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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN3: Ambaṭṭha Sutta – With Ambaṭṭha

Pride Humbled

1Thus have I heard. Once the Lord was touring Kosala with a large number of monks, some five hundred, and he came to a Kosalan Brahmin village called Icchanankala. And he stayed in the dense jungle of Icchanankala.

 

2At that time the Brahmin Pokkharasati was living at Ukkhattha, a populous place, full of grass, timber, water and corn, which had been given to him by King Pasenadi of Kosala as a royal gift and with royal powers.[n.141] A stock phrase, as at DN 4.1, 5.1, MN 95.1, etc. RD translates ‘on a royal domain… as a royal gift (rājadāyaṁ), with power over it as if he were the king (brahmadeyyaṁ)’. Brahmadeyyaṁ = ‘supreme gift’, one which could not be revoked.

And Pokkharasati heard say:

‘The ascetic Gotama, son of the Sakyans, who has gone forth from the Sakya clan,…is staying in the dense jungle of Icchanankala. And concerning that Blessed Lord a good report has been spread about: “This Blessed Lord is an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha, perfected in knowledge and conduct, a Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, unequalled Trainer of men to be tamed, Teacher of gods and humans, a Buddha, a Blessed Lord.” He proclaims this world with its gods, maras, Brahmas, the world of ascetics and Brahmins with its princes and people, having come to know it by his own knowledge. He teaches a Dhamma that is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle, and lovely in its ending, in the spirit and in the letter, and he displays the fully-perfected, thoroughly purified holy life. And indeed it is good to see such Arahants.’

Young Ambaṭṭha

3Now at that time Pokkharasāti had a pupil, the youth Ambattha, who was a student of the Vedas, who knew the mantras, perfected in the Three Vedas, a skilled expounder of the rules and rituals, the lore of sounds and meanings and, fifthly, oral tradition, complete in philosophy[n.142] Another stock description, of a learned Brahmin. and in the marks[n.143] For a full account of these (pre-Buddhist) marks, see DN 30. They are clearly important to the Brahmin as establishing ‘the ascetic Gotama’s’ credentials. of a Great Man, admitted and accepted by his master in the Three Vedas with the words: ‘What I know, you know; what you know, I know.’


4And Pokkharasati said to Ambattha: ‘Ambattha, my son, the ascetic Gotama … is staying in the dense jungle of Icchānankala. And concerning that Blessed Lord a good report has been spread about …


5Now you go to see the ascetic Gotama and find out whether this report is correct or not, and whether the Reverend Gotama is as they say or not. In that way we shall put the Reverend Gotama to the test.’

Sir, how shall I find out whether the report is true, or whether the Reverend Gotama is as they say or not?’


6"According to the tradition of our mantras, Ambattha, the great man who is possessed of the thirty-two marks of a Great Man has only two courses open to him. If he lives the household life he will become a ruler, a wheel-turning righteous monarch of the law,[n.144] See DN 17. conqueror of the four quarters, who has established the security of his realm and is possessed of the seven treasures.[n.145] These are: the Wheel-Treasure, the Elephant-Treasure, the Horse-Treasure, the Jewel-Treasure, the Woman-Treasure, the Householder-Treasure, and, as seventh, the Counsellor-Treasure. He has more than a thousand sons who are heroes, of heroic stature, conquerors of the hostile army. He dwells having conquered this sea-girt land without stick or sword, by the law. But if he goes forth from the household life into homelessness, then he will become an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha, one who draws back the veil from the world.[n.146] Loke vivattacchado: a difficult expression. I follow DA. The ‘veil’ is that of ignorance, etc. And, Ambattha, I am the passer-on of the mantras, and you are the receiver.’


7‘Very good, sir’, said Ambattha at Pokkharasāti’s words, and he got up, passed by Pokkharasati with his right side, got into his chariot drawn by a mare and, accompanied by a number of young men, headed for the dense jungle of Icchānankala. He drove as far as the carriage would go, then alighted and continued on foot.

At that time a number of monks were walking up and down in the open air. Ambattha approached them and said: ‘Where is the Reverend Gotama to be found just now? We have come to see the Reverend Gotama.’

8The monks thought: ‘This is Ambattha, a youth of good family and a pupil of the distinguished Brahmin Pokkharasāti. The Lord would not mind having a conversation with such a young man.’ And they said to Ambattha: ‘That is his dwelling, with the door closed. Go quietly up to it, go on to the verandah without haste, cough, and knock on the bolt. The Lord will open the door to you.’

9 Ambattha went up to the dwelling and on to the verandah, coughed, and knocked. The Lord opened the door, and Ambaṭṭha went in. The young men entered, exchanged courtesies with the Lord, and sat down to one side. But Ambattha walked up and down while the Lord sat there, uttered some vague words of politeness, and then stood so speaking before the seated Lord.

10And the Lord said to Ambattha: ‘Well now, Ambattha, would you behave like this if you were talking to venerable and learned Brahmins, teachers of teachers, as you do with me, walking and standing while I am sitting, and uttering vague words of politeness?’

 

11‘No, Reverend Gotama. A Brahmin should walk with a walking Brahmin, stand with a standing Brahmin, sit with a sitting Brahmin, and lie down with a Brahmin who is lying down. But as for those shaven little ascetics, menials, black scourings from Brahmā’s foot, with them it is fitting to speak just as I do with the Reverend Gotama.’

‘But, Ambattha, you came here seeking something. Whatever it was you came for, you should listen attentively to hear about it. Ambattha, you have not perfected your training. Your conceit of being trained is due to nothing but inexperience.’

