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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN2: Sāmaññaphala Sutta – The Fruits of Recluseship

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Statements of the Ministers

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Exalted One was dwelling at Rājagaha, in Jīvaka Komārabhacca's[n.91] The royal physician. MN 55 (on meat-eating) is addressed to him. See n.417. Mango Grove, together with a large company of twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus. At the time, on the fifteenth-day Uposatha,[n.93] Uposatha (Skt. upavasatha): here denotes a Brahmin fast-day. Later, in Buddhism the fortnightly day of confession for monks. the full-moon night of Komudī[n.95] Called after the white water-lily (kumuda) which blooms then. in the fourth month.[n.94] Kattika: mid-October to mid-November. King Ajātasattu of Magadha,[n.92] Reigned ca. 491–459 BCE. He had killed his father, the noble Bimbisāra, to gain the throne. See further n.365. the son of Queen Videhā, was sitting on the upper terrace of his palace surrounded by his ministers. There the king uttered the following joyful exclamation:

"How delightful, friends, is this moonlit night! How beautiful is this moonlit night! How lovely is this moonlit night! How tranquil is this moonlit night! How auspicious is this moonlit night! Is there any recluse or brahmin that we could visit tonight who might be able to bring peace to my mind?"[n.96] Ajātasattu was troubled in conscience on account of his crime: see verse 99.

2Thereupon one of his ministers said: "Your majesty, there is Pūraṇa Kassapa, the leader of an order, the leader of a group, the teacher of a group, well-known and famous, a spiritual leader whom many people esteem as holy. He is aged, long gone forth, advanced in years, in the last phase of life. Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps he might bring peace to your mind." But when this was said, King Ajātasattu remained silent.


3–7Other ministers said: "Your majesty, there is Makkhali Gosāla … Ajita Kesakambala … Pakudha Kaccāyana … Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta … Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta, the leader of an order, the leader of a group, the teacher of a group, well-known and famous, a spiritual leader whom many people esteem as holy. He is aged, long gone forth, advanced in years, in the last phase of life. Your majesty should visit him. Perhaps he might bring peace to your mind." But when this was said, King Ajātasattu remained silent.

The Statement of Jīvaka Komārabhacca

8All this time Jīvaka Komārabhacca sat silently not far from King Ajātasattu. The king then said to him: "Friend Jīvaka, why do you keep silent?"

Jīvaka said: "Your majesty, the Exalted One, the Worthy One, the perfectly enlightened Buddha, together with a large company of twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus, is now dwelling in our Mango Grove. A favourable report concerning him is circulating thus: 'This Exalted One is a worthy one, perfectly enlightened, endowed with clear knowledge and conduct, accomplished, a knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of men to be tamed,[n.97] One who trains men (who are capable of being trained) as a charioteer trains horses. teacher of gods and men, enlightened and exalted.' Your majesty should visit the Exalted One. Perhaps if you visit him he might bring peace to your mind."


9"Then get the elephant vehicles prepared, friend Jīvaka."

"Yes, your majesty!" Jīvaka replied. He then had five hundred female elephants prepared, as well as the king's personal bull-elephant, and announced to the king: "Your majesty, your elephant vehicles are ready. Do as you think fit."

10King Ajātasattu then had five hundred of his women mounted on the female elephants, one on each, while he himself mounted his personal bull-elephant. With his attendants carrying torches, he went forth from Rājagaha in full royal splendour, setting out in the direction of Jīvaka's Mango Grove.

11When King Ajātasattu was not far from the Mango Grove, he was suddenly gripped by fear, trepidation, and terror. Frightened, agitated, and terror-stricken, he said to Jīvaka: "You aren't deceiving me, are you, friend Jīvaka? You aren't betraying me? You aren't about to turn me over to my enemies? How could there be such a large company of bhikkhus, twelve hundred and fifty bhikkhus, without any sound of sneezing or coughing, or any noise at all?"

12"Do not be afraid, great king. Do not be afraid. I am not deceiving you, your majesty, or betraying you, or turning you over to your enemies. Go forward, great king! Go straight forward! Those are lamps burning in the pavilion hall."

The Question on the Fruits of Recluseship

13Then King Ajātasattu, having gone by elephant as far as he could, dismounted and approached the door of the pavilion hall on foot. Having approached, he asked Jīvaka: "But where, Jīvaka, is the Exalted One?"

"That is the Exalted One, great king. He is the one sitting against the middle pillar, facing east, in front of the company of bhikkhus."

14King Ajātasattu then approached the Exalted One and stood to one side. As he stood there surveying the company of bhikkhus, which sat in complete silence as serene as a calm lake, he uttered the following joyful exclamation: "May my son, the Prince Udāyibhadda,[n.98] The son who was eventually to kill him, only to be murdered in turn by his son. It evidently ran in the family (see DPPN). enjoy such peace as the company of bhikkhus now enjoys!"


(The Exalted One said:) "Do your thoughts, great king, follow the call of your affection?"

"Venerable sir, I love my son, the Prince Udāyibhadda. May he enjoy such peace as the company of bhikkhus now enjoys."

15King Ajātasattu then paid homage to the Exalted One, reverently saluted the company of bhikkhus, sat down to one side, and said to the Exalted One: "Venerable sir, I would like to ask the Exalted One about a certain point, if he would take the time to answer my question."

"Ask whatever you wish to, great king."

16"There are, venerable sir, various crafts, such as elephant trainers, horse trainers, charioteers, archers, standard bearers, camp marshals, commandos, high royal officers, front-line soldiers, bull-warriors, military heroes, mail-clad warriors, domestic slaves, confectioners, barbers, bath attendants, cooks, garland-makers, laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers, potters, statisticians, accountants, and various other crafts of a similar nature. All those (who practise these crafts) enjoy here and now the visible fruits of their crafts. They obtain happiness and joy themselves, and they give happiness and joy to their parents, wives and children, and their friends and colleagues. They establish an excellent presentation of gifts to recluses and brahmins—leading to heaven, ripening in happiness, conducing to a heavenly rebirth. Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out any fruit of recluseship that is similarly visible here and now?"

17"Do you remember, great king, ever asking other recluses and brahmins this question?"

"I do remember asking them, venerable sir."

"If it isn't troublesome for you, please tell us how they answered."

"It is not troublesome for me, venerable sir, when the Exalted One or anyone like him is present."

"Then speak, great king."

The Doctrine of Pūraṇa Kassapa

18"One time, I approached Pūraṇa Kassapa,[n.99] A naked wanderer (DA). Such views as his, involving a denial of any reward or punishment for good and bad deeds, are regarded as especially pernicious. exchanged greetings and courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. I then asked him (as in §16) if he could point out any fruit of recluseship visible here and now.


19"When I had finished speaking, Pūraṇa Kassapa said to me: 'Great king, if one acts or induces others to act, mutilates or induces others to mutilate, tortures or induces others to torture, inflicts sorrow or induces others to inflict sorrow, oppresses or induces others to oppress, intimidates or induces others to intimidate; if one destroys life, takes what is not given, breaks into houses, plunders wealth, commits burglary, ambushes highways, commits adultery, speaks falsehood—one does no evil. If with a razor-edged disk one were to reduce all the living beings on this earth to a single heap and pile of flesh, by doing so there would be no evil or outcome of evil. If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and inducing others to kill, mutilating and inducing others to mutilate, torturing and inducing others to torture, by doing so there would be no evil or outcome of evil. If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and inducing others to give gifts, making offerings and inducing others to make offerings, by doing so there would be no merit or outcome of merit. By giving, self-control, restraint, and truthful speech there is no merit or outcome of merit.'

20"Thus, venerable sir, when I asked Pūraṇa Kassapa about a visible fruit of recluseship, he explained to me (his doctrine of) the inefficacy of action. Venerable sir, just as if one asked about a mango would speak about a breadfruit, or as if one asked about a breadfruit would speak about a mango, in the same way when I asked Pūraṇa Kassapa about a visible fruit of recluseship he explained to me (his doctrine of) the inefficacy of action. Then, venerable sir, I thought to myself: 'One like myself should not think of troubling a recluse or brahmin living in his realm.'[n.100] Probably owing to his bad conscience. But the remark also suggests the enormous (and not always deserved) respect in which such wandering teachers were held. So I neither rejoiced in the statement of Pūraṇa Kassapa nor did I reject it. But, though I neither rejoiced in it nor rejected it, I still felt dissatisfied, yet did not utter a word of dissatisfaction. Without accepting his doctrine, without embracing it, I got up from my seat and left.

The Doctrine of Makkhali Gosāla

21"Another time, venerable sir, I approached Makkhali Gosāla,[n.101] ‘Makkhali of the Cow-Pen’, leader of the Ajivikas. See n.66. exchanged greetings and courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. I then asked him (as in §16) if he could point out a fruit of recluseship visible here and now.


22"When I had finished speaking, Makkhali Gosāla said to me: 'Great king, there is no cause or condition[n.102] Hetu means ‘root’ (e.g. greed, hatred or delusion); paccaya means ‘condition’. for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled without any cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified without cause or condition. There is no self-determination, no determination by others, no personal determination. There is no power, no energy, no personal strength, no personal fortitude. All sentient beings, all living beings, all creatures, all souls, are helpless, powerless, devoid of energy. Undergoing transformation by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes of men.

'There are fourteen hundred thousand principal modes of origin (for living beings) and six thousand (others) and six hundred (others). There are five hundred kinds of kamma[n.103] Kamma: but not quite in the Buddhist sense of ‘volitional action’. and five kinds of kamma[n.104] According to the five outward senses (cf. n.87). and three kinds of kamma[n.105] Of thought, word and deed. and full kamma and half-kamma.[n.106] ‘Half-action’, in thought only. There are sixty-two pathways, sixty-two sub-aeons, six classes of men, eight stages in the life of man, forty-nine hundred modes of livelihood, forty-nine hundred kinds of wanderers, forty-nine hundred abodes of Nāgas,[n.107] Basically, serpent-deities. two thousand faculties, three thousand hells, thirty-six realms of dust, seven spheres of percipient beings, seven spheres of non-percipient beings, seven kinds of jointed plants,[n.108] Nigaṇṭhi-gabbhā: ‘rebirths as a Nigaṇṭha’. See 114 seven kinds of gods, seven kinds of human beings, seven kinds of demons, seven great lakes, seven major kinds of knots, seven hundred minor kinds of knots,[n.109] Both the form (paṭuvā, pavuṭā?) seven major precipices, and the meaning of this word are doubtful. seven hundred minor precipices, seven major kinds of dreams, seven hundred minor kinds of dreams, eighty-four hundred thousand great aeons. The foolish and the wise, having roamed and wandered through these, will alike make an end to suffering.

'Though one might think: "By this moral discipline or observance or austerity or holy life I will ripen unripened kamma and eliminate ripened kamma whenever it comes up"— that cannot be.[n.110] The Buddhist view of kamma is thus denied. For pleasure and pain are measured out. Saṁsāra's limits are fixed, and they can neither be shortened nor extended. There is no advancing forward and no falling back. Just as, when a ball of string is thrown, it rolls along unwinding until it comes to its end, in the same way, the foolish and the wise roam and wander (for the fixed length of time), after which they make an end to suffering.'

23"Thus, venerable sir, when I asked Makkhali Gosāla about a visible fruit of recluseship, he explained to me (his doctrine of) purification through wandering in saṁsāra. Venerable sir, just as if one asked about a mango would speak about a breadfruit, or as if one asked about a breadfruit would speak about a mango, in the same way, when I asked Makkhali Gosāla about a visible fruit of recluseship, he explained to me (his doctrine of) purification through wandering in saṁsāra. Then, venerable sir, I thought to myself: 'One like myself should not think of troubling a recluse or brahmin living in his realm.' So I neither rejoiced in the statement of Makkhali Gosāla nor did I reject it. But, though I neither rejoiced in it nor rejected it, I still felt dissatisfied, yet did not utter a word of dissatisfaction. Without accepting his doctrine, without embracing it, I got up from my seat and left.

The Doctrine of Ajita Kesakambala

24"Another time, venerable sir, I approached Ajita Kesakambala,[n.111] ‘Ajita of the Hairy Garment’ (he wore a cloak of human hair): a materialist. exchanged greetings and courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. I then asked him (as in §16) if he could point out a fruit of recluseship visible here and now.

25"When I had finished speaking, Ajita Kesakambala said to me: 'Great king, there is no giving, no offering, no liberality. There is no fruit or result of good and bad actions. There is no present world, no world beyond, no mother, no father, no beings who have taken rebirth.[n.112] Cf. n.49 and n.63. In the world there are no recluses and brahmins of right attainment and right practice who explain this world and the world beyond on the basis of their own direct knowledge and realization. A person is composed of the four primary elements. When he dies, the earth (in his body) returns to and merges with the (external) body of earth; the water (in his body) returns to and merges with the (external) body of water; the fire (in his body) returns to and merges with the (external) body of fire; the air (in his body) returns to and merges with the (external) body of air. His sense faculties pass over into space. Four men carry the corpse along on a bier. His eulogies are sounded until they reach the charnel ground. His bones turn pigeon-coloured. His meritorious offerings end in ashes. The practice of giving is a doctrine of fools. Those who declare that there is (an afterlife) speak only false, empty prattle. With the breaking up of the body, the foolish and the wise alike are annihilated and utterly perish. They do not exist after death.'

26"Thus, venerable sir, when I asked Ajita Kesakambala about a visible fruit of recluseship, he explained to me (his doctrine of) annihilation. Venerable sir, just as if one asked about a mango would speak about a breadfruit, or as if one asked about a breadfruit would speak about a mango, in the same way, when I asked Ajita Kesakambala about a visible fruit of recluseship, he explained to me (his doctrine of) annihilation. Then, venerable sir, I thought to myself: 'One like myself should not think of troubling a recluse or brahmin living in his realm.' So I neither rejoiced in the statement of Ajita Kesakambala nor did I reject it. But though I neither rejoiced in it nor rejected it, I still felt dissatisfied, yet did not utter a word of dissatisfaction. Without accepting his doctrine, without embracing it, I got up from my seat and left.

The Doctrine of Pakudha Kaccāyana

27"Another time, venerable sir, I approached Pakudha Kaccāyana,[n.113] Holder of an atomic theory. exchanged greetings and courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. I then asked him (as in §16) if he could point out a fruit of recluseship visible here and now.

28"When I had finished speaking, Pakudha Kaccāyana said to me: 'Great king, there are seven bodies that are unmade, unfashioned, uncreated, without a creator, barren, stable as a mountain peak, standing firm like a pillar. They do not alter, do not change, do not obstruct one another; they are incapable of causing one another either pleasure or pain, or both pleasure and pain. What are the seven? The body of earth, the body of water, the body of fire, the body of air, pleasure, pain, and the soul as the seventh. Among these there is no killer nor one who causes killing; no hearer nor one who causes hearing; no cognizer nor one who causes cognition. If someone were to cut off (another person's) head with a sharp sword, he would not be taking (the other's) life. The sword merely passes through the space between the seven bodies.'

