipi me no; tathātipi me no; aññathātipi me no; notipi me no; no notipi me no'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ. (1: 13)


101Dutiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā 'idaṁ kusalan'ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti, 'idaṁ akusalan'ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho "Idaṁ kusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāmi, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāmi. Ahañce kho pana "Idaṁ kusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ appajānanto, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ appajānanto, "Idaṁ kusalan"ti vā byākareyyaṁ, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti vā byākareyyaṁ, tattha me assa chando vā rāgo vā doso vā paṭigho vā. Yattha me assa chando vā rāgo vā doso vā paṭigho vā, taṁ mamassa upādānaṁ. Yaṁ mamassa upādānaṁ, so mamassa vighāto. Yo mamassa vighāto, so mamassa antarāyo'ti. Iti so upādānabhayā upādānaparijegucchā nevidaṁ kusalanti byākaroti, na panidaṁ akusalanti byākaroti, tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭho samāno vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjati amarāvikkhepaṁ: 'evantipi me no; tathātipi me no; aññathātipi me no; notipi me no; no notipi me no'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ. (2: 14)


102Tatiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā 'idaṁ kusalan'ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti, 'idaṁ akusalan'ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho "Idaṁ kusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāmi, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāmi. Ahañce kho pana "Idaṁ kusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ appajānanto "Idaṁ akusalan"ti yathābhūtaṁ appajānanto "Idaṁ kusalan"ti vā byākareyyaṁ, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti vā byākareyyaṁ; santi hi kho samaṇabrāhmaṇā paṇḍitā nipuṇā kataparappavādā vālavedhirūpā, te bhindantā maññe caranti paññāgatena diṭṭhigatāni, te maṁ tattha samanuyuñjeyyuṁ samanugāheyyuṁ samanubhāseyyuṁ. Ye maṁ tattha samanuyuñjeyyuṁ samanugāheyyuṁ samanubhāseyyuṁ, tesāhaṁ na sampāyeyyaṁ. Yesāhaṁ na sampāyeyyaṁ, so mamassa vighāto. Yo mamassa vighāto, so mamassa antarāyo'ti. Iti so anuyogabhayā anuyogaparijegucchā nevidaṁ kusalanti byākaroti, na panidaṁ akusalanti byākaroti, tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭho samāno vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjati amarāvikkhepaṁ: 'evantipi me no; tathātipi me no; aññathātipi me no; notipi me no; no notipi me no'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, tatiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ. (3: 15)


103Catutthe ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā mando hoti momūho. So mandattā momūhattā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭho samāno vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjati amarāvikkhepaṁ: 'atthi paro loko'ti iti ce maṁ pucchasi, 'atthi paro loko'ti iti ce me assa, 'atthi paro loko'ti iti te naṁ byākareyyaṁ, 'evantipi me no, tathātipi me no, aññathātipi me no, notipi me no, no notipi me no'ti. 'Natthi paro loko … pe … 'atthi ca natthi ca paro loko … pe … 'nevatthi na natthi paro loko … pe … 'atthi sattā opapātikā … pe … 'natthi sattā opapātikā … pe … 'atthi ca natthi ca sattā opapātikā … pe … 'nevatthi na natthi sattā opapātikā … pe … 'atthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … 'natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … 'atthi ca natthi ca sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … 'nevatthi na natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … 'hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … pe … 'na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … pe … 'hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … pe … 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti iti ce maṁ pucchasi, 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti iti ce me assa, 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti iti te naṁ byākareyyaṁ, 'evantipi me no, tathātipi me no, aññathātipi me no, notipi me no, no notipi me no'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, catutthaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ. (4: 16)


104Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ catūhi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ, sabbe te imeheva catūhi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena, natthi ito bahiddhā

… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

3.1.5. Adhiccasamuppannavāda

105Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti dvīhi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti dvīhi vatthūhi?