12But Ambattha was angry and displeased at being called untrained, and he turned on the Lord with curses and insults. Thinking: ‘The ascetic Gotama bears me ill-will’, he said: ‘Reverend Gotama, the Sakyans are fierce, rough-spoken, touchy and violent. Being of menial origin, being menials, they do not honour, respect, esteem, revere or pay homage to Brahmins. With regard to this it is not proper… that they do not pay homage to Brahmins.’

This was the first time Ambattha accused the Sakyans of being menials.

 

13‘But, Ambattha, what have the Sakyans done to you?’

‘Reverend Gotama, once I went to Kapilavatthu on some business for my teacher, the Brahmin Pokkharasāti, and I came to the Sakyans’ meeting-hall. And at that time a lot of Sakyans were sitting on high seats in their meeting-hall, poking each other with their fingers, laughing and playing about together, and it seemed to me that they were just making fun of me, and no one offered me a seat. With regard to this, it is not proper that they do not pay homage to the Brahmins.’

This was the second time Ambattha accused the Sakyans of being menials.

 

14‘But Ambattha, even the quail, that little bird, can talk as she likes on her own nest. Kapilavatthu is the Sakyans’ home, Ambattha. They do not deserve censure for such a trifle.’

‘Reverend Gotama, there are four castes:[n.147] This division into four groups shows the earliest stage of the caste-system. In the Buddha’s time and in his homeland, the Khattiyas (‘Warior-Nobles’), to whom he belonged, still formed the first caste, with the Brahmins taking second place, though the latter had already established themselves as the leading caste further west, and were clearly fighting for that position here. The Buddha himself often refers to a different fourfold grouping: Khattiyas, Brahmins, householders and ascetics. the Khattiyas, the Brahmins, the merchants and the artisans. And of these four castes three — the Khattiyas, the merchants and the artisans — are entirely subservient to the Brahmins. With regard to this, it is not proper that they should not pay homage to the Brahmins.’

This was the third time Ambattha accused the Sakyans of being menials.

 

15Then the Lord thought: ‘This young man goes too far in abusing the Sakyans. Suppose I were to ask after his clan-name? ’ So he said:

‘Ambattha, what is your clan?’

‘I am a Kaṇhāyan, Reverend Gotama.’


‘Ambattha, in former days, according to those who remember the ancestral lineage, the Sakyans were the masters, and you are descended from a slave-girl of the Sakyans. For the Sakyans regard King Okkāka as their ancestor.

16At one time King Okkāka, to whom his queen was dear and beloved, wishing to transfer the kingdom to her son, banished his elder brothers from the kingdom — Okkamukha, Karandu, Hatthiniya and Sinipura. And these, being banished, made their home on the flank of the Himālayas beside a lotus-pond where there was a big grove of teak-trees.[n148] Sākasaṇḍa. The word sāka can also mean ‘herb’ (RD), but here surely bears its other meaning of ‘teak’. RD deliberately mistranslated as ‘oak’ for the sake of a somewhat feeble play on words. There is an actual play on sakāhi ‘own (sisters)’ just previously. And for fear of contaminating the stock they cohabited with their own sisters.


17Then King Okkāka asked his ministers and counsellors: “Where are the princes living now?” and they told him.


At this King Okkāha exclaimed: “They are strong as teak (sāka), these princes, they are real Sakyans!”[n.149] In conformity with the previous note, RD here translates ‘hearts of oak’ (!).

And that is how the Sakyans got their well-known name. And the King was the ancestor of the Sakyans.


18‘Now King Okkāka had a slave-girl called Disā, who gave birth to a black child. The black thing, when it was born, exclaimed: “Wash me, mother! Bath me, mother! Deliver me from this dirt, and I will bring you profit!”

Because, Ambattha, just as people today use the term hobgoblin (pisāca) as a term of abuse, so in those days they said black (kaṇha). And they said: “As soon as he was born, he spoke. He is born a Kanha, a hobgoblin!” That is how in former days…the Sakyans were the masters, and you are descended from a slave-girl of the Sakyans.’


19On hearing this, the young men said: ‘Reverend Gotama, do not humiliate Ambattha too much with talk of his being descended from a slave-girl: Ambattha is well-born, of a good family, he is very learned, he is well-spoken, a scholar, well able to hold his own in this discussion with the Reverend Gotama!’

20Then the Lord said to the young men: ‘If you consider that Ambattha is ill-born, not of a good family, unlearned, ill-spoken, no scholar, unable to hold his own in this discussion with the ascetic Gotama, then let Ambattha be silent, and you conduct this discussion with me. But if you think he is… able to hold his own, then you be quiet, and let him discuss with me.’


21‘Ambattha is well-born, Reverend Gotama… We will be silent, he shall continue.’


22Then the Lord said to Ambattha: ‘Ambattha, I have a fundamental question for you, which you will not like to answer. If you don’t answer, or evade the issue, if you keep silent or go away, your head will split into seven pieces. What do you think, Ambattha? Have you heard from old and venerable Brahmins, teachers of teachers, where the Kaṇhāyans came from, or who was their ancestor?’

23At this, Ambattha remained silent. The Lord asked him a second time. Again Ambattha remained silent, and the Lord said: ‘Answer me now, Ambattha, this is not a time for silence. Whoever, Ambattha, does not answer a fundamental question put to him by a Tathāgata by the third asking has his head split into seven pieces.’[n.150] A curious threat that (as RD observes) never comes to anything, and is of course pre-Buddhist.


24And at that moment Vajirapāni the yakkha,[n.151] This yakkha, equated by DA with Indra, is ready, as in MN 35.14, to take the threat literally. Thus one of the old gods is seen as supporting the new religion. In later Mahayana texts we find a Bodhisattva of the same name. See D.L. Snellgrove, Buddhist Himālaya (Oxford 1957), p. 62, and I.B. Homer’s note, MLS i, p. 185. holding a huge iron club, flaming, ablaze and glowing, up in the sky just above Ambattha, was thinking: ‘If this young man Ambattha does not answer a proper question put to him by the Blessed Lord by the third time of asking, I’ll split his head into seven pieces!’ The Lord saw Vajirapāni, and so did Ambattha.