29"Thus, venerable sir, when I asked Pakudha Kaccāyana about a visible fruit of recluseship, he answered me in a completely irrelevant way. Venerable sir, just as if one asked about a mango would speak about a breadfruit, or as if one asked about a breadfruit would speak about a mango, in the same way, when I asked Pakudha Kaccāyana about a visible fruit of recluseship, he answered me in a completely irrelevant way. Then, venerable sir, I thought to myself: 'One like myself should not think of troubling a recluse or brahmin living in his realm.' So I neither rejoiced in the statement of Pakudha Kaccāyana nor did I reject it. But though I neither rejoiced in it nor rejected it, I still felt dissatisfied, yet did not utter a word of dissatisfaction. Without accepting his doctrine, without embracing it, I got up from my seat and left.

The Doctrine of Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta

30"Another time, venerable sir, I approached Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta,[n.114] The name given in the Pali Canon to Vardhamana Mahāvīra (ca. 540—568 BCE?), the leader of the Jains. He is several times referred to (unfavourably) in the Canon, e.g. at MN 56. Nigaṇṭha means ‘free from bonds’. See next note and n.900. exchanged greetings and courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. I then asked him (as in §16) if he could point out a fruit of recluseship visible here and now.

31"When I had finished speaking, Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta said to me: 'Great king, a Nigaṇṭha, a knotless one, is restrained with a fourfold restraint.[n.115] Sabba-vāri-vārito, sabba-vāri-yuto, sabba-vāri-dhuto, sabba-vāri-phuṭṭo (with some variant readings). They do not represent the genuine Jain teaching but seem to parody it in punning form. The Jains do have a rule of restraint in regard to water, and vāri can mean ‘water’, ‘restraint’, or possibly ‘sin’, and some of the verbal forms are equally dubious. The reference to one ‘free from bonds’ and yet bound by these restraints (whatever they are) is a deliberate paradox. I am most grateful to K.R. Norman for his very helpful comments. Finally I settled for a slight variation on the Ven. Ñāṇamoli’s rendering of the corresponding passage in MN 56. How so? Herein, great king, a Nigaṇṭha is restrained with regard to all water; he is endowed with the avoidance of all evil; he is cleansed by the avoidance of all evil; he is suffused with the avoidance of all evil. Great king, when a Nigaṇṭha is restrained with this fourfold restraint, he is called a knotless one who is self-perfected, self-controlled, and self-established.'


32"Thus, venerable sir, when I asked Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta about a visible fruit of recluseship, he explained to me the fourfold restraint. Venerable sir, just as if one asked about a mango would speak about a breadfruit, or as if one asked about a breadfruit would speak about a mango, in the same way, when I asked Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta about a visible fruit of recluseship, he explained to me the fourfold restraint. Then, venerable sir, I thought to myself: 'One like myself should not think of troubling a recluse or brahmin living in his realm.' So I neither rejoiced in the statement of Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta, nor did I reject it. But though I neither rejoiced in it nor rejected it, I still felt dissatisfied, yet did not utter a word of dissatisfaction. Without accepting his doctrine, without embracing it, I got up from my seat and left."

The Doctrine of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta

33"Another time, venerable sir, I approached Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta, exchanged greetings and courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. I then asked him (as in §16) if he could point out any fruit of recluseship visible here and now.


34"When I had finished speaking, Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta said to me: 'If you ask me:

"Is there a world beyond?" If I thought that there is a world beyond, I would declare to you "There is a world beyond." But I do not say "It is this way," nor "It is that way," nor "It is otherwise." I do not say "It is not so," nor do I say "It is not not so."

'Similarly, you might ask me the following questions:
"Is there no world beyond?"
"Is it that there both is and is not a world beyond?"
"Is it that there neither is nor is not a world beyond?"

"Are there beings who have taken rebirth?"
"Are there no beings who have taken rebirth?"
"Is it that there both are and are not beings who have taken rebirth?"
"Is it that there neither are nor are not beings who have taken rebirth?"

"Is there fruit and result of good and bad actions?"
"Is there no fruit and result of good and bad actions?"
"Is it that there both are and are not fruit and result of good and bad actions?"
"Is it that there neither are nor are not fruit and result of good and bad actions?"

"Does the Tathāgata exist after death?"
"Does the Tathāgata not exist after death?"
"Does the Tathāgata both exist and not exist after death?"
"Does the Tathāgata neither exist nor not exist after death?"

'If I thought that it was so, I would declare to you "It is so." But do I not say "It is this way," nor "It is that way," nor "It is otherwise." I do not say "It is not so," nor do I say "It is not not so."'


35"Thus, venerable sir, when I asked Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta about a visible fruit of recluseship, he answered me evasively. Venerable sir, just as if one asked about a mango would speak about a breadfruit, or as if one asked about a breadfruit would speak about a mango, in the same way, when I asked Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta about a visible fruit of recluseship, he answered me evasively. Then, venerable sir, I thought to myself: 'One like myself should not think of troubling a recluse or brahmin living in his realm.' So I neither rejoiced in the statement of Sañjaya Belaṭṭhaputta nor did I reject it. But though I neither rejoiced in it nor rejected it, I still felt dissatisfied, yet did not utter a word of dissatisfaction. Without accepting his doctrine, without embracing it, I got up from my seat and left.

Fruits of Recluseship

The First Visible Fruit of Recluseship

36"So, venerable sir, I ask the Exalted One: There are, venerable sir, various crafts, such as elephant trainers, horse trainers, charioteers, archers, standard bearers, camp marshals, commandos, high royal officers, front-line soldiers, bull-warriors, military heroes, mail-clad warriors, domestic slaves, confectioners, barbers, bath attendants, cooks, garland-makers, laundrymen, weavers, basket-makers, potters, statisticians, accountants, and various other crafts of a similar nature. All those (who practise these crafts) enjoy here and now the visible fruits of their craft. They obtain happiness and joy themselves, and they give happiness and joy to their parents, their wives and children, their friends and colleagues. They establish an excellent presentation of gifts to recluses and brahmins—leading to heaven, ripening in happiness, conducing to a heavenly rebirth. Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out any fruit of recluseship that is similarly visible here and now?"


37"It is, great king. But let me question you about this matter. Answer as you think fit.

"What do you think, great king? Suppose you have a slave, a workman who rises up before you, retires after you, does whatever you want, acts always for your pleasure, speaks politely to you, and is ever on the lookout to see that you are satisfied. The thought might occur to him: 'It is wonderful and marvellous, the destiny and result of meritorious deeds.[n.116] Meritorious deeds (puñña) do not lead to enlightenment, but to (temporary) future happiness in this world or another. This is the usual aim of ‘popular’ Buddhism. For this King Ajātasattu is a human being, and I too am a human being, yet King Ajātasattu enjoys himself fully endowed and supplied with the five strands of sense pleasure as if he were a god, while I am his slave, his workman—rising before him, retiring after him, doing whatever he wants, acting always for his pleasure, speaking politely to him, ever on the lookout to see that he is satisfied. I could be like him if I were to do meritorious deeds. Let me then shave off my hair and beard, put on saffron robes, and go forth from home to homelessness.'

38"After some time he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on saffron robes, and goes forth from home to homelessness. Having gone forth he dwells restrained in body, speech, and mind, content with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude. Suppose your men were to report all this to you. Would you say: 'Bring that man back to me, men. Let him again become my slave, my workman, rising before me, retiring after me, doing whatever I want, acting always for my pleasure, speaking politely to me, ever on the lookout to see that I am satisfied.'?"


39"Certainly not, venerable sir. Rather, we would pay homage to him, rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, and invite him to accept from us robes, almsfood, dwelling and medicinal requirements. And we would provide him righteous protection, defence, and security."

40"What do you think, great king? If such is the case, is there or is there not a visible fruit of recluseship?"

"There certainly is, venerable sir."

"This, great king, is the first fruit of recluseship, visible here and now, that I point out to you."

The Second Visible Fruit of Recluseship

41"Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out some other fruit of recluseship visible here and now?"

"It is, great king. But let me question you about this matter. Answer as you think fit.

"What do you think, great king? Suppose there is a farmer, a householder, who pays taxes to maintain the royal revenue. The thought might occur to him: 'It is wonderful and marvellous, the destiny and result of meritorious deeds. For this King Ajātasattu is a human being, and I too am a human being. Yet King Ajātasattu enjoys himself fully endowed and supplied with the five strands of sense pleasure as if he were a god, while I am a farmer, a householder, who pays taxes to maintain the royal revenue. I could be like him if I were to do meritorious deeds. Let me then shave off my hair and beard, put on saffron robes, and go forth from home to homelessness.'

42"After some time, he abandons his accumulation of wealth, be it large or small, abandons his circle of relatives, be it large or small; he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on saffron robes, and goes forth from home to homelessness. Having gone forth, he dwells restrained in body, speech, and mind, content with the simplest food and shelter, delighting in solitude. Suppose your men were to report all this to you. Would you say: 'Bring that man back to me, men. Let him again become a farmer, a householder, who pays taxes to maintain the royal revenue'?"


43"Certainly not, venerable sir. Rather, we would pay homage to him, rise up out of respect for him, invite him to a seat, and invite him to accept from us robes, almsfood, dwelling, and medicinal requirements. And we would provide him with righteous protection, defence, and security."

44"What do you think, great king? If such is the case, is there or is there not a visible fruit of recluseship?"

"There certainly is, venerable sir."

"This, great king, is the second fruit of recluseship, visible here and now, that I point out to you."

The More Excellent Fruits of Recluseship

45"Is it possible, venerable sir, to point out any other fruit of recluseship visible here and now, more excellent and sublime than these two fruits?"

"It is possible. Listen, great king, and attend carefully, I will speak."

"Yes, venerable sir," King Ajātasattu replied to the Exalted One.


46The Exalted One spoke: "Herein, great king, a Tathāgata arises in the world, a worthy one, perfectly enlightened, endowed with clear knowledge and conduct, accomplished, a knower of the world, unsurpassed trainer of men to be tamed, teacher of gods and men, enlightened and exalted. Having realized by his own direct knowledge this world with its gods, its Māras,[n.117] Māra, the personified tempter like the Biblical Satan (he appears in person in DN 16). Both Māra and Brahmā are subject to rebirth, and their ‘office’ is taken over by other beings according to their kamma. and its Brahmās, this generation with its recluses and brahmins, its rulers[n.118] Deva again, this time in the sense of ‘devas by convention’, i.e. kings. and people, he makes it known to others. He teaches the Dhamma that is good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, possessing meaning and phrasing; he reveals the holy life that is fully complete and purified.

47"A householder, or a householder's son, or one born into some other family, hears the Dhamma. Having heard the Dhamma, he gains faith in the Tathāgata. Endowed with such faith, he reflects: 'The household life is crowded, a path of dust. Going forth is like the open air. It is not easy for one dwelling at home to lead the perfectly complete, perfectly purified holy life, bright as a polished conch. Let me then shave off my hair and beard, put on saffron robes, and go forth from home to homelessness.'

48"After some time he abandons his accumulation of wealth, be it large or small; he abandons his circle of relatives, be it large or small; he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on saffron robes, and goes forth from home to homelessness.

49"When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the restraint of the Pāṭimokkha, possessed of proper behaviour and resort. Having taken up the rules of training, he trains himself in them, seeing danger in the slightest faults. He comes to be endowed with wholesome bodily and verbal action, his livelihood is purified, and he is possessed of moral discipline. He guards the doors of his sense faculties, is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension, and is content.

Moral Dicipline
The Small Section on Moral Discipline

50"And how, great king, is the bhikkhu possessed of moral discipline? Herein, great king, having abandoned the destruction of life, the bhikkhu abstains from the destruction of life. He has laid down the rod and weapon and dwells conscientious, full of kindness, sympathetic for the welfare of all living beings. This pertains to his moral discipline.

51"Having abandoned taking what is not given, he abstains from taking what is not given. Accepting and expecting only what is given, he lives in honesty with a pure mind. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

52"Having abandoned incelibacy, he leads the holy life of celibacy. He dwells aloof and abstains from the vulgar practice of sexual intercourse. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

53"Having abandoned false speech, he abstains from falsehood. He speaks only the truth, he lives devoted to truth; trustworthy and reliable, he does not deceive anyone in the world. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

54"Having abandoned slander, he abstains from slander. He does not repeat elsewhere what he has heard here in order to divide others from the people here, nor does he repeat here what he has heard elsewhere in order to divide these from the people there. Thus he is a reconciler of those who are divided and a promoter of friendships. Rejoicing, delighting, and exulting in concord, he speaks only words that are conducive to concord. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

55"Having abandoned harsh speech, he abstains from harsh speech. He speaks only such words as are gentle, pleasing to the ear, endearing, going to the heart, polite, amiable and agreeable to the manyfolk. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

56"Having abandoned idle chatter, he abstains from idle chatter. He speaks at the right time, speaks what is factual and beneficial, speaks on the Dhamma and the Discipline. His words are worth treasuring; they are timely, backed by reasons, measured, and connected with the good. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

57"He abstains from damaging seed and plant life.
"He eats only in one part of the day, refraining from food at night and from eating at improper times.
"He abstains from dancing, singing, instrumental music, and from witnessing unsuitable shows.
"He abstains from wearing garlands, embellishing himself with scents, and beautifying himself with unguents.
"He abstains from high and luxurious beds and seats.
"He abstains from accepting gold and silver.
"He abstains from accepting uncooked grain, raw meat, women and girls, male and female slaves, goats and sheep, fowl and swine, elephants, cattle, horses and mares.
"He abstains from accepting fields and lands.
"He abstains from running messages and errands.
"He abstains from buying and selling.
"He abstains from dealing with false weights, false metals, and false measures.
"He abstains from the crooked ways of bribery, deception, and fraud.
"He abstains from mutilating, executing, imprisoning, robbery, plunder, and violence.
"This too pertains to his moral discipline.