106Santi, bhikkhave, asaññasattā nāma devā. Saññuppādā ca pana te devā tamhā kāyā cavanti. Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ, bhikkhave, vijjati, yaṁ aññataro satto tamhā kāyā cavitvā itthattaṁ āgacchati. Itthattaṁ āgato samāno agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati. Agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito samāno ātappamanvāya padhānamanvāya anuyogamanvāya appamādamanvāya sammāmanasikāramanvāya tathārūpaṁ cetosamādhiṁ phusati, yathāsamāhite citte saññuppādaṁ anussarati, tato paraṁ nānussarati. So evamāha: 'adhiccasamuppanno attā ca loko ca. Taṁ kissa hetu? Ahañhi pubbe nāhosiṁ, somhi etarahi ahutvā santatāya pariṇato'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, paṭhamaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (1: 17)


107Dutiye ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti?

Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā takkī hoti vīmaṁsī. So takkapariyāhataṁ vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayampaṭibhānaṁ evamāha: 'adhiccasamuppanno attā ca loko cā'ti.

Idaṁ, bhikkhave, dutiyaṁ ṭhānaṁ, yaṁ āgamma yaṁ ārabbha eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti. (2: 18)


108Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti dvīhi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva dvīhi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena, natthi ito bahiddhā

… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.


109Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā pubbantānudiṭṭhino pubbantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti aṭṭhārasahi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā pubbantakappikā pubbantānudiṭṭhino pubbantamārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti, sabbe te imeheva aṭṭhārasahi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena, natthi ito bahiddhā.

110Tayidaṁ, bhikkhave, tathāgato pajānāti: 'ime diṭṭhiṭṭhānā evangahitā evaṁparāmaṭṭhā evangatikā bhavanti evaṁabhisamparāyā'ti. Tañca tathāgato pajānāti, tato ca uttaritaraṁ pajānāti, tañca pajānanaṁ na parāmasati, aparāmasato cassa paccattaññeva nibbuti viditā. Vedanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ viditvā anupādāvimutto, bhikkhave, tathāgato.

111Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā gambhīrā duddasā duranubodhā santā paṇītā atakkāvacarā nipuṇā paṇḍitavedanīyā, ye tathāgato sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti, yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

Dutiyabhāṇavāro.

3.2. Aparantakappika

112Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino, aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti catucattārīsāya vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti catucattārīsāya vatthūhi?

3.2.1. Saññīvāda

113Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ saññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti soḷasahi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ saññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti soḷasahi vatthūhi?


114'Rūpī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā saññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (1: 19)

115'Arūpī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā saññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (2: 20)

116'Rūpī ca arūpī ca attā hoti … pe … . (3: 21)

117'Nevarūpī nārūpī attā hoti … . (4: 22)

118'Antavā attā hoti … . (5: 23)

119'Anantavā attā hoti … . (6: 24)

120'Antavā ca anantavā ca attā hoti … . (7: 25)

121'Nevantavā nānantavā attā hoti … . (8: 26)

122'Ekattasaññī attā hoti … . (9: 27)

123'Nānattasaññī attā hoti … . (10: 28)

124'Parittasaññī attā hoti … . (11: 29)

125'Appamāṇasaññī attā hoti … . (12: 30)

126'Ekantasukhī attā hoti … . (13: 31)

127'Ekantadukkhī attā hoti … . (14: 32)

128'Sukhadukkhī attā hoti … . (15: 33)

129'Adukkhamasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā saññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (16: 34)


130Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ saññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti soḷasahi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ saññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva soḷasahi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena, natthi ito bahiddhā

… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

3.2.2. Asaññīvāda

131Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ asaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ asaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi?


132'Rūpī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā asaññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (1: 35)

133'Arūpī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā asaññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (2: 36)

134'Rūpī ca arūpī ca attā hoti … pe … . (3: 37)

135'Nevarūpī nārūpī attā hoti … . (4: 38)

136'Antavā attā hoti … . (5: 39)

137'Anantavā attā hoti … . (6: 40)

138'Antavā ca anantavā ca attā hoti … . (7: 41)

139'Nevantavā nānantavā attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā asaññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (8: 42)


140Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ asaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ asaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva aṭṭhahi vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena, natthi ito bahiddhā

… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

3.2.3. Nevasaññīnāsaññīvāda

141Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā, uddhamāghātanaṁ nevasaññīnāsaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ nevasaññīnāsaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi?