25And at the sight, Ambattha was terrified and unnerved, his hairs stood on end, and he sought protection, shelter and safety from the Lord. Crouching down close to the Lord, he said: ‘What did the Reverend Gotama say? May the Reverend Gotama repeat what he said!’

26‘What do you think, Ambattha? Have you heard who was the ancestor of the Kaṇhāyans?’

‘Yes, I have heard it just as the Reverend Gotama said, that is where the Kaṇhāyans came from, he was their ancestor.’

 

27Hearing this, the young men made a loud noise and clamour: ‘So Ambattha is ill-born, not of a good family, born of a slave-girl of the Sakyans, and the Sakyans are Ambattha’s masters! We disparaged the ascetic Gotama, thinking he was not speaking the truth!’

28Then the Lord thought: ‘It is too much, the way these young men humiliate Ambattha for being the son of a slave-girl. I must get him out of this.’ So he said to the young men: ‘Don’t disparage Ambattha too much for being the son of a slave-girl! That Kanha was a mighty sage.[pn.152] Isi (Sanskrit ṛṣi, anglicised as ‘rishi’). Is he to be identified with Krishna (Skt. Kṛṣṇa = Pali Kaṇha)? He went to the south country,[n.153] Dakkhiṇa janapada: anglicised as the Deccan. learnt the mantras of the Brahmins there, and then went to King Okkāka and asked for his daughter Maddarūpī. And King Okkāka, furiously angry, exclaimed: “So this fellow, the son of a slave-girl, wants my daughter!”, and put an arrow to his bow. But he was unable either to shoot the arrow or to withdraw it.[n.154] According to DA, this was called the ‘Ambattha spell’.

29Then the ministers and counsellors came to the sage Kanha and said: “Spare the king, Reverend Sir, spare the king!”

‘“The king will be safe, but if he looses the arrow downwards, the earth will quake as far as his kingdom extends.”

“‘Reverend Sir, spare the king, spare the land!”

‘“The king and the land will be safe, but if he looses the arrow upwards, as far as his realm extends the god will not let it rain for seven years.”[n.155] Bluff, according to DA: in reality the spell could only stop the discharge of the arrow.

‘“Reverend Sir, spare the king and the land, and may the god let it rains!”

‘“The king and the land will be safe, and the god will let it rain, but if the king points the arrow at the crown prince, the prince will be completely safe.” ‘Then the ministers exclaimed:

“Let King Okkāka point the arrow at the crown prince, the prince will be perfectly safe!” The king did so, and the prince was unharmed. Then King Okkāka, terrified and fearful of divine punishment,[n.156] Brahmadaṇḍa: ‘extreme punishment’ (in another sense at DN 16.6.4). gave away his daughter Maddarūpī. So, young men, do not disparage Ambattha too much for being the son of a slave-girl. That Kanha was a mighty sage.’

 

30Then the Lord said: ‘Ambattha, what do you think? Suppose a Khattiya youth were to wed a Brahmin maiden, and there was a son of the union. Would that son of a Khattiya youth and a Brahmin maiden receive a seat and water from the Brahmins?’

‘He would, Reverend Gotama.’


‘Would they allow him to eat at funeral-rites, at rice-offerings, at sacrifices or as a guest?’

‘They would, Reverend Gotama.’

‘Would they teach him mantras or not?’


‘They would, Reverend Gotama.’

‘Would they keep their women covered or uncovered?’

‘Uncovered, Reverend Gotama.’

‘But would the Khattiyas sprinkle him with the Khattiya consecration?’

‘No, Reverend Gotama.’


‘Why not?’

‘Because, Reverend Gotama, he is not well-born on his mother’s side.’


31‘What do you think, Ambattha? Suppose a Brahmin youth were to wed a Khattiya maiden, and there was a son of the union. Would that son of a Khattiya youth and a Brahmin maiden receive a seat and water from the Brahmins?’


‘He would, Reverend Gotama.’ …(as verse 24)


But would the Khattiyas sprinkle him with the Khattiya consecration?’

‘No, Reverend Gotama.’

‘Why not?’


‘Because, Reverend Gotama, he is not well-born on his father’s side.’


32‘So, Ambattha, the Khattiyas, through a man taking a woman or a woman taking a man, are senior to the Brahmins.

What do you think, Ambattha? Take the case of a Brahmin who, for some reason, has had his head shaved by the Brahmins, has been punished with a bag of ashes and banished from the country or the city. Would he receive a seat and water from the Brahmins?’ ‘No, Reverend Gotama.’

‘Would they allow him to eat… as a guest?’

‘No, Reverend Gotama.’

‘Would they teach him mantras, or not?’

‘They would not, Reverend Gotama.’

‘Would they keep their women covered or uncovered?’

‘Covered, Reverend Gotama.’


33‘What do you think, Ambattha? Take the case of a Khattiya who … had his head shaved by the Khattiyas, … and has been banished from the country or the city. Would he receive a seat and water from the Brahmins?’


‘He would, Reverend Gotama.’ … (as verse 24)


‘Would they keep their women covered or uncovered?’

‘Uncovered, Reverend Gotama.’

34‘But that Khattiya has so far reached the extreme of humiliation that he has… been banished from the country or the city. So even if a Khattiya has suffered extreme humiliation, he is superior and the Brahmins inferior.

‘Ambattha, this verse was pronounced by Brahmā Sanankumāra:


35 “The Khattiya’s best among those who value clan;
He with knowledge and conduct is best of gods and men.”