The Intermediate Section on Moral Discipline

58"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, continually cause damage to seed and plant life—to plants propagated from roots, stems, joints, buds, and seeds—he abstains from damaging seed and plant life. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

59"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of stored-up goods, such as stored-up food, drinks, garments, vehicles, bedding, scents, and comestibles—he abstains from the use of stored-up goods. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


60"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, attend unsuitable shows, such as:
shows featuring dancing, singing, or instrumental music;
theatrical performances;
narrations of legends
music played by hand-clapping, cymbals, and drums;
picture houses;
acrobatic performances;
combats of elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, goats, rams, cocks and quails;
stick-fights, boxing, and wrestling;
sham-fights, roll-calls, battle-arrays, and regimental reviews—

he abstains from attending such unsuitable shows. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


61"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, indulge in the following games and recreations:

aṭṭhapada (a game played on an eight-row chessboard);
dasapada (a game played on a ten-row chessboard);
ākāsa (played by imagining a board in the air);
parihārapatha ("hopscotch," a diagram is drawn on the ground and one has to jump in the allowable spaces avoiding the lines);
santika ("spillikins," assembling the pieces in a pile, removing and returning them without disturbing the pile);
khalika (dice games);
ghaṭika (hitting a short stick with a long stick);
salākahattha (a game played by dipping the hand in paint or dye, striking the ground or a wall, and requiring the participants to show the figure of an elephant, a horse etc.);
akkha (ball games);
paṅgacīra (blowing through toy pipes made of leaves);
vaṅkaka (ploughing with miniature ploughs);
mokkhacika (turning somersaults);
ciṅgulika (playing with paper windmills);
pattāḷaka (playing with toy measures);
rathaka (playing with toy chariots);
dhanuka (playing with toy bows);
akkharika (guessing at letters written in the air or on one's back);
manesika (guessing others' thoughts);
yathāvajja (games involving mimicry of deformities)—


he abstains from such games that are a basis for negligence. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

62"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of high and luxurious beds and seats, such as:

spacious couches;
thrones with animal figures carved on the supports;
long-haired coverlets;
multi-colored patchwork coverlets;
white woollen coverlets
woollen coverlets embroidered with flowers;
quilts stuffed with cotton;
woollen coverlets embroidered with animal figures;
woollen coverlets with hair on both sides or on one side;
bedspreads embroidered with gems;
silk coverlets;
dance-hall carpets;
elephant, horse, or chariot rugs;
rugs of antelope-skins;
choice spreads made of kadali-deer hides;
spreads with red awnings overhead;
couches with red cushions for head and feet—

he abstains from the use of such high and luxurious beds and seats. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


63"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on food offered by the faithful, enjoy the use of such devices for embellishing and beautifying themselves as the following:

rubbing scented powders into the body
massaging with oils
bathing in perfumed water
kneading the limbs
mirrors
ointments
garlands
scents
unguents
face-powders
make-up
bracelets
head-bands
decorated walking sticks
ornamented medicine-tubes
rapiers
sunshades
embroidered sandals
turbans
diadems
yaktail whisks
and long-fringed white robes—

he abstains from the use of such devices for embellishment and beautification. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


64"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in frivolous chatter, such as:

talk about kings, thieves, and ministers of state
talk about armies, dangers, and wars
talk about food, drink, garments, and lodgings;
talk about garlands and scents;
talk about relations, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, and countries;
talk about women and talk about heroes; s
treet talk and talk by the well;
talk about those departed in days gone by;
rambling chit-chat;
speculations about the world and about the sea;
talk about gain and loss—

he abstains from such frivolous chatter. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


65"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in wrangling argumentation, (saying to one another):

'You don't understand this doctrine and discipline. It is I who understand this doctrine and discipline.'

'How can you understand this doctrine and discipline?'

'You're practising the wrong way. I'm practicing the right way.'

'I'm being consistent. You're inconsistent.'

'What should have been said first you said last, what should have been said last you said first.'

'What you took so long to think out has been confuted.'

'Your doctrine has been refuted. You're defeated. Go, try to save your doctrine, or disentangle yourself now if you can'—

he abstains from such wrangling argumentation. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


66"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in running messages and errands for kings, ministers of state, khattiyas, brahmins, householders, or youths, (who command them): 'Go here, go there, take this, bring that from there'—he abstains from running such messages and errands. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

67"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, engage in scheming, talking, hinting, belittling others, and pursuing gain with gain, he abstains from such kinds of scheming and talking. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

The Large Section on Moral Discipline

68"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

prophesying long life, prosperity etc., or the reverse, from the marks on a person's limbs, hands, feet, etc;
divining by means of omens and signs;
making auguries on the basis of thunderbolts and celestial portents;
interpreting ominous dreams;
telling fortunes from marks on the body;
making auguries from the marks on cloth gnawed by mice;
offering fire oblations;
offering oblations from a ladle;
offering oblations of husks, rice powder, rice grains, ghee and oil to the gods;
offering oblations from the mouth;
offering blood-sacrifices to the gods;
making predictions based on the fingertips;
determining whether the site for a proposed house or garden is propitious or not;
making predictions for officers of state;
laying demons in a cemetery;
laying ghosts;
knowledge of charms to be pronounced by one living in an earthen house;
snake charming;
the poison craft, scorpion craft, rat craft, bird craft, crow craft;
foretelling the number of years that a man has to live;
reciting charms to give protection from arrows;
reciting charms to understand the language of animals—


he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

69"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as interpreting the significance of the colour, shape, and other features of the following items to determine whether they portend fortune or misfortune for their owners: gems, garments, staffs, swords, spears, arrows, bows, other weapons, women, men, boys, girls, slaves, slave-women, elephants, horses, buffaloes, bulls, cows, goats, rams, fowl, quails, lizards, earrings (or house-gables), tortoises, and other animals—


he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

70"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as making predictions to the effect that:

the king will march forth;
the king will return;
our king will attack and the enemy king will retreat;
the enemy king will attack and our king will retreat;
our king will triumph and the enemy king will be defeated;
the enemy king will triumph and our king will be defeated;
thus there will be victory for one and defeat for the other—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.

71"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as predicting:

there will be an eclipse of the moon, an eclipse of the sun, an eclipse of a constellation
the sun and the moon will go on their proper courses
there will be an aberration of the sun and moon
the constellations will go on their proper courses
there will be an aberration of a constellation
there will be a fall of meteors
there will be a skyblaze
there will be an earthquake
there will be an earth-roar
there will be a rising and setting, a darkening and brightening of the moon, sun, and constellations
such will be the result of the moon's eclipse, such the result of the sun's eclipse, (and so on down to) such will be the result of the rising and setting, darkening and brightening of the moon, sun, and constellations—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


72"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as predicting:

there will be abundant rain
there will be a drought
there will be a good harvest
there will be a famine
there will be security
there will be danger
there will be sickness
there will be health
or they earn their living by accounting, computation, calculation, the composing of poetry, and speculations about the world—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


73"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

arranging auspicious dates for marriages, both those in which the bride is brought home and those in which she is sent out
arranging auspicious dates for betrothals and divorces
arranging auspicious dates for the accumulation or expenditure of money
reciting charms to make people lucky or unlucky
rejuvenating the foetuses of abortive women
reciting spells to bind a man's tongue, to paralyze his jaws, to make him lose control over his hands, or to bring on deafness
obtaining oracular answers to questions by means of a mirror, a girl, or a god
worshipping the sun
worshipping Mahābrahmā
bringing forth flames from the mouth
invoking the goddess of luck—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


74"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

promising gifts to deities in return for favours
fulfilling such promises
demonology
reciting spells after entering an earthen house
inducing virility and impotence
preparing and consecrating sites for a house
giving ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing
offering sacrificial fires
administering emetics, purgatives, expectorants, and phlegmagogues
administering medicines through the ear and through the nose, administering ointments and counter-ointments, practising fine surgery on the eyes and ears, practising general surgery on the body, practising as a children's doctor—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


75"Great king, the bhikkhu who is thus possessed of moral discipline sees no danger anywhere in regard to his restraint by moral discipline. Just as a head-anointed noble warrior who has defeated his enemies sees no danger anywhere from his enemies, so the bhikkhu who is thus possessed of moral discipline sees no danger anywhere in regard to his restraint by moral discipline. Endowed with this noble aggregate of moral discipline, he experiences within himself a blameless happiness. In this way, great king, the bhikkhu is possessed of moral discipline.

Concentration
Restraint of the Sense Faculties

76"And how, great king, does the bhikkhu guard the doors of his sense faculties? Herein, great king, having seen a form with the eye, the bhikkhu does not grasp at the sign or the details. Since, if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye, evil unwholesome states such as covetousness and grief might assail him, he practises restraint, guards the faculty of the eye, and achieves restraint over the faculty of the eye. Having heard a sound with the ear … having smelled an odour with the nose … having tasted a flavour with the tongue … having touched a tangible object with the body … having cognized a mind-object with the mind, the bhikkhu does not grasp at the sign or the details. Since, if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the mind, evil unwholesome states such as covetousness and grief might assail him, he practises restraint, guards the faculty of the mind, and achieves restraint over the faculty of the mind. Endowed with this noble restraint of the sense faculties, he experiences within himself an unblemished happiness. In this way, great king, the bhikkhu guards the doors of the sense faculties.

Mindfulness and Clear Comprehension

77"And how, great king, is the bhikkhu endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension? Herein, great king, in going forward and returning, the bhikkhu acts with clear comprehension. In looking ahead and looking aside, he acts with clear comprehension. In bending and stretching the limbs, he acts with clear comprehension. In wearing his robes and cloak and using his alms-bowl, he acts with clear comprehension. In eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting, he acts with clear comprehension. In defecating and urinating, he acts with clear comprehension. In going, standing, sitting, lying down, waking up, speaking, and remaining silent, he acts with clear comprehension. In this way, great king, the bhikkhu is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension.

Contentment

78"And how, great king, is the bhikkhu content? Herein, great king, a bhikkhu is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to sustain his belly; wherever he goes he sets out taking only (his requisites) along with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, in the same way a bhikkhu is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to sustain his belly; wherever he goes he sets out taking only (his requisites) along with him. In this way, great king, the bhikkhu is content.

The Abandoning of the Hindrances

79"Endowed with this noble aggregate of moral discipline, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and clear comprehension, and this noble contentment, he resorts to a secluded dwelling— a forest, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a cremation ground, a jungle grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After returning from his alms-round, following his meals, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and sets up mindfulness before him.[n.119] Parimukhatiṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā: probably means ‘having firmly established mindfulness’. See n.637.

80"Having abandoned covetousness for the world, he dwells with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. Having abandoned ill will and hatred, he dwells with a benevolent mind, sympathetic for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Having abandoned dullness and drowsiness, he dwells perceiving light,[n.120] Cultivation of the perception of light is given as a standard way of overcoming the hindrance of sloth-and-torpor (thīna-midha). See VM 1.140. mindful and clearly comprehending; he purifies his mind from dullness and drowsiness. Having abandoned restlessness and worry, he dwells at ease within himself, with a peaceful mind; he purifies his mind from restlessness and worry. Having abandoned doubt, he dwells as one who has passed beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.

81"Great king, suppose a man were to take a loan and apply it to his business, and his business were to succeed, so that he could pay back his old debts and would have enough money left over to maintain a wife. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.


82"Again, great king, suppose a man were to become sick, afflicted, gravely ill, so that he could not enjoy his food and his strength would decline. After some time he would recover from that illness and would enjoy his food and regain his bodily strength. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

83"Again, great king, suppose a man were locked up in a prison. After some time he would be released from prison, safe and secure, with no loss of his possessions. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

84"Again, great king, suppose a man were a slave, without independence, subservient to others, unable to go where he wants. After some time he would be released from slavery and gain his independence; he would no longer be subservient to others but a free man able to go where he wants. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

85"Again, great king, suppose a man with wealth and possessions were travelling along a desert road where food was scarce and dangers were many. After some time he would cross over the desert and arrive safely at a village which is safe and free from danger. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.


86"In the same way, great king, when a bhikkhu sees that these five hindrances are unabandoned[n.121] The five hindrances are temporarily dispelled by the jhāna states. within himself, he regards that as a debt, as a sickness, as confinement in prison, as slavery, as a desert road.

87"But when he sees that these five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, he regards that as freedom from debt, as good health, as release from prison, as freedom from slavery, as a place of safety.

88"When he sees that these five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, gladness arises. When he is gladdened, rapture arises. When his mind is filled with rapture, his body becomes tranquil; tranquil in body, he experiences happiness; being happy, his mind becomes concentrated.

The First Jhāna

89"Quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought and filled with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion. He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this rapture and happiness born of seclusion, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.

90"Great king, suppose a skilled bath attendant or his apprentice were to pour soap-powder into a metal basin, sprinkle it with water, and knead it into a ball, so that the ball of soap-powder be pervaded by moisture, encompassed by moisture, suffused with moisture inside and out, yet would not trickle. In the same way, great king, the bhikkhu drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness. This, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.[n.122] This concludes the Buddha’s answer to the first part of the question posed in verse 41.

The Second Jhāna

91"Further, great king, with the subsiding of applied and sustained thought, the bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhāna, which is accompanied by internal confidence and unification of mind, is without applied and sustained thought, and is filled with the rapture and happiness born of concentration. He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this rapture and happiness born of concentration, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.

92"Great king, suppose there were a deep lake whose waters welled up from below. It would have no inlet for water from the east, west, north, or south, nor would it be refilled from time to time with showers of rain; yet a current of cool water, welling up from within the lake, would drench, steep, saturate and suffuse the whole lake, so that there would be no part of that entire lake which is not suffused with the cool water. In the same way, great king, the bhikkhu drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with the rapture and happiness born of concentration, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Third Jhāna

93"Further, great king, with the fading away of rapture, the bhikkhu dwells in equanimity, mindful and clearly comprehending, and experiences happiness with the body. Thus he enters and dwells in the third jhāna, of which the noble ones declare: 'He dwells happily with equanimity and mindfulness.' He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this happiness free from rapture, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this happiness.

94"Great king, suppose in a lotus pond there were blue, white, or red lotuses[n.123] Uppala (Skt. utpala), paduma (Skt. padma), puṇḍarīka are different kinds of lotus, usually of the colour mentioned. that have been born in the water, grow in the water, and never rise up above the water, but flourish immersed in the water. From their tips to their roots they would be drenched, steeped, saturated, and suffused with cool water, so that there would be no part of those lotuses not suffused with cool water. In the same way, great king, the bhikkhu drenches, steeps, saturates and suffuses his body with the happiness free from rapture, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this happiness. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Fourth Jhāna

95"Further, great king, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and grief, the bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which is neither pleasant nor painful and contains mindfulness fully purified by equanimity. He sits suffusing his body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his entire body not suffused by a pure bright mind.

96"Great king, suppose a man were to be sitting covered from the head down by a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his entire body not suffused by the white cloth. In the same way, great king, the bhikkhu sits suffusing his body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his entire body not suffused by a pure bright mind. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

Eight Insights
Insight Knowledge

97"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects,[n.124] Upakilesa: to be distinguished from kilesa ‘defilement’. Perhaps the ten ‘imperfections of insight’ listed in VM 20.105ff. are meant; most of these are not defilements in themselves, but potential hindrances at a certain stage of insight meditation. malleable, wieldy, steady and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He understands thus: 'This is my body, having material form, composed of the four primary elements, originating from father and mother, built up out of rice and gruel, impermanent, subject to rubbing and pressing, to dissolution and dispersion. And this is my consciousness, supported by it and bound up with it.'[n.125] RD points out that this and other passages disprove the idea that consciousness (viññāṇa) transmigrates. For holding this belief Sāti was severely rebuked by the Buddha (MN 38). A new relinking consciousness (patisandhi) arises at conception, dependent on the old (see VM 17.164ff.).