142'Rūpī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā nevasaññīnāsaññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (1: 43)

143'Arūpī attā hoti … pe … . (2: 44)

144'Rūpī ca arūpī ca attā hoti … . (3: 45)

145'Nevarūpī nārūpī attā hoti … . (4: 46)

146'Antavā attā hoti … . (5: 47)

147'Anantavā attā hoti … . (6: 48)

148'Antavā ca anantavā ca attā hoti … . (7: 49)

149'Nevantavā nānantavā attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā nevasaññīnāsaññī'ti naṁ paññapenti. (8: 50)


150Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ nevasaññīnāsaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ nevasaññīnāsaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva aṭṭhahi vatthūhi

… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

3.2.4. Ucchedavāda

151Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti sattahi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti sattahi vatthūhi?

152Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā evaṁvādī hoti evaṁdiṭṭhi: 'yato kho, bho, ayaṁ attā rūpī cātumahābhūtiko mātāpettikasambhavo kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṁ maraṇā, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sammā samucchinno hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti. (1: 51)

153Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā sammā samucchinno hoti. Atthi kho, bho, añño attā dibbo rūpī kāmāvacaro kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkho. Taṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi. Tamahaṁ jānāmi passāmi. So kho, bho, attā yato kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṁ maraṇā, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sammā samucchinno hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti. (2: 52)

154Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā sammā samucchinno hoti. Atthi kho, bho, añño attā dibbo rūpī manomayo sabbaṅgapaccangī ahīnindriyo. Taṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi. Tamahaṁ jānāmi passāmi. So kho, bho, attā yato kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṁ maraṇā, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sammā samucchinno hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti. (3: 53)

155Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā sammā samucchinno hoti. Atthi kho, bho, añño attā sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā "ananto ākāso"ti ākāsānañcāyatanūpago. Taṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi. Tamahaṁ jānāmi passāmi. So kho, bho, attā yato kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṁ maraṇā, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sammā samucchinno hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti. (4: 54)

156Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā sammā samucchinno hoti. Atthi kho, bho, añño attā sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma "anantaṁ viññāṇan"ti viññāṇañcāyatanūpago. Taṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi. Tamahaṁ jānāmi passāmi. So kho, bho, attā yato kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṁ maraṇā, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sammā samucchinno hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti. (5: 55)

157Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, so attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā sammā samucchinno hoti. Atthi kho, bho, añño attā sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma "natthi kiñcī"ti ākiñcaññāyatanūpago. Taṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi. Tamahaṁ jānāmi passāmi. So kho, bho, attā yato kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṁ maraṇā, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sammā samucchinno hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti. (6: 56)

158Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā sammā samucchinno hoti. Atthi kho, bho, añño attā sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma "santametaṁ paṇītametan"ti nevasaññānāsaññāyatanūpago. Taṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi. Tamahaṁ jānāmi passāmi. So kho, bho, attā yato kāyassa bhedā ucchijjati vinassati, na hoti paraṁ maraṇā, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sammā samucchinno hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti. (7: 57)

159Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti sattahi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva sattahi vatthūhi

… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

3.2.5. diṭṭhadhammanibbānavāda

160Santi, bhikkhave, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti pañcahi vatthūhi. Te ca bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā kimāgamma kimārabbha diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti pañcahi vatthūhi?