36‘This verse was rightly sung, not wrongly, rightly spoken, not wrongly, connected with profit, not unconnected. And, Ambattha, I too say this:

37 “The Khattiya’s best among those who value clan:
He with knowledge and conduct is best of gods and men.’”

[End of first recitation-section]

 

38‘But, Reverend Gotama, what is this conduct, what is this knowledge?’

‘Ambattha, it is not from the standpoint of the attainment of unexcelled knowledge-and-conduct that reputation based on birth and clan is declared, nor on the conceit which says: “You are worthy of me, you are not worthy of me!” For wherever there is a giving, a taking, or a giving and taking in marriage, there is always this talk and this conceit… But those who are enslaved by such things are far from the attainment of the unexcelled knowledge-and-conduct, which is attained by abandoning all such things!’


39-45‘But, Reverend Gotama, what is this conduct, what is this knowledge?’

‘Ambattha, a Tathagata arises in this world an Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha, endowed with wisdom and conduct, Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, incomparable Trainer of men to be tamed, Teacher of gods and humans, enlightened and blessed. He, having realised it by his own super-knowledge, proclaims this world with its devas, maras and Brahmas, its princes and people. He preaches the Dhamma which is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle, lovely in its ending, in the spirit and in the letter, and displays the fully-perfected and purified holy life.[n.157] Here, and in the corresponding places in the other Suttas of this Division, the MSS abridge and say ‘as in the Samaññaphala Sutta’. But ‘refrains’ differ, and it is not always quite clear how much of DN 2 is meant to be included. A disciple goes forth and practises the moralities (Sutta 2, verse 41—62); he guards the sensedoors, etc. (Sutta 2, verse 64–75); attains the four jhānas (Sutta 2, verse 75–82). Thus he develops conduct. He attains various insights (Sutta 2, verse 83–95), and the cessation of the corruptions (Sutta 2, verse 97 )… And beyond this there is no further development of knowledge and conduct that is higher or more perfect.

 

46‘But, Ambattha, in the pursuit of this unexcelled attainment of knowledge and conduct there are four paths of failure.[n.158] Apāya-mukhāni: lit. ‘outlets of loss’ (‘leakages’, RD). Used in another sense, DN 31.3. What are they?


In the first place, an ascetic or Brahmin who has not managed to gain[n.159] Anabhisambhūṇamāno: almost literally ‘not up to it’. this unexcelled attainment, takes his carrying-pole[n.160] A pole or yoke for carrying his possessions. and plunges into the depths of the forest thinking: “I will live on windfalls.” But in this way he only becomes an attendant on one who has attained. This is the first path of failure.

47Again, an ascetic or Brahmin … , being unable to live on windfalls, takes a spade and basket, thinking: “I will live on tubers and roots.”[n.161] I.e. digging them up, which the first one did not do.… This is the second path of failure.

48Again, an ascetic or Brahmin, being unable to live on tubers and roots, makes a fire-hearth at the edge of a village or small town and sits tending the fame[n.162] The sacred fire, or perhaps Aggi (Agni) the fire-god. … This is the third path of failure.

49Again, an ascetic or Brahmin, being unable to tend the flame, erects a house with four doors at the crossroads thinking: “Whatever ascetic or Brahmin arrives from the four quarters, I will honour to the best of my strength and ability.” But in this way he only becomes an attendant on one who has attained to unexcelled knowledge and conduct.

This is the fourth path of failure.


50‘What do you think, Ambattha? Do you and your teacher live in accordance with this unexcelled knowledge and conduct?’

‘No indeed, Reverend Gotama! Who are my teacher and I in comparison? We are far from it!’


51-53‘Well then, Ambattha, could you and your teacher, being unable to gain this…, go with your carrying-poles into the depths of the forest, intending to live on windfalls?’

‘No indeed, Reverend Gotama.’


54‘Well then, Ambattha, could you and your teacher, being unable to gain this … , live on tubers and roots,… sit tending the flame, … erect a house … ?’


‘No indeed, Reverend Gotama.’

55‘And so, Ambattha, not only are you and your teacher incapable of attaining this unexcelled knowledge and conduct, but even the four paths of failure are beyond you. And yet you and your teacher the Brahmin Pokkharasāti utter these words: “These shaven little ascetics, menials, black scrapings from Brahmā’s foot, what converse can they have with Brahmins learned in the Three Vedas?” — even though you can’t even manage the duties of one who has failed. See, Ambattha, how your teacher has let you down!

 

56‘Ambattha, the Brahmin Pokkharasāti lives by the grace and favour of King Pasenadi of Kosala. And yet the King does not allow him to have audience face to face. When he confers with the King it is through a curtain. Why should the King not grant audience face to face to one on whom he has bestowed a proper and blameless source of revenue? See how your teacher has let you down!

57‘What do you think, Ambattha? Suppose King Pasenadi was sitting on the neck of an elephant or on horseback, or was standing on the chariot-mat, conferring with his ministers and princes about something. And suppose he were to step aside and some workman or workman’s servant were to come along and stand in his place. And standing there he might say: “This is what King Pasenadi of Kosala says!” Would he be speaking the King’s words, as if he were the King’s equal?’

‘No indeed, Reverend Gotama.’


58‘Well then, Ambattha, it is just the same thing. Those who were, as you say, the first sages of the Brahmins, the makers and expounders of the mantras, whose ancient verses are chanted, pronounced and collected by the Brahmins of today — Atthaka, Vamaka, Vamadeva, Vessamitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bharadvaja, Vasettha, Kassapa, Bhagu[n163] Ancient rishis associated with the Vedic hymns (cf. DN 13.13). For what follows, see also DN 27.22ff. — whose mantras are said to be passed on to you and your teacher: yet you do not thereby become a sage or one practised in the way of a sage — such a thing is not possible.