98"Great king, suppose there were a beautiful beryl[n.126] Veḷuriya: from a metathetised form veruliya comes Greek beryllos ‘beryl’, whence German Brille ‘spectacles’ (originally of beryl). gem of purest water, eight-faceted, well cut, clear, limpid, flawless, endowed with all excellent qualities. And through it there would run a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread. A man with keen sight, taking it in his hand, would reflect upon it thus: 'This is a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight faceted, well cut, clear, limpid, flawless, endowed with all excellent qualities. And running through it there is this blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.' In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision and understands thus: 'This is my body, having material form … . and this is my consciousness, supported by it and bound up with it.' This, too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Knowledge of the Mind-made Body

99"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made body. From this body he creates another body having material form,[n.127] Exactly like the physical body: cf. n.49. This mind-made body is what is mistaken for a soul or self. mind-made, complete in all its parts, not lacking any faculties.

100"Great king, suppose a man were to draw out a reed from its sheath. He would think: 'This is the reed; this is the sheath. The reed is one thing, the sheath another, but the reed has been drawn out from the sheath.' Or suppose a man were to draw a sword out from its scabbard. He would think: 'This is the sword; this is the scabbard. The sword is one thing, the scabbard another, but the sword has been drawn out from the scabbard.' Or suppose a man were to pull a snake out from its slough. He would think: 'This is the snake; this is the slough. The snake is one thing, the slough another, but the snake has been pulled out from the slough.' In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … The bhikkhu directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made body. From this body he creates another body having material form, mind-made, complete in all its parts, not lacking any faculties. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Knowledge of the Modes of Supernormal Power

101"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the modes of supernormal power.[n.128] Iddhi (Skt. ṛddhi, not, as often stated, siddhi): translated by RD as ‘The Wondrous Gift’ and glossed as ‘well-being, prosperity’. With dawning recognition of ESP, it is no longer necessary to discount these powers. But despite his mention of them here, the Buddha disapproved of these practices (see DN 11.5). He exercises the various modes of supernormal power: having been one, he becomes many and having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space; he dives in and out of the earth as if it were water; he walks on water without sinking as if it were earth; sitting cross-legged he travels through space like a winged bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the sun and the moon, so mighty and powerful;[n.129] DA has no useful comment on this, and modem commentators too are silent, but ‘touching the sun and moon’ probably refers to some psychic experience. In any case it is certainly not to be taken literally. he exercises mastery over the body as far as the Brahma-world.

102"Great king, suppose a skilled potter or his apprentice were to make and fashion out of well-prepared clay whatever kind of vessel he might desire. Or suppose a skilled ivory-worker or his apprentice were to make and fashion out of well-prepared ivory whatever kind of ivory work he might desire. Or suppose a skilled goldsmith or his apprentice were to make and fashion out of well-prepared gold whatever kind of gold work he might desire. In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the modes of supernormal power and exercises the various modes of supernormal power. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Knowledge of the Divine Ear

103"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element.[n.130] Dibba-sota: clairaudience (cf. n.72). With the divine ear-element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sound, the divine and the human, those which are distant and those which are near.

104"Great king, suppose a man travelling along a highway were to hear the sounds of kettledrums, tambours, horns, cymbals and tom-toms, and would think: 'This is the sound of kettledrums, this is the sound of tambours, this the sound of horns, cymbals and tom-toms.' In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element. With the divine ear-element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sound, the divine and the human, those which are distant and those which are near. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Knowledge Encompassing the Minds of Others

105"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of encompassing the minds (of others). He understands the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with his own mind. He understands a mind with lust as a mind with lust[n.131] The following list of mental states is doubtless taken from DN 22.40, where it is more appropriate. For notes, see there. and a mind without lust as a mind without lust; he understands a mind with hatred as a mind with hatred and a mind without hatred as a mind without hatred; he understands a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion; he understands a contracted mind as a contracted mind and a distracted mind as a distracted mind; he understands an exalted mind as an exalted mind and an unexalted mind as an unexalted mind; he understands a surpassable mind as a surpassable mind and an unsurpassable mind as an unsurpassable mind; he understands a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind; he understands a liberated mind as a liberated mind and an unliberated mind as an unliberated mind.

106"Great king, suppose a young man or woman, fond of ornaments, examining his or her own facial reflection in a pure bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water, would know, if there were a mole, 'It has a mole,' and if there were no mole, 'It has no mole.' In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of encompassing the minds (of others). He understands the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with his own mind. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Knowledge of Recollecting Past Lives

107"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of recollecting past lives. He recollects his numerous past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three, four, or five births; ten, twenty, thirty, forty, or fifty births; a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births; many aeons of world contraction, many aeons of world expansion, many aeons of world contraction and expansion, (recollecting): 'There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away from that state I re-arose here.' Thus he recollects his numerous past lives in their modes and their details.

108"Great king, suppose a man were to go from his own village to another village, then from that village to still another village, and then from that village he would return to his own village. He would think to himself: 'I went from my own village to that village. There I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I went to still another village. There too I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I returned to my own village.'[n.132] The three villages are the three worlds of Sense-Desire, of Form, and the Formless World (DA). In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of recollecting past lives, and he recollects his numerous past lives in their modes and their details. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship, more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Knowledge of the Divine Eye

109"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye,[n.133] Dibba-cakkhu: clairvoyance, not to be confused with the Dhamma-eye (verse 109). See n.140. which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing—inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate—and he understands how beings fare according to their kamma, thus: 'These beings—who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views, and undertook actions governed by wrong views—with the breakup of the body, after death, have reappeared in the plane of misery, the bad destinations, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings—who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, held right views, and undertook actions governed by right views—with the breakup of the body, after death, have reappeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.' Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing—inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate—and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma.

110"Great king, suppose in a central square there were a building with an upper terrace, and a man with keen sight standing there were to see people entering a house, leaving it, walking along the streets, and sitting in the central square. He would think to himself: 'Those people are entering the house, those are leaving it, those are walking along the streets, and those are sitting in the central square.' In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, and he understands how beings fare according to their kamma. This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones.

The Knowledge of the Destruction of the Cankers

111"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers.[n.134] Āsavā: from ā-savati ‘flows towards’ (i.e. either ‘into’, or ‘out’ towards the observer). Variously translated ‘biases’, ‘intoxicants’, ‘influxes’, ‘cankers’ or ‘Deadly Taints’ (RD). A further corruption, that of wrong views (diṭṭhāsava) is sometimes added. The destruction of the āsavas is equivalent to Arahantship. He understands as it really is: 'This is suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the origin of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the cessation of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'These are the cankers.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the origin of the cankers.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the cessation of the cankers.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of the cankers.'

"Knowing and seeing thus, his mind is liberated from the canker of sensual desire, from the canker of existence, and from the canker of ignorance. When it is liberated, the knowledge arises: 'It is liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further beyond this.'[n.135] Nâparaṁ itthatāya: lit. ‘there is no more of “thusness”’. See DN 15.22.


112"Great king, suppose in a mountain glen there were a lake with clear water, limpid and unsullied. A man with keen sight, standing on the bank, would see oyster-shells, sand and pebbles, and shoals of fish moving about and keeping still. He would think to himself: 'This is a lake with clear water, limpid and unsullied, and there within it are oyster-shells, sand and pebbles, and shoals of fish moving about and keeping still.'

"In the same way, great king, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … . the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers. He understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' … He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further beyond this.' This too, great king, is a visible fruit of recluseship more excellent and sublime than the previous ones. And, great king, there is no other fruit of recluseship higher or more sublime than this one."[n.136] All the preceding ‘fruits’ have led up to this, which alone, as RD points out, is exclusively Buddhist. There are 13 items or groups, and the list, in whole or with some omissions, recurs in every Sutta of Division 1. Summarised, they are: 1. The respect shown to a member of a religious order; 2. The training in morality as in DN 1; 3. Confidence felt as a result of right action; 4. The habit of guarding the sense-doors; 5. Resulting mindfulness and clear awareness; 6. Being content with little; 7. Freedom from the five hindrances; Resulting joy and peace; 9. The four jhānas; 10. Knowledge born of insight; 11. The production of mental images; 12. The five mundane forms of ‘higher knowledge’ (abhiññā); 13. The realisation of the Four Noble Truths, the destruction of the corruptions (= the sixth, supramundane, abhiññā), and the attainment of Arahantship.

King Ajātasattu Declares Himself a Lay Follower

113When the Exalted One had finished speaking, King Ajātasattu said to him: "Excellent, venerable sir! Excellent, venerable sir! Just as if one were to turn upright what had been turned upside down, or to reveal what was hidden, or to point out the right path to one who was lost, or to bring a lamp into a dark place so that those with keen sight could see forms, in the same way, venerable sir, the Exalted One has revealed the Dhamma in numerous ways. I go for refuge to the Exalted One, to the Dhamma, and to the Bhikkhu Saṅgha. Let the Exalted One accept me as a lay follower gone for refuge from this day onwards as long as I live.


114"Venerable sir, a transgression[n.137] Accayo: often rendered (as by RD) ‘sin’, but this term with its theistic connotations is best avoided when translating Buddhist texts. overcame me. I was so foolish, so deluded, so unskilful that for the sake of rulership I took the life of my own father, a righteous man and a righteous king. Let the Exalted One acknowledge my transgression as a transgression for the sake of my restraint in the future."[n.138] This is the formula used by bhikkhus when confessing transgressions.

"Indeed, great king, a transgression overcame you. You were so foolish, so deluded, so unskilful that for the sake of rulership you took the life of your father, a righteous man and a righteous king. But since you have seen your transgression as a transgression and make amends for it according to the Dhamma, we acknowledge it. For, great king, this is growth in the discipline of the Noble One: that a person sees his transgression as a transgression, makes amends for it according to the Dhamma, and achieves restraint in the future."


115When this was said, King Ajātasattu said to the Exalted One: "Now, venerable sir, we must go. We have many tasks and duties."

"Do whatever seems fit, great king."

Then King Ajātasattu rejoiced in the word of the Exalted One and thanked him for it. Rising from his seat, he paid homage to the Exalted One, circumambulated him, and departed.

116Soon after King Ajātasattu had left, the Exalted One addressed the bhikkhus: "This king, bhikkhus, has ruined himself; he has injured himself.[n.139] Khatâyaṁ bhikkhave rājā, upahatâyaṁ bhikkhave rājā. RD went astray with his translation here: ‘This king, brethren, was deeply affected, he was touched in heart.’ Lit. ‘uprooted and destroyed’, the expression indicates that Ajātasattu was inhibited by his kamma from obtaining the results that would otherwise have accrued, since parricide is one of the evil acts ‘with immediate result’ (in the next world) that cannot be avoided. According to DA, he was unable to sleep until his visit to the Buddha. Bhikkhus, if this king had not taken the life of his father, a righteous man and a righteous king, then in this very seat there would have arisen in him the dust-free, stainless eye of Dhamma."[n.140] The opening of the Dhamma-eye (dhamma-cakkhu) is a term for ‘entering the stream’ and thus being set irrevocably on the path. As RD points out, it is superior to the divine eye (dibba-cakkhu: verse 109 and n.133), which is a superior kind of clairvoyance, and below the wisdom-eye (paññā-cakkhu), which is the wisdom of the Arahant.

117Thus spoke the Exalted One. Elated in mind, the bhikkhus rejoiced in the Exalted One's word.

Here ends the Sāmaññaphala Sutta

1. Rājāmaccakathā

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā rājagahe viharati jīvakassa komārabhaccassa ambavane mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ aḍḍhateḷasehi bhikkhusatehi. Tena kho pana samayena rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tadahuposathe pannarase komudiyā cātumāsiniyā puṇṇāya puṇṇamāya rattiyā rājāmaccaparivuto uparipāsādavaragato nisinno hoti. Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tadahuposathe udānaṁ udānesi:

"ramaṇīyā vata bho dosinā ratti, abhirūpā vata bho dosinā ratti, dassanīyā vata bho dosinā ratti, pāsādikā vata bho dosinā ratti, lakkhaññā vata bho dosinā ratti. Kaṁ nu khvajja samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā payirupāseyyāma, yaṁ no payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti?

2Evaṁ vutte, aññataro rājāmacco rājānaṁ māgadhaṁ ajātasattuṁ vedehiputtaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, deva, pūraṇo kassapo saṅghī ceva gaṇī ca gaṇācariyo ca ñāto yasassī titthakaro sādhusammato bahujanassa rattaññū cirapabbajito addhagato vayoanuppatto. Taṁ devo pūraṇaṁ kassapaṁ payirupāsatu. Appeva nāma devassa pūraṇaṁ kassapaṁ payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti. Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhī ahosi.


3Aññataropi kho rājāmacco rājānaṁ māgadhaṁ ajātasattuṁ vedehiputtaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, deva, makkhali gosālo saṅghī ceva gaṇī ca gaṇācariyo ca ñāto yasassī titthakaro sādhusammato bahujanassa rattaññū cirapabbajito addhagato vayoanuppatto. Taṁ devo makkhaliṁ gosālaṁ payirupāsatu. Appeva nāma devassa makkhaliṁ gosālaṁ payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti. Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhī ahosi.

4Aññataropi kho rājāmacco rājānaṁ māgadhaṁ ajātasattuṁ vedehiputtaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, deva, ajito kesakambalo saṅghī ceva gaṇī ca gaṇācariyo ca ñāto yasassī titthakaro sādhusammato bahujanassa rattaññū cirapabbajito addhagato vayoanuppatto. Taṁ devo ajitaṁ kesakambalaṁ payirupāsatu. Appeva nāma devassa ajitaṁ kesakambalaṁ payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti. Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhī ahosi.

5Aññataropi kho rājāmacco rājānaṁ māgadhaṁ ajātasattuṁ vedehiputtaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, deva, pakudho kaccāyano saṅghī ceva gaṇī ca gaṇācariyo ca ñāto yasassī titthakaro sādhusammato bahujanassa rattaññū cirapabbajito addhagato vayoanuppatto. Taṁ devo pakudhaṁ kaccāyanaṁ payirupāsatu. Appeva nāma devassa pakudhaṁ kaccāyanaṁ payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti. Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhī ahosi.

6Aññataropi kho rājāmacco rājānaṁ māgadhaṁ ajātasattuṁ vedehiputtaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, deva, sañcayo belaṭṭhaputto saṁghī ceva gaṇī ca gaṇācariyo ca ñāto yasassī titthakaro sādhusammato bahujanassa rattaññū cirapabbajito addhagato vayoanuppatto. Taṁ devo sañcayaṁ belaṭṭhaputtaṁ payirupāsatu. Appeva nāma devassa sañcayaṁ belaṭṭhaputtaṁ payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti. Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhī ahosi.