161Idha, bhikkhave, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā evaṁvādī hoti evaṁdiṭṭhi: 'yato kho, bho, ayaṁ attā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti. (1: 58)

162Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hoti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Kāmā hi, bho, aniccā dukkhā vipariṇāmadhammā, tesaṁ vipariṇāmaññathābhāvā uppajjanti sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. Yato kho, bho, ayaṁ attā vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti. (2: 59)

163Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hoti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Yadeva tattha vitakkitaṁ vicāritaṁ, etenetaṁ oḷārikaṁ akkhāyati. Yato kho, bho, ayaṁ attā vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti. (3: 60)

164Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hoti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Yadeva tattha pītigataṁ cetaso uppilāvitattaṁ, etenetaṁ oḷārikaṁ akkhāyati. Yato kho, bho, ayaṁ attā pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati, sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti "upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī"ti, tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti. (4: 61)

165Tamañño evamāha: 'atthi kho, bho, eso attā, yaṁ tvaṁ vadesi, neso natthīti vadāmi; no ca kho, bho, ayaṁ attā ettāvatā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hoti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Yadeva tattha sukhamiti cetaso ābhogo, etenetaṁ oḷārikaṁ akkhāyati. Yato kho, bho, ayaṁ attā sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati, ettāvatā kho, bho, ayaṁ attā paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ patto hotī'ti. Ittheke sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti. (5: 62)

166Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti pañcahi vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti, sabbe te imeheva pañcahi vatthūhi


… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

167Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti catucattārīsāya vatthūhi. Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti, sabbe te imeheva catucattārīsāya vatthūhi

… pe … yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

168Imehi kho te, bhikkhave, samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā ca aparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi.

169Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā pubbantakappikā vā aparantakappikā vā pubbantāparantakappikā vā pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti, sabbe te imeheva dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi, etesaṁ vā aññatarena; natthi ito bahiddhā.

170Tayidaṁ, bhikkhave, tathāgato pajānāti: 'ime diṭṭhiṭṭhānā evangahitā evaṁparāmaṭṭhā evangatikā bhavanti evaṁabhisamparāyā'ti. Tañca tathāgato pajānāti, tato ca uttaritaraṁ pajānāti, tañca pajānanaṁ na parāmasati, aparāmasato cassa paccattaññeva nibbuti viditā. Vedanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ viditvā anupādāvimutto, bhikkhave, tathāgato.

171Ime kho te, bhikkhave, dhammā gambhīrā duddasā duranubodhā santā paṇītā atakkāvacarā nipuṇā paṇḍitavedanīyā, ye tathāgato sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti, yehi tathāgatassa yathābhuccaṁ vaṇṇaṁ sammā vadamānā vadeyyuṁ.

4. Attālokapaññattivatthu

4.1. Paritassitavipphanditavāra

172Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

173Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.


174Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

175Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

176Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti dvīhi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.


177Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā pubbantānudiṭṭhino pubbantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti aṭṭhārasahi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

178Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ saññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti soḷasahi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

179Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ asaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

180Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ nevasaññīnāsaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

181Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti sattahi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

182Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti pañcahi vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

183Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti catucattārīsāya vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

184Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā ca aparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi, tadapi tesaṁ bhavataṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ ajānataṁ apassataṁ vedayitaṁ taṇhāgatānaṁ paritassitavipphanditameva.

4.2. Phassapaccayāvāra

185Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.


186Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.


187Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

188Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ catūhi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

189Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti dvīhi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

190Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā pubbantānudiṭṭhino pubbantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti aṭṭhārasahi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

191Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ saññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti soḷasahi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

192Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ asaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

193Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ nevasaññīnāsaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

194Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti sattahi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

195Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti pañcahi vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

196Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti catucattārīsāya vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.


197Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā ca aparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi, tadapi phassapaccayā.

4.3. Netaṁṭhānaṁvijjativāra

198Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

199Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā ekaccaṁ sassataṁ ekaccaṁ asassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

200Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā antānantaṁ lokassa paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

201Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭhā samānā vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjanti amarāvikkhepaṁ catūhi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

202Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā adhiccasamuppannaṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti dvīhi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

203Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā pubbantānudiṭṭhino pubbantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti aṭṭhārasahi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

204Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ saññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti soḷasahi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

205Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā, uddhamāghātanaṁ asaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

206Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā uddhamāghātanaṁ nevasaññīnāsaññiṁ attānaṁ paññapenti aṭṭhahi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

207Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññapenti sattahi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

208Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā sato sattassa paramadiṭṭhadhammanibbānaṁ paññapenti pañcahi vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

209Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā aparantakappikā aparantānudiṭṭhino aparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti catucattārīsāya vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

210Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā ca aparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi, te vata aññatra phassā paṭisaṁvedissantīti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

4.4. Diṭṭhigatikādhiṭṭhānavaṭṭakathā

211Tatra, bhikkhave, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā sassatavādā sassataṁ attānañca lokañca paññapenti catūhi vatthūhi, yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ekaccasassatikā ekaccaasassatikā … pe … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā antānantikā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā amarāvikkhepikā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā adhiccasamuppannikā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā saññīvādā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā asaññīvādā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā uddhamāghātanikā nevasaññīnāsaññīvādā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā ucchedavādā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammanibbānavādā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā aparantakappikā … yepi te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbantakappikā ca aparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantakappikā ca pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi, sabbe te chahi phassāyatanehi phussa phussa paṭisaṁvedenti tesaṁ vedanāpaccayā taṇhā, taṇhāpaccayā upādānaṁ, upādānapaccayā bhavo, bhavapaccayā jāti, jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā sambhavanti.

5. Vivaṭṭakathādi

212Yato kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu channaṁ phassāyatanānaṁ samudayañca atthaṅgamañca assādañca ādīnavañca nissaraṇañca yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ imehi sabbeheva uttaritaraṁ pajānāti.

213Ye hi keci, bhikkhave, samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā pubbantakappikā vā aparantakappikā vā pubbantāparantakappikā vā pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti, sabbe te imeheva dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi antojālīkatā, ettha sitāva ummujjamānā ummujjanti, ettha pariyāpannā antojālīkatāva ummujjamānā ummujjanti.

214Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, dakkho kevaṭṭo vā kevaṭṭantevāsī vā sukhumacchikena jālena parittaṁ udakadahaṁ otthareyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ye kho keci imasmiṁ udakadahe oḷārikā pāṇā, sabbe te antojālīkatā. Ettha sitāva ummujjamānā ummujjanti; ettha pariyāpannā antojālīkatāva ummujjamānā ummujjantī'ti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā pubbantakappikā vā aparantakappikā vā pubbantāparantakappikā vā pubbantāparantānudiṭṭhino pubbantāparantaṁ ārabbha anekavihitāni adhimuttipadāni abhivadanti, sabbe te imeheva dvāsaṭṭhiyā vatthūhi antojālīkatā ettha sitāva ummujjamānā ummujjanti, ettha pariyāpannā antojālīkatāva ummujjamānā ummujjanti.


215Ucchinnabhavanettiko, bhikkhave, tathāgatassa kāyo tiṭṭhati. Yāvassa kāyo ṭhassati, tāva naṁ dakkhanti devamanussā. Kāyassa bhedā uddhaṁ jīvitapariyādānā na naṁ dakkhanti devamanussā.

216Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, ambapiṇḍiyā vaṇṭacchinnāya yāni kānici ambāni vaṇṭapaṭibandhāni, sabbāni tāni tadanvayāni bhavanti; evameva kho, bhikkhave, ucchinnabhavanettiko tathāgatassa kāyo tiṭṭhati, yāvassa kāyo ṭhassati, tāva naṁ dakkhanti devamanussā, kāyassa bhedā uddhaṁ jīvitapariyādānā na naṁ dakkhanti devamanussā"ti.


217Evaṁ vutte, āyasmā ānando bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "acchariyaṁ, bhante, abbhutaṁ, bhante, ko nāmo ayaṁ, bhante, dhammapariyāyo"ti?

"Tasmātiha tvaṁ, ānanda, imaṁ dhammapariyāyaṁ atthajālantipi naṁ dhārehi, dhammajālantipi naṁ dhārehi, brahmajālantipi naṁ dhārehi, diṭṭhijālantipi naṁ dhārehi, anuttaro saṅgāmavijayotipi naṁ dhārehī"ti.

218Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti. Imasmiñca pana veyyākaraṇasmiṁ bhaññamāne dasasahassī lokadhātu akampitthāti.

Brahmajālasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ paṭhamaṁ.