59‘What do you think, Ambattha? What have you heard said by Brahmins who are venerable, aged, the teachers of teachers? Those first sages…, Atthaka, … Bhagu — did they enjoy themselves, well-bathed, perfumed, their hair and beards trimmed, adorned with garlands and wreaths, dressed in white clothes, indulging in the pleasures of the five senses and addicted to them, as you and your teacher do now?’

‘No Reverend Gotama.’


60‘Or did they eat special fine rice with the black spots removed, with various soups and curries, as you and your teacher do now?’

‘No, Reverend Gotama.’


61‘Or did they amuse themselves with women dressed up in flounces and furbelows, as you and your teacher do now?’

‘No, Reverend Gotama.’


62‘Or did they ride around in chariots drawn by mares with braided tails, that they urged on with long goad-sticks?’

‘No, Reverend Gotama.’


63‘Or did they have themselves guarded in fortified towns with palisades and barricades, by men with long swords … ?’

‘No, Reverend Gotama.’


64‘So, Ambattha, neither you nor your teacher are a sage or one trained in the way of a sage. And now, as for your doubts and perplexities concerning me, we will clarify these by your asking me, and by my answering your questions.’

 

65Then, descending from his lodging, the Lord started to walk up and down, and Ambattha did likewise. And as he walked along with the Lord, Ambattha looked out for the thirty-two marks of a Great Man on the Lord’s body. And he could see all of them except for two. He was in doubt and perplexity about two of these marks: he could not make up his mind or be certain about the sheathed genitals or the large tongue.


66And the Lord, being aware of his doubts, effected by his psychic power that Ambattha could see his sheathed genitals, and then, sticking out his tongue, he reached out to lick both ears and both nostrils, and then covered the whole circle of his forehead with his tongue. Then Ambattha thought:


‘The ascetic Gotama is equipped with all the thirty-two marks of a Great Man, complete and with none missing.’ Then he said to the Lord: ‘Reverend Gotama, may I go now? I have much business, much to do.’ ‘Ambattha, do what you now think fit.’

So Ambattha got back into his chariot drawn by mares and departed.


67-68Meanwhile the Brahmin Pokkharasati had gone outside and was sitting in his park with a large number of Brahmins, just waiting for Ambattha. Then Ambattha came to the park. He rode in the chariot as far as it would go, and then continued on foot to where Pokkharasati was, saluted him, and sat down to one side. Then Pokkharasati said:


‘Well, dear boy, did you see the Reverend Gotama?’

‘I did, sir.’

‘And was the Reverend Gotama such as he is reported to be, and not otherwise? And is he of such nature, and not otherwise?’

‘Sir, he is as he is reported to be, and he is of such nature and not otherwise. He is possessed of the thirty-two marks of a Great Man, all complete, with none missing.’

‘But was there any conversation between you and the ascetic Gotama?’

‘There was, sir.’

‘And what was this conversation about?’ So Ambattha told Pokkharasati all that had passed between the Lord and himself.


69At this Pokkharasāti exclaimed: ‘Well, you’re a fine little scholar, a fine wise man, a fine expert in the Three Vedas! Anyone going about his business like that ought when he dies, at the breaking-up of the body, to go to the downfall, to the evil path, to ruin, to hell! You have heaped insults on the Reverend Gotama, as a result of which he has brought up more and more things against us! You’re a fine little scholar … !’ He was so angry and enraged that he kicked Ambattha over, and wanted to start out at once to see the Lord.

 

70But the Brahmins said: ‘It is far too late, sir, to go to see the ascetic Gotama today. The Reverend Pokkharasāti should go to see him tomorrow.’

Then Pokkharasāti, having had fine hard and soft food prepared in his own home, set out by the light of torches from Ukkattha for the jungle of Icchānankala. He went by chariot as far as possible, then continued on foot to where the Lord was.

71Having exchanged courtesies with the Lord, he sat down to one side and said:

‘Venerable Gotama, did not our pupil Ambattha come to see you?’

‘He did, Brahmin.’


‘And was there any conversation between you?’

‘There was.’

‘And what was this conversation about?’


Then the Lord told Pokkharasāti all that had passed between him and Ambattha. At this, Pokkharasāti said to the Lord:

‘Reverend Gotama, Ambattha is a young fool. May the Reverend Gotama pardon him.’ ‘Brahmin, may Ambattha be happy.’


72-74Then Pokkharasāti looked out for the thirty-two marks of a Great Man on the Lord’s body and he could see all of them except for two: the sheathed genitals and the large tongue; but the Lord set his mind at rest about these (as verse 11 — 12). And Pokkharasāti said to the Lord: ‘May the Reverend Gotama accept a meal from me today together with his order of monks!’ And the Lord consented by silence.


75Seeing his acceptance, Pokkharasāti said to the Lord: ‘It is time, Reverend Gotama, the meal is ready.’ And the Lord, having dressed in the early morning and taken his robe and bowl,[n.164] A frequent formula, belatedly explained by RD at DN 16.5.19. ‘The Wanderers … lived with only one robe on, the one from the waist to the feet. When they set out for the village … they put on the second robe and … carried the third with them. At some convenient spot near the village they would put this also on, and enter — so to speak — in full canonicals.’ went with his order of monks to Pokkharasāti’s residence, and sat down on the prepared seat. Then Pokkharasāti personally served the Lord with choice hard and soft food, and the young men served the monks. And when the Lord had taken his hand from the bowl, Pokkharasati sat down to one side on a low stool.