7Aññataropi kho rājāmacco rājānaṁ māgadhaṁ ajātasattuṁ vedehiputtaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, deva, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto saṁghī ceva gaṇī ca gaṇācariyo ca ñāto yasassī titthakaro sādhusammato bahujanassa rattaññū cirapabbajito addhagato vayoanuppatto. Taṁ devo nigaṇṭhaṁ nāṭaputtaṁ payirupāsatu. Appeva nāma devassa nigaṇṭhaṁ nāṭaputtaṁ payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti. Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhī ahosi.

2. Komārabhaccajīvakakathā

8Tena kho pana samayena jīvako komārabhacco rañño māgadhassa ajātasattussa vedehiputtassa avidūre tuṇhībhūto nisinno hoti. Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto jīvakaṁ komārabhaccaṁ etadavoca: "tvaṁ pana, samma jīvaka, kiṁ tuṇhī"ti?

"Ayaṁ, deva, bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho amhākaṁ ambavane viharati mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ aḍḍhateḷasehi bhikkhusatehi. Taṁ kho pana bhagavantaṁ evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'itipi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā'ti. Taṁ devo bhagavantaṁ payirupāsatu. Appeva nāma devassa bhagavantaṁ payirupāsato cittaṁ pasīdeyyā"ti.


9"Tena hi, samma jīvaka, hatthiyānāni kappāpehī"ti.

"Evaṁ, devā"ti kho jīvako komārabhacco rañño māgadhassa ajātasattussa vedehiputtassa paṭissuṇitvā pañcamattāni hatthinikāsatāni kappāpetvā rañño ca ārohaṇīyaṁ nāgaṁ, rañño māgadhassa ajātasattussa vedehiputtassa paṭivedesi: "kappitāni kho te, deva, hatthiyānāni, yassadāni kālaṁ maññasī"ti.

10Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto pañcasu hatthinikāsatesu paccekā itthiyo āropetvā ārohaṇīyaṁ nāgaṁ abhiruhitvā ukkāsu dhāriyamānāsu rājagahamhā niyyāsi mahaccarājānubhāvena, yena jīvakassa komārabhaccassa ambavanaṁ tena pāyāsi.

11Atha kho rañño māgadhassa ajātasattussa vedehiputtassa avidūre ambavanassa ahudeva bhayaṁ, ahu chambhitattaṁ, ahu lomahaṁso. Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhīto saṁviggo lomahaṭṭhajāto jīvakaṁ komārabhaccaṁ etadavoca: "Kacci maṁ, samma jīvaka, na vañcesi? Kacci maṁ, samma jīvaka, na palambhesi? Kacci maṁ, samma jīvaka, na paccatthikānaṁ desi? Kathañhi nāma tāva mahato bhikkhusaṅghassa aḍḍhateḷasānaṁ bhikkhusatānaṁ neva khipitasaddo bhavissati, na ukkāsitasaddo na nigghoso"ti.

12"Mā bhāyi, mahārāja, mā bhāyi, mahārāja. Na taṁ, deva, vañcemi; na taṁ, deva, palambhāmi; na taṁ, deva, paccatthikānaṁ demi. Abhikkama, mahārāja, abhikkama, mahārāja, ete maṇḍalamāḷe dīpā jhāyantī"ti.

3. Sāmaññaphalapucchā

13Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto yāvatikā nāgassa bhūmi nāgena gantvā, nāgā paccorohitvā, pattikova yena maṇḍalamāḷassa dvāraṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā jīvakaṁ komārabhaccaṁ etadavoca: "kahaṁ pana, samma jīvaka, bhagavā"ti?

"Eso, mahārāja, bhagavā; eso, mahārāja, bhagavā majjhimaṁ thambhaṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisinno purakkhato bhikkhusaṁghassā"ti.

14Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto tuṇhībhūtaṁ tuṇhībhūtaṁ bhikkhusaṁghaṁ anuviloketvā rahadamiva vippasannaṁ udānaṁ udānesi: "iminā me upasamena udayabhaddo kumāro samannāgato hotu, yenetarahi upasamena bhikkhusaṁgho samannāgato"ti.


"Agamā kho tvaṁ, mahārāja, yathāpeman"ti.

"Piyo me, bhante, udayabhaddo kumāro. Iminā me, bhante, upasamena udayabhaddo kumāro samannāgato hotu yenetarahi upasamena bhikkhusaṁgho samannāgato"ti.

15Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā, bhikkhusaṁghassa añjaliṁ paṇāmetvā, ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "puccheyyāmahaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ kañcideva desaṁ; sace me bhagavā okāsaṁ karoti pañhassa veyyākaraṇāyā"ti.

"Puccha, mahārāja, yadākaṅkhasī"ti.

16"Yathā nu kho imāni, bhante, puthusippāyatanāni, seyyathidaṁ—hatthārohā assārohā rathikā dhanuggahā celakā calakā piṇḍadāyakā uggā rājaputtā pakkhandino mahānāgā sūrā cammayodhino dāsikaputtā āḷārikā kappakā nhāpakā sūdā mālakārā rajakā pesakārā naḷakārā kumbhakārā gaṇakā muddikā, yāni vā panaññānipi evaṁgatāni puthusippāyatanāni, te diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sippaphalaṁ upajīvanti; te tena attānaṁ sukhenti pīṇenti, mātāpitaro sukhenti pīṇenti, puttadāraṁ sukhenti pīṇenti, mittāmacce sukhenti pīṇenti, samaṇabrāhmaṇesu uddhaggikaṁ dakkhiṇaṁ patiṭṭhapenti sovaggikaṁ sukhavipākaṁ saggasaṁvattanikaṁ. Sakkā nu kho, bhante, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun"ti?

17"Abhijānāsi no tvaṁ, mahārāja, imaṁ pañhaṁ aññe samaṇabrāhmaṇe pucchitā"ti?

"Abhijānāmahaṁ, bhante, imaṁ pañhaṁ aññe samaṇabrāhmaṇe pucchitā"ti.

"Yathā kathaṁ pana te, mahārāja, byākariṁsu, sace te agaru bhāsassū"ti.

"Na kho me, bhante, garu, yatthassa bhagavā nisinno, bhagavantarūpo vā"ti.

"Tena hi, mahārāja, bhāsassū"ti.

3.1. Pūraṇakassapavāda

18"Ekamidāhaṁ, bhante, samayaṁ yena pūraṇo kassapo tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā pūraṇena kassapena saddhiṁ sammodiṁ. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁ. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho ahaṁ, bhante, pūraṇaṁ kassapaṁ etadavocaṁ: 'yathā nu kho imāni, bho kassapa, puthusippāyatanāni, seyyathidaṁ— hatthārohā assārohā rathikā dhanuggahā celakā calakā piṇḍadāyakā uggā rājaputtā pakkhandino mahānāgā sūrā cammayodhino dāsikaputtā āḷārikā kappakā nhāpakā sūdā mālakārā rajakā pesakārā naḷakārā kumbhakārā gaṇakā muddikā, yāni vā panaññānipi evangatāni puthusippāyatanāni, te diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sippaphalaṁ upajīvanti; te tena attānaṁ sukhenti pīṇenti, mātāpitaro sukhenti pīṇenti, puttadāraṁ sukhenti pīṇenti, mittāmacce sukhenti pīṇenti, samaṇabrāhmaṇesu uddhaggikaṁ dakkhiṇaṁ patiṭṭhapenti sovaggikaṁ sukhavipākaṁ saggasaṁvattanikaṁ. Sakkā nu kho, bho kassapa, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun'ti?


19Evaṁ vutte, bhante, pūraṇo kassapo maṁ etadavoca: 'karoto kho, mahārāja, kārayato, chindato chedāpayato, pacato pācāpayato socayato, socāpayato, kilamato kilamāpayato, phandato phandāpayato, pāṇamatipātāpayato, adinnaṁ ādiyato, sandhiṁ chindato, nillopaṁ harato, ekāgārikaṁ karoto, paripanthe tiṭṭhato, paradāraṁ gacchato, musā bhaṇato, karoto na karīyati pāpaṁ. Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā pathaviyā pāṇe ekaṁ maṁsakhalaṁ ekaṁ maṁsapuñjaṁ kareyya, natthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Dakkhiṇañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṁ gaccheyya hananto ghātento chindanto chedāpento pacanto pācāpento, natthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Uttarāñcepi gaṅgāya tīraṁ gaccheyya dadanto dāpento yajanto yajāpento, natthi tatonidānaṁ puññaṁ, natthi puññassa āgamo. Dānena damena saṁyamena saccavajjena natthi puññaṁ, natthi puññassa āgamo'ti.

20Itthaṁ kho me, bhante, pūraṇo kassapo sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno akiriyaṁ byākāsi. Seyyathāpi, bhante, ambaṁ vā puṭṭho labujaṁ byākareyya, labujaṁ vā puṭṭho ambaṁ byākareyya; evameva kho me, bhante, pūraṇo kassapo sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno akiriyaṁ byākāsi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, etadahosi: 'kathañhi nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite vasantaṁ apasādetabbaṁ maññeyyā'ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhante, pūraṇassa kassapassa bhāsitaṁ neva abhinandiṁ nappaṭikkosiṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā anattamano, anattamanavācaṁ anicchāretvā, tameva vācaṁ anuggaṇhanto anikkujjanto uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁ.

3.2. Makkhaligosālavāda

21Ekamidāhaṁ, bhante, samayaṁ yena makkhali gosālo tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā makkhalinā gosālena saddhiṁ sammodiṁ. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁ. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho ahaṁ, bhante, makkhaliṁ gosālaṁ etadavocaṁ: 'yathā nu kho imāni, bho gosāla, puthusippāyatanāni … pe … sakkā nu kho, bho gosāla, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun'ti?


22Evaṁ vutte, bhante, makkhali gosālo maṁ etadavoca: 'natthi, mahārāja, hetu natthi paccayo sattānaṁ saṁkilesāya, ahetū apaccayā sattā saṅkilissanti. Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā, ahetū apaccayā sattā visujjhanti. Natthi attakāre, natthi parakāre, natthi purisakāre, natthi balaṁ, natthi vīriyaṁ, natthi purisathāmo, natthi purisaparakkamo. Sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā niyatisaṅgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedenti.

Cuddasa kho panimāni yonipamukhasatasahassāni saṭṭhi ca satāni cha ca satāni pañca ca kammuno satāni pañca ca kammāni tīṇi ca kammāni kamme ca aḍḍhakamme ca dvaṭṭhipaṭipadā dvaṭṭhantarakappā chaḷābhijātiyo aṭṭha purisabhūmiyo ekūnapaññāsa ājīvakasate ekūnapaññāsa paribbājakasate ekūnapaññāsa nāgāvāsasate vīse indriyasate tiṁse nirayasate chattiṁsa rajodhātuyo satta saññīgabbhā satta asaññīgabbhā satta nigaṇṭhigabbhā satta devā satta mānusā satta pisācā satta sarā satta pavuṭā satta pavuṭasatāni satta papātā satta papātasatāni satta supinā satta supinasatāni cullāsīti mahākappino satasahassāni, yāni bāle ca paṇḍite ca sandhāvitvā saṁsaritvā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti.

Tattha natthi "imināhaṁ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā aparipakkaṁ vā kammaṁ paripācessāmi, paripakkaṁ vā kammaṁ phussa phussa byantiṁ karissāmī"ti hevaṁ natthi. Doṇamite sukhadukkhe pariyantakate saṁsāre, natthi hāyanavaḍḍhane, natthi ukkaṁsāvakaṁse. Seyyathāpi nāma suttaguḷe khitte nibbeṭhiyamānameva paleti; evameva bāle ca paṇḍite ca sandhāvitvā saṁsaritvā dukkhassantaṁ karissantī'ti.

23Itthaṁ kho me, bhante, makkhali gosālo sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno saṁsārasuddhiṁ byākāsi. Seyyathāpi, bhante, ambaṁ vā puṭṭho labujaṁ byākareyya, labujaṁ vā puṭṭho ambaṁ byākareyya; evameva kho me, bhante, makkhali gosālo sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno saṁsārasuddhiṁ byākāsi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, etadahosi: 'kathañhi nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite vasantaṁ apasādetabbaṁ maññeyyā'ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhante, makkhalissa gosālassa bhāsitaṁ neva abhinandiṁ nappaṭikkosiṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā anattamano, anattamanavācaṁ anicchāretvā, tameva vācaṁ anuggaṇhanto anikkujjanto uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁ.

3.3. Ajitakesakambalavāda

24Ekamidāhaṁ, bhante, samayaṁ yena ajito kesakambalo tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā ajitena kesakambalena saddhiṁ sammodiṁ. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁ. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho ahaṁ, bhante, ajitaṁ kesakambalaṁ etadavocaṁ: 'yathā nu kho imāni, bho ajita, puthusippāyatanāni … pe … sakkā nu kho, bho ajita, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun'ti?

25Evaṁ vutte, bhante, ajito kesakambalo maṁ etadavoca: 'natthi, mahārāja, dinnaṁ, natthi yiṭṭhaṁ, natthi hutaṁ, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, natthi ayaṁ loko, natthi paro loko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā, ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedenti. Cātumahābhūtiko ayaṁ puriso, yadā kālaṁ karoti, pathavī pathavikāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, āpo āpokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, tejo tejokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, vāyo vāyokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, ākāsaṁ indriyāni saṅkamanti. Āsandipañcamā purisā mataṁ ādāya gacchanti. Yāvāḷāhanā padāni paññāyanti. Kāpotakāni aṭṭhīni bhavanti, bhassantā āhutiyo. Dattupaññattaṁ yadidaṁ dānaṁ. Tesaṁ tucchaṁ musā vilāpo ye keci atthikavādaṁ vadanti. Bāle ca paṇḍite ca kāyassa bhedā ucchijjanti vinassanti, na honti paraṁ maraṇā'ti.

26Itthaṁ kho me, bhante, ajito kesakambalo sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno ucchedaṁ byākāsi. Seyyathāpi, bhante, ambaṁ vā puṭṭho labujaṁ byākareyya, labujaṁ vā puṭṭho ambaṁ byākareyya; evameva kho me, bhante, ajito kesakambalo sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno ucchedaṁ byākāsi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, etadahosi: 'kathañhi nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite vasantaṁ apasādetabbaṁ maññeyyā'ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhante, ajitassa kesakambalassa bhāsitaṁ neva abhinandiṁ nappaṭikkosiṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā anattamano anattamanavācaṁ anicchāretvā tameva vācaṁ anuggaṇhanto anikkujjanto uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁ.

3.4. Pakudhakaccāyanavāda

27Ekamidāhaṁ, bhante, samayaṁ yena pakudho kaccāyano tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā pakudhena kaccāyanena saddhiṁ sammodiṁ. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁ. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho ahaṁ, bhante, pakudhaṁ kaccāyanaṁ etadavocaṁ: 'yathā nu kho imāni, bho kaccāyana, puthusippāyatanāni … pe … sakkā nu kho, bho kaccāyana, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun'ti?

28Evaṁ vutte, bhante, pakudho kaccāyano maṁ etadavoca: 'sattime, mahārāja, kāyā akaṭā akaṭavidhā animmitā animmātā vañjhā kūṭaṭṭhā esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhitā. Te na iñjanti, na vipariṇamanti, na aññamaññaṁ byābādhenti, nālaṁ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā. Katame satta? Pathavikāyo, āpokāyo, tejokāyo, vāyokāyo, sukhe, dukkhe, jīve sattame—ime satta kāyā akaṭā akaṭavidhā animmitā animmātā vañjhā kūṭaṭṭhā esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhitā. Te na iñjanti, na vipariṇamanti, na aññamaññaṁ byābādhenti, nālaṁ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā. Tattha natthi hantā vā ghātetā vā, sotā vā sāvetā vā, viññātā vā viññāpetā vā. Yopi tiṇhena satthena sīsaṁ chindati, na koci kiñci jīvitā voropeti; sattannaṁ tveva kāyānamantarena satthaṁ vivaramanupatatī'ti.

29Itthaṁ kho me, bhante, pakudho kaccāyano sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno aññena aññaṁ byākāsi. Seyyathāpi, bhante, ambaṁ vā puṭṭho labujaṁ byākareyya, labujaṁ vā puṭṭho ambaṁ byākareyya; evameva kho me, bhante, pakudho kaccāyano sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno aññena aññaṁ byākāsi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, etadahosi: 'kathañhi nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite vasantaṁ apasādetabbaṁ maññeyyā'ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhante, pakudhassa kaccāyanassa bhāsitaṁ neva abhinandiṁ nappaṭikkosiṁ, anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā anattamano, anattamanavācaṁ anicchāretvā tameva vācaṁ anuggaṇhanto anikkujjanto uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁ.

3.5. Nigaṇṭhanāṭaputtavāda

30Ekamidāhaṁ, bhante, samayaṁ yena nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā nigaṇṭhena nāṭaputtena saddhiṁ sammodiṁ. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁ. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho ahaṁ, bhante, nigaṇṭhaṁ nāṭaputtaṁ etadavocaṁ: 'yathā nu kho imāni, bho aggivessana, puthusippāyatanāni … pe … sakkā nu kho, bho aggivessana, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun'ti?

31Evaṁ vutte, bhante, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto maṁ etadavoca: 'idha, mahārāja, nigaṇṭho cātuyāmasaṁvarasaṁvuto hoti. Kathañca, mahārāja, nigaṇṭho cātuyāmasaṁvarasaṁvuto hoti? Idha, mahārāja, nigaṇṭho sabbavārivārito ca hoti, sabbavāriyutto ca, sabbavāridhuto ca, sabbavāriphuṭo ca. Evaṁ kho, mahārāja, nigaṇṭho cātuyāmasaṁvarasaṁvuto hoti. Yato kho, mahārāja, nigaṇṭho evaṁ cātuyāmasaṁvarasaṁvuto hoti; ayaṁ vuccati, mahārāja, nigaṇṭho gatatto ca yatatto ca ṭhitatto cā'ti.


32Itthaṁ kho me, bhante, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno cātuyāmasaṁvaraṁ byākāsi. Seyyathāpi, bhante, ambaṁ vā puṭṭho labujaṁ byākareyya, labujaṁ vā puṭṭho ambaṁ byākareyya; evameva kho me, bhante, nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno cātuyāmasaṁvaraṁ byākāsi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, etadahosi: 'kathañhi nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite vasantaṁ apasādetabbaṁ maññeyyā'ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhante, nigaṇṭhassa nāṭaputtassa bhāsitaṁ neva abhinandiṁ nappaṭikkosiṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā anattamano anattamanavācaṁ anicchāretvā tameva vācaṁ anuggaṇhanto anikkujjanto uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁ.

3.6. Sañcayabelaṭṭhaputtavāda

33Ekamidāhaṁ, bhante, samayaṁ yena sañcayo belaṭṭhaputto tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā sañcayena belaṭṭhaputtena saddhiṁ sammodiṁ. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁ. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho ahaṁ, bhante, sañcayaṁ belaṭṭhaputtaṁ etadavocaṁ: 'yathā nu kho imāni, bho sañcaya, puthusippāyatanāni … pe … sakkā nu kho, bho sañcaya, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun'ti?


34Evaṁ vutte, bhante, sañcayo belaṭṭhaputto maṁ etadavoca: 'atthi paro lokoti iti ce maṁ pucchasi, atthi paro lokoti iti ce me assa, atthi paro lokoti iti te naṁ byākareyyaṁ. Evantipi me no, tathātipi me no, aññathātipi me no, notipi me no, no notipi me no. Natthi paro loko … pe … atthi ca natthi ca paro loko … pe … nevatthi na natthi paro loko … pe … atthi sattā opapātikā … pe … natthi sattā opapātikā … pe … atthi ca natthi ca sattā opapātikā … pe … nevatthi na natthi sattā opapātikā … pe … atthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … atthi ca natthi ca sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … nevatthi na natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko … pe … hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … pe … na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … pe … hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … pe … neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇāti iti ce maṁ pucchasi, neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇāti iti ce me assa, neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇāti iti te naṁ byākareyyaṁ. Evantipi me no, tathātipi me no, aññathātipi me no, notipi me no, no notipi me no'ti.


35Itthaṁ kho me, bhante, sañcayo belaṭṭhaputto sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno vikkhepaṁ byākāsi. Seyyathāpi, bhante, ambaṁ vā puṭṭho labujaṁ byākareyya, labujaṁ vā puṭṭho ambaṁ byākareyya; evameva kho me, bhante, sañcayo belaṭṭhaputto sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno vikkhepaṁ byākāsi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, etadahosi: 'ayañca imesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ sabbabālo sabbamūḷho. Kathañhi nāma sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ puṭṭho samāno vikkhepaṁ byākarissatī'ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, etadahosi: 'kathañhi nāma mādiso samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā vijite vasantaṁ apasādetabbaṁ maññeyyā'ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhante, sañcayassa belaṭṭhaputtassa bhāsitaṁ neva abhinandiṁ nappaṭikkosiṁ. Anabhinanditvā appaṭikkositvā anattamano anattamanavācaṁ anicchāretvā tameva vācaṁ anuggaṇhanto anikkujjanto uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkamiṁ.

4. Sāmaññaphala

4.1. Paṭhamasandiṭṭhikasāmaññaphala

36Sohaṁ, bhante, bhagavantampi pucchāmi: 'yathā nu kho imāni, bhante, puthusippāyatanāni seyyathidaṁ—hatthārohā assārohā rathikā dhanuggahā celakā calakā piṇḍadāyakā uggā rājaputtā pakkhandino mahānāgā sūrā cammayodhino dāsikaputtā āḷārikā kappakā nhāpakā sūdā mālakārā rajakā pesakārā naḷakārā kumbhakārā gaṇakā muddikā, yāni vā panaññānipi evangatāni puthusippāyatanāni, te diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sippaphalaṁ upajīvanti, te tena attānaṁ sukhenti pīṇenti, mātāpitaro sukhenti pīṇenti, puttadāraṁ sukhenti pīṇenti, mittāmacce sukhenti pīṇenti, samaṇabrāhmaṇesu uddhaggikaṁ dakkhiṇaṁ patiṭṭhapenti sovaggikaṁ sukhavipākaṁ saggasaṁvattanikaṁ. Sakkā nu kho, bhante, evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun'"ti?


37"Sakkā, mahārāja. Tena hi, mahārāja, taññevettha paṭipucchissāmi. Yathā te khameyya, tathā naṁ byākareyyāsi.

Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, mahārāja, idha te assa puriso dāso kammakāro pubbuṭṭhāyī pacchānipātī kiṁkārapaṭissāvī manāpacārī piyavādī mukhullokako. Tassa evamassa: 'acchariyaṁ, vata bho, abbhutaṁ, vata bho, puññānaṁ gati, puññānaṁ vipāko. Ayañhi rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto manusso; ahampi manusso. Ayañhi rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti, devo maññe. Ahaṁ panamhissa dāso kammakāro pubbuṭṭhāyī pacchānipātī kiṁkārapaṭissāvī manāpacārī piyavādī mukhullokako. So vatassāhaṁ puññāni kareyyaṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan'ti.

38So aparena samayena kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyya. So evaṁ pabbajito samāno kāyena saṁvuto vihareyya, vācāya saṁvuto vihareyya, manasā saṁvuto vihareyya, ghāsacchādanaparamatāya santuṭṭho, abhirato paviveke. Tañce te purisā evamāroceyyuṁ: 'yagghe, deva, jāneyyāsi, yo te so puriso dāso kammakāro pubbuṭṭhāyī pacchānipātī kiṁkārapaṭissāvī manāpacārī piyavādī mukhullokako; so, deva, kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito. So evaṁ pabbajito samāno kāyena saṁvuto viharati, vācāya saṁvuto viharati, manasā saṁvuto viharati, ghāsacchādanaparamatāya santuṭṭho, abhirato paviveke'ti. Api nu tvaṁ evaṁ vadeyyāsi: 'etu me, bho, so puriso, punadeva hotu dāso kammakāro pubbuṭṭhāyī pacchānipātī kiṁkārapaṭissāvī manāpacārī piyavādī mukhullokako'"ti?


39"No hetaṁ, bhante. Atha kho naṁ mayameva abhivādeyyāmapi, paccuṭṭheyyāmapi, āsanenapi nimanteyyāma, abhinimanteyyāmapi naṁ cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi, dhammikampissa rakkhāvaraṇaguttiṁ saṁvidaheyyāmā"ti.

40"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, mahārāja, yadi evaṁ sante hoti vā sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ no vā"ti?

"Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante hoti sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalan"ti.

"Idaṁ kho te, mahārāja, mayā paṭhamaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññattan"ti.

4.2. Dutiyasandiṭṭhikasāmaññaphala

41"Sakkā pana, bhante, aññampi evameva diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetun"ti?

"Sakkā, mahārāja. Tena hi, mahārāja, taññevettha paṭipucchissāmi.

Yathā te khameyya, tathā naṁ byākareyyāsi. Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, mahārāja, idha te assa puriso kassako gahapatiko karakārako rāsivaḍḍhako. Tassa evamassa: 'acchariyaṁ vata bho, abbhutaṁ vata bho, puññānaṁ gati, puññānaṁ vipāko. Ayañhi rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto manusso, ahampi manusso. Ayañhi rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti, devo maññe. Ahaṁ panamhissa kassako gahapatiko karakārako rāsivaḍḍhako. So vatassāhaṁ puññāni kareyyaṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan'ti.

42So aparena samayena appaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya, appaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyya. So evaṁ pabbajito samāno kāyena saṁvuto vihareyya, vācāya saṁvuto vihareyya, manasā saṁvuto vihareyya, ghāsacchādanaparamatāya santuṭṭho, abhirato paviveke. Tañce te purisā evamāroceyyuṁ: 'yagghe, deva, jāneyyāsi, yo te so puriso kassako gahapatiko karakārako rāsivaḍḍhako; so deva kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajito. So evaṁ pabbajito samāno kāyena saṁvuto viharati, vācāya saṁvuto viharati, manasā saṁvuto viharati, ghāsacchādanaparamatāya santuṭṭho, abhirato paviveke'ti. Api nu tvaṁ evaṁ vadeyyāsi: 'etu me, bho, so puriso, punadeva hotu kassako gahapatiko karakārako rāsivaḍḍhako'"ti?


43"No hetaṁ, bhante. Atha kho naṁ mayameva abhivādeyyāmapi, paccuṭṭheyyāmapi, āsanenapi nimanteyyāma, abhinimanteyyāmapi naṁ cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi, dhammikampissa rakkhāvaraṇaguttiṁ saṁvidaheyyāmā"ti.

44"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, mahārāja? Yadi evaṁ sante hoti vā sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ no vā"ti?

"Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante hoti sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalan"ti.

"Idaṁ kho te, mahārāja, mayā dutiyaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññattan"ti.

4.3. Paṇītatarasāmaññaphala

45"Sakkā pana, bhante, aññampi diṭṭheva dhamme sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ paññapetuṁ imehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañcā"ti?

"Sakkā, mahārāja. Tena hi, mahārāja, suṇohi, sādhukaṁ manasi karohi, bhāsissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavato paccassosi.


46Bhagavā etadavoca: "idha, mahārāja, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā. So imaṁ lokaṁ sadevakaṁ samārakaṁ sabrahmakaṁ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṁ pajaṁ sadevamanussaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṁ deseti ādikalyāṇaṁ majjhekalyāṇaṁ pariyosānakalyāṇaṁ sātthaṁ sabyañjanaṁ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ pakāseti.

47Taṁ dhammaṁ suṇāti gahapati vā gahapatiputto vā aññatarasmiṁ vā kule paccājāto. So taṁ dhammaṁ sutvā tathāgate saddhaṁ paṭilabhati. So tena saddhāpaṭilābhena samannāgato iti paṭisañcikkhati: 'sambādho gharāvāso rajopatho, abbhokāso pabbajjā. Nayidaṁ sukaraṁ agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā ekantaparipuṇṇaṁ ekantaparisuddhaṁ saṅkhalikhitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ carituṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan'ti.

48So aparena samayena appaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya appaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati.

49So evaṁ pabbajito samāno pātimokkhasaṁvarasaṁvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno, aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī, samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu, kāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalena, parisuddhājīvo sīlasampanno, indriyesu guttadvāro, satisampajaññena samannāgato, santuṭṭho.