76And as Pokkharasati sat there, the Lord delivered a graduated discourse on generosity, on morality and on heaven, showing the danger, degradation and corruption of sense-desires, and the profit of renunciation. And when the Lord knew that Pokkharasāti’s mind was ready, pliable, free from the hindrances, joyful and calm, then he preached a sermon on Dhamma in brief: on suffering, its origin, its cessation, and the path. And just as a clean cloth from which all stains have been removed receives the dye perfectly, so in the Brahmin Pokkharasati, as he sat there, there arose the pure and spotless Dhamma-eye, and he knew: ‘Whatever things have an origin must come to cessation.’[n.165] This passage recurs at DN 5.29, DN 14.11 and elsewhere. For the Dhamma-eye see DN2 n.140. The Pali phrase is Yaṁ kiñci samudaya-dhammaṁ taṁ nirodha-dhammaṁ.

 

77And Pokkharasati, having seen, attained, experienced and penetrated the Dhamma, having passed beyond doubt, transcended uncertainty, having gained perfect confidence in the Teacher’s doctrine without relying on others, said:

‘Excellent, Lord, excellent! It is as if someone were to set up what had been knocked down, or to point out the way to one who had got lost, or to bring an oil-lamp into a dark place, so that those with eyes could see what was there. Just so the Blessed Lord has expounded the Dhamma in various ways … I go with my son, my wife, my ministers and counsellors for refuge to the Reverend Gotama, to the Dhamma and to the Saṅgha.[n.166] Pokkharasati did not apparently consult his wife, family and dependents. When Uruvela-Kassapa wanted to join the Saṅgha, the Buddha bade him first consult his 500 followers (Mv 1.20.18). But there is of course a big difference between becoming a lay-follower and joining the Saṅgha. May the Reverend Gotama accept me as a lay-follower who has taken refuge from this day forth as long as life shall last! And whenever the Reverend Gotama visits other families or lay-followers in Ukkattha, may he also visit the family of Pokkharasati! Whatever young men and maidens are there will revere the Reverend Gotama and rise before him, will give him a seat and water and will be glad at heart, and that will be for their welfare and happiness for a long time.’

‘Well said, Brahmin!’

 

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā kosalesu cārikaṁ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi yena icchānaṅgalaṁ nāma kosalānaṁ brāhmaṇagāmo tadavasari. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā icchānaṅgale viharati icchānaṅgalavanasaṇḍe.

1. Pokkharasātivatthu

2Tena kho pana samayena brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti ukkaṭṭhaṁ ajjhāvasati sattussadaṁ satiṇakaṭṭhodakaṁ sadhaññaṁ rājabhoggaṁ raññā pasenadinā kosalena dinnaṁ rājadāyaṁ brahmadeyyaṁ.

Assosi kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti:

"Samaṇo khalu, bho, gotamo sakyaputto sakyakulā pabbajito kosalesu cārikaṁ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi icchānaṅgalaṁ anuppatto icchānaṅgale viharati icchānaṅgalavanasaṇḍe. Taṁ kho pana bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'itipi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā '. So imaṁ lokaṁ sadevakaṁ samārakaṁ sabrahmakaṁ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṁ pajaṁ sadevamanussaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṁ deseti ādikalyāṇaṁ majjhekalyāṇaṁ pariyosānakalyāṇaṁ, sātthaṁ sabyañjanaṁ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ pakāseti. Sādhu kho pana tathārūpānaṁ arahataṁ dassanaṁ hotī"ti.

2. Ambaṭṭhamāṇava

3Tena kho pana samayena brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa ambaṭṭho nāma māṇavo antevāsī hoti ajjhāyako mantadharo tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ pāragū sanighaṇḍukeṭubhānaṁ sākkharappabhedānaṁ itihāsapañcamānaṁ padako veyyākaraṇo lokāyatamahāpurisalakkhaṇesu anavayo anuññātapaṭiññāto sake ācariyake tevijjake pāvacane: "yamahaṁ jānāmi taṁ tvaṁ jānāsi; yaṁ tvaṁ jānāsi tamahaṁ jānāmī"ti.


4Atha kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ āmantesi: "Ayaṁ, tāta ambaṭṭha, samaṇo gotamo sakyaputto sakyakulā pabbajito kosalesu cārikaṁ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi icchānaṅgalaṁ anuppatto icchānaṅgale viharati icchānaṅgalavanasaṇḍe. Taṁ kho pana bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'itipi so bhagavā, arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā. So imaṁ lokaṁ sadevakaṁ samārakaṁ sabrahmakaṁ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṁ pajaṁ sadevamanussaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṁ deseti ādikalyāṇaṁ majjhekalyāṇaṁ pariyosānakalyāṇaṁ, sātthaṁ sabyañjanaṁ kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ pakāseti. Sādhu kho pana tathārūpānaṁ arahataṁ dassanaṁ hotī'ti. Ehi tvaṁ, tāta ambaṭṭha, yena samaṇo gotamo tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ jānāhi, yadi vā taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ tathāsantaṁyeva saddo abbhuggato, yadi vā no tathā. Yadi vā so bhavaṁ gotamo tādiso, yadi vā na tādiso, tathā mayaṁ taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ vedissāmā"ti.


5"Yathā kathaṁ panāhaṁ, bho, taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ jānissāmi: 'yadi vā taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ tathāsantaṁyeva saddo abbhuggato, yadi vā no tathā.

Yadi vā so bhavaṁ gotamo tādiso, yadi vā na tādiso'"ti?


6"Āgatāni kho, tāta ambaṭṭha, amhākaṁ mantesu dvattiṁsa mahāpurisalakkhaṇāni, yehi samannāgatassa mahāpurisassa dveyeva gatiyo bhavanti anaññā. Sace agāraṁ ajjhāvasati, rājā hoti cakkavattī dhammiko dhammarājā cāturanto vijitāvī janapadatthāvariyappatto sattaratanasamannāgato. Tassimāni satta ratanāni bhavanti. Seyyathidaṁ—cakkaratanaṁ, hatthiratanaṁ, assaratanaṁ, maṇiratanaṁ, itthiratanaṁ, gahapatiratanaṁ, pariṇāyakaratanameva sattamaṁ. Parosahassaṁ kho panassa puttā bhavanti sūrā vīraṅgarūpā parasenappamaddanā. So imaṁ pathaviṁ sāgarapariyantaṁ adaṇḍena asatthena dhammena abhivijiya ajjhāvasati. Sace kho pana agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati, arahaṁ hoti sammāsambuddho loke vivaṭṭacchado. Ahaṁ kho pana, tāta ambaṭṭha, mantānaṁ dātā; tvaṁ mantānaṁ paṭiggahetā"ti.


7"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā brāhmaṇaṁ pokkharasātiṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā vaḷavārathamāruyha sambahulehi māṇavakehi saddhiṁ yena icchānaṅgalavanasaṇḍo tena pāyāsi. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi yānena gantvā yānā paccorohitvā pattikova ārāmaṁ pāvisi.

Tena kho pana samayena sambahulā bhikkhū abbhokāse caṅkamanti. Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo yena te bhikkhū tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te bhikkhū etadavoca: "kahaṁ nu kho, bho, etarahi so bhavaṁ gotamo viharati? Tañhi mayaṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ dassanāya idhūpasaṅkantā"ti.

8Atha kho tesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ etadahosi: "Ayaṁ kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo abhiññātakolañño ceva abhiññātassa ca brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa antevāsī. Agaru kho pana bhagavato evarūpehi kulaputtehi saddhiṁ kathāsallāpo hotī"ti. Te ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavocuṁ: "eso, ambaṭṭha, vihāro saṁvutadvāro, tena appasaddo upasaṅkamitvā ataramāno āḷindaṁ pavisitvā ukkāsitvā aggaḷaṁ ākoṭehi, vivarissati te bhagavā dvāran"ti.

9Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo yena so vihāro saṁvutadvāro, tena appasaddo upasaṅkamitvā ataramāno āḷindaṁ pavisitvā ukkāsitvā aggaḷaṁ ākoṭesi. Vivari bhagavā dvāraṁ. Pāvisi ambaṭṭho māṇavo. Māṇavakāpi pavisitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodiṁsu, sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ambaṭṭho pana māṇavo caṅkamantopi nisinnena bhagavatā kañci kañci kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāreti, ṭhitopi nisinnena bhagavatā kañci kañci kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāreti.

10Atha kho bhagavā ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca: "evaṁ nu te, ambaṭṭha, brāhmaṇehi vuddhehi mahallakehi ācariyapācariyehi saddhiṁ kathāsallāpo hoti, yathayidaṁ caraṁ tiṭṭhaṁ nisinnena mayā kiñci kiñci kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretī"ti?

2.1. Paṭhamaibbhavāda

11"No hidaṁ, bho gotama. Gacchanto vā hi, bho gotama, gacchantena brāhmaṇo brāhmaṇena saddhiṁ sallapitumarahati, ṭhito vā hi, bho gotama, ṭhitena brāhmaṇo brāhmaṇena saddhiṁ sallapitumarahati, nisinno vā hi, bho gotama, nisinnena brāhmaṇo brāhmaṇena saddhiṁ sallapitumarahati, sayāno vā hi, bho gotama, sayānena brāhmaṇo brāhmaṇena saddhiṁ sallapitumarahati. Ye ca kho te, bho gotama, muṇḍakā samaṇakā ibbhā kaṇhā bandhupādāpaccā, tehipi me saddhiṁ evaṁ kathāsallāpo hoti, yathariva bhotā gotamenā"ti.

"Atthikavato kho pana te, ambaṭṭha, idhāgamanaṁ ahosi, yāyeva kho panatthāya āgaccheyyātha, tameva atthaṁ sādhukaṁ manasi kareyyātha. Avusitavāyeva kho pana, bho, ayaṁ ambaṭṭho māṇavo vusitamānī kimaññatra avusitattā"ti.

12Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavatā avusitavādena vuccamāno kupito anattamano bhagavantaṁyeva khuṁsento bhagavantaṁyeva vambhento bhagavantaṁyeva upavadamāno: "Samaṇo ca me bho gotamo pāpito bhavissatī"ti bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "caṇḍā, bho gotama, sakyajāti; pharusā, bho gotama, sakyajāti; lahusā, bho gotama, sakyajāti; bhassā, bho gotama, sakyajāti; ibbhā santā ibbhā samānā na brāhmaṇe sakkaronti, na brāhmaṇe garuṁ karonti, na brāhmaṇe mānenti, na brāhmaṇe pūjenti, na brāhmaṇe apacāyanti. Tayidaṁ, bho gotama, nacchannaṁ, tayidaṁ nappatirūpaṁ, yadime sakyā ibbhā santā ibbhā samānā na brāhmaṇe sakkaronti, na brāhmaṇe garuṁ karonti, na brāhmaṇe mānenti, na brāhmaṇe pūjenti, na brāhmaṇe apacāyantī"ti.

Itiha ambaṭṭho māṇavo idaṁ paṭhamaṁ sakyesu ibbhavādaṁ nipātesi.

2.2. Dutiyaibbhavāda

13"Kiṁ pana te, ambaṭṭha, sakyā aparaddhun"ti?