4.3.1. Sīla
4.3.1.1. Cūḷasīla

50Kathañca, mahārāja, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti? Idha, mahārāja, bhikkhu pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti. Nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

51Adinnādānaṁ pahāya adinnādānā paṭivirato hoti dinnādāyī dinnapāṭikaṅkhī, athenena sucibhūtena attanā viharati. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

52Abrahmacariyaṁ pahāya brahmacārī hoti ārācārī virato methunā gāmadhammā. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

53Musāvādaṁ pahāya musāvādā paṭivirato hoti saccavādī saccasandho theto paccayiko avisaṁvādako lokassa. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

54Pisuṇaṁ vācaṁ pahāya pisuṇāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti; ito sutvā na amutra akkhātā imesaṁ bhedāya; amutra vā sutvā na imesaṁ akkhātā, amūsaṁ bhedāya. Iti bhinnānaṁ vā sandhātā, sahitānaṁ vā anuppadātā, samaggārāmo samaggarato samagganandī samaggakaraṇiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

55Pharusaṁ vācaṁ pahāya pharusāya vācāya paṭivirato hoti; yā sā vācā nelā kaṇṇasukhā pemanīyā hadayaṅgamā porī bahujanakantā bahujanamanāpā tathārūpiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

56Samphappalāpaṁ pahāya samphappalāpā paṭivirato hoti kālavādī bhūtavādī atthavādī dhammavādī vinayavādī, nidhānavatiṁ vācaṁ bhāsitā hoti kālena sāpadesaṁ pariyantavatiṁ atthasaṁhitaṁ. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

57Bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhā paṭivirato hoti … pe … ekabhattiko hoti rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā. Naccagītavāditavisūkadassanā paṭivirato hoti. mālāgandhavilepanadhāraṇamaṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānā paṭivirato hoti. Uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭivirato hoti. Jātarūparajatapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Āmakadhaññapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Āmakamaṁsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Itthikumārikapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Dāsidāsapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Ajeḷakapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Kukkuṭasūkarapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Hatthigavassavaḷavapaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Khettavatthupaṭiggahaṇā paṭivirato hoti. Dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogā paṭivirato hoti. Kayavikkayā paṭivirato hoti. Tulākūṭakaṁsakūṭamānakūṭā paṭivirato hoti. Ukkoṭanavañcananikatisāciyogā paṭivirato hoti. Chedanavadhabandhanaviparāmosaālopasahasākārā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

Cūḷasīlaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

4.3.1.2. Majjhimasīla

58Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ— mūlabījaṁ khandhabījaṁ phaḷubījaṁ aggabījaṁ bījabījameva pañcamaṁ, iti evarūpā bījagāmabhūtagāmasamārambhā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

59Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ sannidhikāraparibhogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ—annasannidhiṁ pānasannidhiṁ vatthasannidhiṁ yānasannidhiṁ sayanasannidhiṁ gandhasannidhiṁ āmisasannidhiṁ, iti vā iti evarūpā sannidhikāraparibhogā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


60Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ visūkadassanaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ—naccaṁ gītaṁ vāditaṁ pekkhaṁ akkhānaṁ pāṇissaraṁ vetāḷaṁ kumbhathūṇaṁ sobhanakaṁ caṇḍālaṁ vaṁsaṁ dhovanaṁ hatthiyuddhaṁ assayuddhaṁ mahiṁsayuddhaṁ usabhayuddhaṁ ajayuddhaṁ meṇḍayuddhaṁ kukkuṭayuddhaṁ vaṭṭakayuddhaṁ daṇḍayuddhaṁ muṭṭhiyuddhaṁ nibbuddhaṁ uyyodhikaṁ balaggaṁ senābyūhaṁ anīkadassanaṁ

iti vā iti evarūpā visūkadassanā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


61Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ jūtappamādaṭṭhānānuyogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ—

aṭṭhapadaṁ dasapadaṁ ākāsaṁ parihārapathaṁ santikaṁ khalikaṁ ghaṭikaṁ salākahatthaṁ akkhaṁ paṅgacīraṁ vaṅkakaṁ mokkhacikaṁ ciṅgulikaṁ pattāḷhakaṁ rathakaṁ dhanukaṁ akkharikaṁ manesikaṁ yathāvajjaṁ


iti vā iti evarūpā jūtappamādaṭṭhānānuyogā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

62Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ uccāsayanamahāsayanaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ—

āsandiṁ pallaṅkaṁ gonakaṁ cittakaṁ paṭikaṁ paṭalikaṁ tūlikaṁ vikatikaṁ uddalomiṁ ekantalomiṁ kaṭṭissaṁ koseyyaṁ kuttakaṁ hatthattharaṁ assattharaṁ rathattharaṁ ajinappaveṇiṁ kadalimigapavarapaccattharaṇaṁ sauttaracchadaṁ ubhatolohitakūpadhānaṁ

iti vā iti evarūpā uccāsayanamahāsayanā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


63Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ maṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānānuyogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ—

ucchādanaṁ parimaddanaṁ nhāpanaṁ sambāhanaṁ ādāsaṁ añjanaṁ mālāgandhavilepanaṁ mukhacuṇṇaṁ mukhalepanaṁ hatthabandhaṁ sikhābandhaṁ daṇḍaṁ nāḷikaṁ asiṁ chattaṁ citrupāhanaṁ uṇhīsaṁ maṇiṁ vālabījaniṁ odātāni vatthāni dīghadasāni

iti vā iti evarūpā maṇḍanavibhūsanaṭṭhānānuyogā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


64Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ tiracchānakathaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ –

rājakathaṁ corakathaṁ mahāmattakathaṁ senākathaṁ bhayakathaṁ yuddhakathaṁ annakathaṁ pānakathaṁ vatthakathaṁ sayanakathaṁ mālākathaṁ gandhakathaṁ ñātikathaṁ yānakathaṁ gāmakathaṁ nigamakathaṁ nagarakathaṁ janapadakathaṁ itthikathaṁ sūrakathaṁ visikhākathaṁ kumbhaṭṭhānakathaṁ pubbapetakathaṁ nānattakathaṁ lokakkhāyikaṁ samuddakkhāyikaṁ itibhavābhavakathaṁ

iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānakathāya paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


65Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ viggāhikakathaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ—

na tvaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānāsi, ahaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānāmi, kiṁ tvaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānissasi, micchā paṭipanno tvamasi, ahamasmi sammā paṭipanno, sahitaṁ me, asahitaṁ te, pure vacanīyaṁ pacchā avaca, pacchā vacanīyaṁ pure avaca, adhiciṇṇaṁ te viparāvattaṁ, āropito te vādo, niggahito tvamasi, cara vādappamokkhāya, nibbeṭhehi vā sace pahosīti

iti vā iti evarūpāya viggāhikakathāya paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


66Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpaṁ dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogaṁ anuyuttā viharanti. Seyyathidaṁ— raññaṁ, rājamahāmattānaṁ, khattiyānaṁ, brāhmaṇānaṁ, gahapatikānaṁ, kumārānaṁ— idha gaccha, amutrāgaccha, idaṁ hara, amutra idaṁ āharā'ti iti vā iti evarūpā dūteyyapahiṇagamanānuyogā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

67Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te kuhakā ca honti lapakā ca nemittikā ca nippesikā ca lābhena lābhaṁ nijigīsitāro ca. Iti evarūpā kuhanalapanā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

Majjhimasīlaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

4.3.1.3. Mahāsīla

68Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti. Seyyathidaṁ—

aṅgaṁ nimittaṁ uppātaṁ supinaṁ lakkhaṇaṁ mūsikacchinnaṁ aggihomaṁ dabbihomaṁ thusahomaṁ kaṇahomaṁ taṇḍulahomaṁ sappihomaṁ telahomaṁ mukhahomaṁ lohitahomaṁ aṅgavijjā vatthuvijjā khattavijjā sivavijjā bhūtavijjā bhūrivijjā ahivijjā visavijjā vicchikavijjā mūsikavijjā sakuṇavijjā vāyasavijjā pakkajjhānaṁ saraparittāṇaṁ migacakkaṁ iti vā


iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

69Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti. Seyyathidaṁ— maṇilakkhaṇaṁ vatthalakkhaṇaṁ daṇḍalakkhaṇaṁ satthalakkhaṇaṁ asilakkhaṇaṁ usulakkhaṇaṁ dhanulakkhaṇaṁ āvudhalakkhaṇaṁ itthilakkhaṇaṁ purisalakkhaṇaṁ kumāralakkhaṇaṁ kumārilakkhaṇaṁ dāsalakkhaṇaṁ dāsilakkhaṇaṁ hatthilakkhaṇaṁ assalakkhaṇaṁ mahiṁsalakkhaṇaṁ usabhalakkhaṇaṁ golakkhaṇaṁ ajalakkhaṇaṁ meṇḍalakkhaṇaṁ kukkuṭalakkhaṇaṁ vaṭṭakalakkhaṇaṁ godhālakkhaṇaṁ kaṇṇikalakkhaṇaṁ kacchapalakkhaṇaṁ migalakkhaṇaṁ


iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

70Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti. Seyyathidaṁ—

raññaṁ niyyānaṁ bhavissati, raññaṁ aniyyānaṁ bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ upayānaṁ bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ apayānaṁ bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ upayānaṁ bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ apayānaṁ bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ jayo bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ parājayo bhavissati, bāhirānaṁ raññaṁ jayo bhavissati, abbhantarānaṁ raññaṁ parājayo bhavissati, iti imassa jayo bhavissati, imassa parājayo bhavissati

iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.

71Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti. Seyyathidaṁ—

candaggāho bhavissati, sūriyaggāho bhavissati, nakkhattaggāho bhavissati, candimasūriyānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, candimasūriyānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, nakkhattānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, nakkhattānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, ukkāpāto bhavissati, disāḍāho bhavissati, bhūmicālo bhavissati, devadudrabhi bhavissati, candimasūriyanakkhattānaṁ uggamanaṁ ogamanaṁ saṅkilesaṁ vodānaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipāko candaggāho bhavissati, evaṁvipāko sūriyaggāho bhavissati, evaṁvipāko nakkhattaggāho bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ candimasūriyānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ candimasūriyānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ nakkhattānaṁ pathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ nakkhattānaṁ uppathagamanaṁ bhavissati, evaṁvipāko ukkāpāto bhavissati, evaṁvipāko disāḍāho bhavissati, evaṁvipāko bhūmicālo bhavissati, evaṁvipāko devadudrabhi bhavissati, evaṁvipākaṁ candimasūriyanakkhattānaṁ uggamanaṁ ogamanaṁ saṅkilesaṁ vodānaṁ bhavissati

iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


72Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti. Seyyathidaṁ—

suvuṭṭhikā bhavissati, dubbuṭṭhikā bhavissati, subhikkhaṁ bhavissati, dubbhikkhaṁ bhavissati, khemaṁ bhavissati, bhayaṁ bhavissati, rogo bhavissati, ārogyaṁ bhavissati, muddā, gaṇanā, saṅkhānaṁ, kāveyyaṁ, lokāyataṁ

iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


73Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti. Seyyathidaṁ—

āvāhanaṁ vivāhanaṁ saṁvaraṇaṁ vivaraṇaṁ saṅkiraṇaṁ vikiraṇaṁ subhagakaraṇaṁ dubbhagakaraṇaṁ viruddhagabbhakaraṇaṁ jivhānibandhanaṁ hanusaṁhananaṁ hatthābhijappanaṁ hanujappanaṁ kaṇṇajappanaṁ ādāsapañhaṁ kumārikapañhaṁ devapañhaṁ ādiccupaṭṭhānaṁ mahatupaṭṭhānaṁ abbhujjalanaṁ sirivhāyanaṁ

iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


74Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti. Seyyathidaṁ—

santikammaṁ paṇidhikammaṁ bhūtakammaṁ bhūrikammaṁ vassakammaṁ vossakammaṁ vatthukammaṁ vatthuparikammaṁ ācamanaṁ nhāpanaṁ juhanaṁ vamanaṁ virecanaṁ uddhaṁvirecanaṁ adhovirecanaṁ sīsavirecanaṁ kaṇṇatelaṁ nettatappanaṁ natthukammaṁ añjanaṁ paccañjanaṁ sālākiyaṁ sallakattiyaṁ dārakatikicchā, mūlabhesajjānaṁ anuppadānaṁ, osadhīnaṁ paṭimokkho

iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


75Sa kho so, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṁ samanupassati, yadidaṁ sīlasaṁvarato. Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, rājā khattiyo muddhābhisitto nihatapaccāmitto na kutoci bhayaṁ samanupassati, yadidaṁ paccatthikato; evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṁ samanupassati, yadidaṁ sīlasaṁvarato. So iminā ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato ajjhattaṁ anavajjasukhaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. Evaṁ kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti.

Mahāsīlaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ.

4.3.2. Samādhi
4.3.2.1. Indriyasaṁvara

76Kathañca, mahārāja, bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti? Idha, mahārāja, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ, tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriyaṁ, cakkhundriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … pe … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … pe … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ manindriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ, tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati manindriyaṁ, manindriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. So iminā ariyena indriyasaṁvarena samannāgato ajjhattaṁ abyāsekasukhaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. Evaṁ kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti.

4.3.2.2. Satisampajañña

77Kathañca, mahārāja, bhikkhu satisampajaññena samannāgato hoti? Idha, mahārāja, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. Evaṁ kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu satisampajaññena samannāgato hoti.

4.3.2.3. Santosa

78Kathañca, mahārāja, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti? Idha, mahārāja, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena, kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yeneva pakkamati, samādāyeva pakkamati. Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, pakkhī sakuṇo yena yeneva ḍeti, sapattabhārova ḍeti; evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yeneva pakkamati, samādāyeva pakkamati. Evaṁ kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti.

4.3.2.4. Nīvaraṇappahāna

79So iminā ca ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato, iminā ca ariyena indriyasaṁvarena samannāgato, iminā ca ariyena satisampajaññena samannāgato, imāya ca ariyāya santuṭṭhiyā samannāgato, vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ. So pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā.

80So abhijjhaṁ loke pahāya vigatābhijjhena cetasā viharati, abhijjhāya cittaṁ parisodheti. Byāpādapadosaṁ pahāya abyāpannacitto viharati sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī, byāpādapadosā cittaṁ parisodheti. Thinamiddhaṁ pahāya vigatathinamiddho viharati ālokasaññī, sato sampajāno, thinamiddhā cittaṁ parisodheti. Uddhaccakukkuccaṁ pahāya anuddhato viharati, ajjhattaṁ vūpasantacitto, uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṁ parisodheti. Vicikicchaṁ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati, akathaṅkathī kusalesu dhammesu, vicikicchāya cittaṁ parisodheti.

81Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso iṇaṁ ādāya kammante payojeyya. Tassa te kammantā samijjheyyuṁ. So yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni, tāni ca byantiṁ kareyya, siyā cassa uttariṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ dārabharaṇāya. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe iṇaṁ ādāya kammante payojesiṁ. Tassa me te kammantā samijjhiṁsu. Sohaṁ yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni, tāni ca byantiṁ akāsiṁ, atthi ca me uttariṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ dārabharaṇāyā'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.


82Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso ābādhiko assa dukkhito bāḷhagilāno; bhattañcassa nacchādeyya, na cassa kāye balamattā. So aparena samayena tamhā ābādhā mucceyya; bhattaṁ cassa chādeyya, siyā cassa kāye balamattā. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe ābādhiko ahosiṁ dukkhito bāḷhagilāno; bhattañca me nacchādesi, na ca me āsi kāye balamattā. Somhi etarahi tamhā ābādhā mutto; bhattañca me chādeti, atthi ca me kāye balamattā'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

83Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso bandhanāgāre baddho assa. So aparena samayena tamhā bandhanāgārā mucceyya sotthinā abbhayena, na cassa kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe bandhanāgāre baddho ahosiṁ, somhi etarahi tamhā bandhanāgārā mutto sotthinā abbhayena. Natthi ca me kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

84Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso dāso assa anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṅgamo. So aparena samayena tamhā dāsabyā mucceyya attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṅgamo. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe dāso ahosiṁ anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṅgamo. Somhi etarahi tamhā dāsabyā mutto attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṅgamo'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

85Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṁ paṭipajjeyya dubbhikkhaṁ sappaṭibhayaṁ. So aparena samayena taṁ kantāraṁ nitthareyya sotthinā, gāmantaṁ anupāpuṇeyya khemaṁ appaṭibhayaṁ. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṁ paṭipajjiṁ dubbhikkhaṁ sappaṭibhayaṁ. Somhi etarahi taṁ kantāraṁ nitthiṇṇo sotthinā, gāmantaṁ anuppatto khemaṁ appaṭibhayan'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.


86Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu yathā iṇaṁ yathā rogaṁ yathā bandhanāgāraṁ yathā dāsabyaṁ yathā kantāraddhānamaggaṁ, evaṁ ime pañca nīvaraṇe appahīne attani samanupassati.

87Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, yathā āṇaṇyaṁ yathā ārogyaṁ yathā bandhanāmokkhaṁ yathā bhujissaṁ yathā khemantabhūmiṁ; evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassati.

88Tassime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassato pāmojjaṁ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vedeti, sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati.

4.3.2.5. Paṭhamajhāna

89So vivicceva kāmehi, vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

90Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, dakkho nhāpako vā nhāpakantevāsī vā kaṁsathāle nhānīyacuṇṇāni ākiritvā udakena paripphosakaṁ paripphosakaṁ sanneyya, sāyaṁ nhānīyapiṇḍi snehānugatā snehaparetā santarabāhirā phuṭā snehena, na ca paggharaṇī; evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.2.6. Dutiyajhāna

91Puna caparaṁ, mahārāja, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

92Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, udakarahado gambhīro ubbhidodako tassa nevassa puratthimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na dakkhiṇāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na pacchimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na uttarāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, devo ca na kālena kālaṁ sammādhāraṁ anuppaveccheyya. Atha kho tamhāva udakarahadā sītā vāridhārā ubbhijjitvā tameva udakarahadaṁ sītena vārinā abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripūreyya paripphareyya, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato udakarahadassa sītena vārinā apphuṭaṁ assa. Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.2.7. Tatiyajhāna

93Puna caparaṁ, mahārāja, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti: 'upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī'ti, tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

94Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, uppaliniyaṁ vā paduminiyaṁ vā puṇḍarīkiniyaṁ vā appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṁvaḍḍhāni udakānuggatāni antonimuggaposīni, tāni yāva caggā yāva ca mūlā sītena vārinā abhisannāni parisannāni paripūrāni paripphuṭāni, nāssa kiñci sabbāvataṁ uppalānaṁ vā padumānaṁ vā puṇḍarīkānaṁ vā sītena vārinā apphuṭaṁ assa; evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.2.8. Catutthajhāna

95Puna caparaṁ, mahārāja, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā, pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati, so imameva kāyaṁ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

96Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso odātena vatthena sasīsaṁ pārupitvā nisinno assa, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa odātena vatthena apphuṭaṁ assa; evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3. Aṭṭhañāṇa
4.3.3.1. Vipassanāñāṇa

97So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte ñāṇadassanāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So evaṁ pajānāti: 'ayaṁ kho me kāyo rūpī cātumahābhūtiko mātāpettikasambhavo odanakummāsūpacayo aniccucchādanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaṁsanadhammo; idañca pana me viññāṇaṁ ettha sitaṁ ettha paṭibaddhan'ti.

98Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, maṇi veḷuriyo subho jātimā aṭṭhaṁso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anāvilo sabbākārasampanno. Tatrāssa suttaṁ āvutaṁ nīlaṁ vā pītaṁ vā lohitaṁ vā odātaṁ vā paṇḍusuttaṁ vā. Tamenaṁ cakkhumā puriso hatthe karitvā paccavekkheyya: 'ayaṁ kho maṇi veḷuriyo subho jātimā aṭṭhaṁso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anāvilo sabbākārasampanno; tatridaṁ suttaṁ āvutaṁ nīlaṁ vā pītaṁ vā lohitaṁ vā odātaṁ vā paṇḍusuttaṁ vā'ti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte ñāṇadassanāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So evaṁ pajānāti: 'ayaṁ kho me kāyo rūpī cātumahābhūtiko mātāpettikasambhavo odanakummāsūpacayo aniccucchādanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaṁsanadhammo; idañca pana me viññāṇaṁ ettha sitaṁ ettha paṭibaddhan'ti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3.2. Manomayiddhiñāṇa

99So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte manomayaṁ kāyaṁ abhinimmānāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So imamhā kāyā aññaṁ kāyaṁ abhinimmināti rūpiṁ manomayaṁ sabbaṅgapaccangiṁ ahīnindriyaṁ.

100Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso muñjamhā īsikaṁ pavāheyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ muñjo, ayaṁ īsikā, añño muñjo, aññā īsikā, muñjamhā tveva īsikā pavāḷhā'ti. Seyyathā vā pana, mahārāja, puriso asiṁ kosiyā pavāheyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ asi, ayaṁ kosi, añño asi, aññā kosi, kosiyā tveva asi pavāḷho'ti. Seyyathā vā pana, mahārāja, puriso ahiṁ karaṇḍā uddhareyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ ahi, ayaṁ karaṇḍo. Añño ahi, añño karaṇḍo, karaṇḍā tveva ahi ubbhato'ti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte manomayaṁ kāyaṁ abhinimmānāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So imamhā kāyā aññaṁ kāyaṁ abhinimmināti rūpiṁ manomayaṁ sabbaṅgapaccangiṁ ahīnindriyaṁ. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3.3. Iddhividhañāṇa

101So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte iddhividhāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhoti – ekopi hutvā bahudhā hoti, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hoti; āvibhāvaṁ tirobhāvaṁ tirokuṭṭaṁ tiropākāraṁ tiropabbataṁ asajjamāno gacchati seyyathāpi ākāse; pathaviyāpi ummujjanimujjaṁ karoti seyyathāpi udake; udakepi abhijjamāne gacchati seyyathāpi pathaviyā; ākāsepi pallaṅkena kamati seyyathāpi pakkhī sakuṇo; imepi candimasūriye evaṁmahiddhike evaṁmahānubhāve pāṇinā parāmasati parimajjati; yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vatteti.

102Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, dakkho kumbhakāro vā kumbhakārantevāsī vā suparikammakatāya mattikāya yaṁ yadeva bhājanavikatiṁ ākaṅkheyya, taṁ tadeva kareyya abhinipphādeyya. Seyyathā vā pana, mahārāja, dakkho dantakāro vā dantakārantevāsī vā suparikammakatasmiṁ dantasmiṁ yaṁ yadeva dantavikatiṁ ākaṅkheyya, taṁ tadeva kareyya abhinipphādeyya. Seyyathā vā pana, mahārāja, dakkho suvaṇṇakāro vā suvaṇṇakārantevāsī vā suparikammakatasmiṁ suvaṇṇasmiṁ yaṁ yadeva suvaṇṇavikatiṁ ākaṅkheyya, taṁ tadeva kareyya abhinipphādeyya. Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte iddhividhāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhoti—ekopi hutvā bahudhā hoti, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hoti; āvibhāvaṁ tirobhāvaṁ tirokuṭṭaṁ tiropākāraṁ tiropabbataṁ asajjamāno gacchati seyyathāpi ākāse; pathaviyāpi ummujjanimujjaṁ karoti seyyathāpi udake; udakepi abhijjamāne gacchati seyyathāpi pathaviyā; ākāsepi pallaṅkena kamati seyyathāpi pakkhī sakuṇo; imepi candimasūriye evaṁmahiddhike evaṁmahānubhāve pāṇinā parāmasati parimajjati; yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vatteti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3.4. Dibbasotañāṇa

103So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte dibbāya sotadhātuyā cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇāti dibbe ca mānuse ca ye dūre santike ca.

104Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso addhānamaggappaṭipanno. So suṇeyya bherisaddampi mudiṅgasaddampi saṅkhapaṇavadindimasaddampi. Tassa evamassa: 'bherisaddo' itipi, 'mudiṅgasaddo' itipi, 'saṅkhapaṇavadindimasaddo' itipi. Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte dibbāya sotadhātuyā cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇāti dibbe ca mānuse ca ye dūre santike ca. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3.5. Cetopariyañāṇa

105So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte cetopariyañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānāti – sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ 'sarāgaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītarāgaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ 'sadosaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītadosaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, samohaṁ vā cittaṁ 'samohaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītamohaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ 'saṅkhittaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vikkhittaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ 'mahaggataṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ 'amahaggataṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ 'sauttaraṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ 'anuttaraṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ 'samāhitaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ 'asamāhitaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vimuttaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ 'avimuttaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti.

106Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, itthī vā puriso vā daharo yuvā maṇḍanajātiko ādāse vā parisuddhe pariyodāte acche vā udakapatte sakaṁ mukhanimittaṁ paccavekkhamāno sakaṇikaṁ vā 'sakaṇikan'ti jāneyya, akaṇikaṁ vā 'akaṇikan'ti jāneyya; evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte cetopariyañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānāti—sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ 'sarāgaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītarāgaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ 'sadosaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītadosaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, samohaṁ vā cittaṁ 'samohaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītamohaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ 'saṅkhittaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vikkhittaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ 'mahaggataṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ 'amahaggataṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ 'sauttaraṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ 'anuttaraṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ 'samāhitaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ 'asamāhitaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vimuttaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ 'avimuttaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3.6. Pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇa

107So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, seyyathidaṁ—ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṁsampi jātiyo cattālīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekepi saṁvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe, 'amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno'ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati.

108Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, puriso sakamhā gāmā aññaṁ gāmaṁ gaccheyya, tamhāpi gāmā aññaṁ gāmaṁ gaccheyya. So tamhā gāmā sakaṁyeva gāmaṁ paccāgaccheyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho sakamhā gāmā amuṁ gāmaṁ agacchiṁ, tatra evaṁ aṭṭhāsiṁ, evaṁ nisīdiṁ, evaṁ abhāsiṁ, evaṁ tuṇhī ahosiṁ, tamhāpi gāmā amuṁ gāmaṁ agacchiṁ, tatrāpi evaṁ aṭṭhāsiṁ, evaṁ nisīdiṁ, evaṁ abhāsiṁ, evaṁ tuṇhī ahosiṁ, somhi tamhā gāmā sakaṁyeva gāmaṁ paccāgato'ti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, seyyathidaṁ—ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṁsampi jātiyo cattālīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekepi saṁvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe, 'amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṁgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṁgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno'ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3.7. Dibbacakkhuñāṇa

109So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti: 'ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā vacīduccaritena samannāgatā manoduccaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ upavādakā micchādiṭṭhikā micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānā. Te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapannā. Ime vā pana bhonto sattā kāyasucaritena samannāgatā vacīsucaritena samannāgatā manosucaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ anupavādakā sammādiṭṭhikā sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapannā'ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti.

110Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, majjhe siṅghāṭake pāsādo. Tattha cakkhumā puriso ṭhito passeyya manusse gehaṁ pavisantepi nikkhamantepi rathikāyapi vīthiṁ sañcarante majjhe siṅghāṭake nisinnepi. Tassa evamassa: 'ete manussā gehaṁ pavisanti, ete nikkhamanti, ete rathikāya vīthiṁ sañcaranti, ete majjhe siṅghāṭake nisinnā'ti. Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti: 'ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā vacīduccaritena samannāgatā manoduccaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ upavādakā micchādiṭṭhikā micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānā, te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapannā. Ime vā pana bhonto sattā kāyasucaritena samannāgatā vacīsucaritena samannāgatā manosucaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ anupavādakā sammādiṭṭhikā sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānā. Te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapannā'ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate; yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. Idampi kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca.

4.3.3.8. Āsavakkhayañāṇa

111So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So idaṁ dukkhanti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ dukkhasamudayoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ dukkhanirodhoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. Ime āsavāti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ āsavasamudayoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ āsavanirodhoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, vimuttasmiṁ 'vimuttam'iti ñāṇaṁ hoti, 'khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā'ti pajānāti.


112Seyyathāpi, mahārāja, pabbatasaṅkhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tattha cakkhumā puriso tīre ṭhito passeyya sippisambukampi sakkharakathalampi macchagumbampi carantampi tiṭṭhantampi. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ kho udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tatrime sippisambukāpi sakkharakathalāpi macchagumbāpi carantipi tiṭṭhantipī'ti.

Evameva kho, mahārāja, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. 'So idaṁ dukkhan'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, 'ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, 'ayaṁ dukkhanirodho'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, 'ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. 'Ime āsavā'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, 'ayaṁ āsavasamudayo'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, 'ayaṁ āsavanirodho'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, 'ayaṁ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā'ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, vimuttasmiṁ 'vimuttam'iti ñāṇaṁ hoti, 'khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā'ti pajānāti. Idaṁ kho, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ purimehi sandiṭṭhikehi sāmaññaphalehi abhikkantatarañca paṇītatarañca. Imasmā ca pana, mahārāja, sandiṭṭhikā sāmaññaphalā aññaṁ sandiṭṭhikaṁ sāmaññaphalaṁ uttaritaraṁ vā paṇītataraṁ vā natthī"ti.

5. Ajātasattuupāsakattapaṭivedanā

113Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Abhikkantaṁ, bhante, abhikkantaṁ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: 'cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī'ti; evamevaṁ, bhante, bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gataṁ. Accayo maṁ, bhante, accagamā yathābālaṁ yathāmūḷhaṁ yathāakusalaṁ, yohaṁ pitaraṁ dhammikaṁ dhammarājānaṁ issariyakāraṇā jīvitā voropesiṁ. Tassa me, bhante bhagavā, accayaṁ accayato paṭiggaṇhātu āyatiṁ saṁvarāyā"ti.


114"Taggha tvaṁ, mahārāja, accayo accagamā yathābālaṁ yathāmūḷhaṁ yathāakusalaṁ, yaṁ tvaṁ pitaraṁ dhammikaṁ dhammarājānaṁ jīvitā voropesi.

Yato ca kho tvaṁ, mahārāja, accayaṁ accayato disvā yathādhammaṁ paṭikarosi, taṁ te mayaṁ paṭiggaṇhāma. Vuddhihesā, mahārāja, ariyassa vinaye, yo accayaṁ accayato disvā yathādhammaṁ paṭikaroti, āyatiṁ saṁvaraṁ āpajjatī"ti.


115Evaṁ vutte, rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "handa ca dāni mayaṁ, bhante, gacchāma bahukiccā mayaṁ bahukaraṇīyā"ti.

"Yassadāni tvaṁ, mahārāja, kālaṁ maññasī"ti.

Atha kho rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkāmi.

116Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkantassa rañño māgadhassa ajātasattussa vedehiputtassa bhikkhū āmantesi: "khatāyaṁ, bhikkhave, rājā. Upahatāyaṁ, bhikkhave, rājā. Sacāyaṁ, bhikkhave, rājā pitaraṁ dhammikaṁ dhammarājānaṁ jīvitā na voropessatha, imasmiññeva āsane virajaṁ vītamalaṁ dhammacakkhuṁ uppajjissathā"ti.

117Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

Sāmaññaphalasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dutiyaṁ.