"Ekamidāhaṁ, bho gotama, samayaṁ ācariyassa brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa kenacideva karaṇīyena kapilavatthuṁ agamāsiṁ. Yena sakyānaṁ sandhāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkamiṁ. Tena kho pana samayena sambahulā sakyā ceva sakyakumārā ca sandhāgāre uccesu āsanesu nisinnā honti aññamaññaṁ aṅgulipatodakehi sañjagghantā saṅkīḷantā, aññadatthu mamaññeva maññe anujagghantā, na maṁ koci āsanenapi nimantesi. Tayidaṁ, bho gotama, nacchannaṁ, tayidaṁ nappatirūpaṁ, yadime sakyā ibbhā santā ibbhā samānā na brāhmaṇe sakkaronti, na brāhmaṇe garuṁ karonti, na brāhmaṇe mānenti, na brāhmaṇe pūjenti, na brāhmaṇe apacāyantī"ti.

Itiha ambaṭṭho māṇavo idaṁ dutiyaṁ sakyesu ibbhavādaṁ nipātesi.

2.3. Tatiyaibbhavāda

14"Laṭukikāpi kho, ambaṭṭha, sakuṇikā sake kulāvake kāmalāpinī hoti. Sakaṁ kho panetaṁ, ambaṭṭha, sakyānaṁ yadidaṁ kapilavatthuṁ, nārahatāyasmā ambaṭṭho imāya appamattāya abhisajjitun"ti.

"Cattārome, bho gotama, vaṇṇā—khattiyā brāhmaṇā vessā suddā. Imesañhi, bho gotama, catunnaṁ vaṇṇānaṁ tayo vaṇṇā—khattiyā ca vessā ca suddā ca—aññadatthu brāhmaṇasseva paricārakā sampajjanti. Tayidaṁ, bho gotama, nacchannaṁ, tayidaṁ nappatirūpaṁ, yadime sakyā ibbhā santā ibbhā samānā na brāhmaṇe sakkaronti, na brāhmaṇe garuṁ karonti, na brāhmaṇe mānenti, na brāhmaṇe pūjenti, na brāhmaṇe apacāyantī"ti.

Itiha ambaṭṭho māṇavo idaṁ tatiyaṁ sakyesu ibbhavādaṁ nipātesi.

2.4. Dāsiputtavāda

15Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: "atibāḷhaṁ kho ayaṁ ambaṭṭho māṇavo sakyesu ibbhavādena nimmādeti, yannūnāhaṁ gottaṁ puccheyyan"ti. Atha kho bhagavā ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca:

"Kathaṁ gottosi, ambaṭṭhā"ti?

"Kaṇhāyanohamasmi, bho gotamā"ti.


"Porāṇaṁ kho pana te, ambaṭṭha, mātāpettikaṁ nāmagottaṁ anussarato ayyaputtā sakyā bhavanti; dāsiputto tvamasi sakyānaṁ. Sakyā kho pana, ambaṭṭha, rājānaṁ okkākaṁ pitāmahaṁ dahanti.

16Bhūtapubbaṁ, ambaṭṭha, rājā okkāko yā sā mahesī piyā manāpā, tassā puttassa rajjaṁ pariṇāmetukāmo jeṭṭhakumāre raṭṭhasmā pabbājesi—okkāmukhaṁ karakaṇḍaṁ hatthinikaṁ sinisūraṁ. Te raṭṭhasmā pabbājitā himavantapasse pokkharaṇiyā tīre mahāsākasaṇḍo, tattha vāsaṁ kappesuṁ. Te jātisambhedabhayā sakāhi bhaginīhi saddhiṁ saṁvāsaṁ kappesuṁ.


17Atha kho, ambaṭṭha, rājā okkāko amacce pārisajje āmantesi: 'kahaṁ nu kho, bho, etarahi kumārā sammantī'ti?

'Atthi, deva, himavantapasse pokkharaṇiyā tīre mahāsākasaṇḍo, tatthetarahi kumārā sammanti. Te jātisambhedabhayā sakāhi bhaginīhi saddhiṁ saṁvāsaṁ kappentī'ti.


Atha kho, ambaṭṭha, rājā okkāko udānaṁ udānesi: 'sakyā vata, bho, kumārā, paramasakyā vata, bho, kumārā'ti.

Tadagge kho pana, ambaṭṭha, sakyā paññāyanti; so ca nesaṁ pubbapuriso.


18Rañño kho pana, ambaṭṭha, okkākassa disā nāma dāsī ahosi. Sā kaṇhaṁ nāma janesi. Jāto kaṇho pabyāhāsi: 'dhovatha maṁ, amma, nahāpetha maṁ amma, imasmā maṁ asucismā parimocetha, atthāya vo bhavissāmī'ti.

Yathā kho pana, ambaṭṭha, etarahi manussā pisāce disvā 'pisācā'ti sañjānanti; evameva kho, ambaṭṭha, tena kho pana samayena manussā pisāce 'kaṇhā'ti sañjānanti. Te evamāhaṁsu: 'ayaṁ jāto pabyāhāsi, kaṇho jāto, pisāco jāto'ti. Tadagge kho pana, ambaṭṭha, kaṇhāyanā paññāyanti, so ca kaṇhāyanānaṁ pubbapuriso. Iti kho te, ambaṭṭha, porāṇaṁ mātāpettikaṁ nāmagottaṁ anussarato ayyaputtā sakyā bhavanti, dāsiputto tvamasi sakyānan"ti.


19Evaṁ vutte, te māṇavakā bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: "mā bhavaṁ gotamo ambaṭṭhaṁ atibāḷhaṁ dāsiputtavādena nimmādesi. Sujāto ca, bho gotama, ambaṭṭho māṇavo, kulaputto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, bahussuto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, kalyāṇavākkaraṇo ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, paṇḍito ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, pahoti ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhotā gotamena saddhiṁ asmiṁ vacane paṭimantetun"ti.

20Atha kho bhagavā te māṇavake etadavoca: "Sace kho tumhākaṁ māṇavakānaṁ evaṁ hoti: 'dujjāto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, akulaputto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, appassuto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, akalyāṇavākkaraṇo ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, duppañño ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, na ca pahoti ambaṭṭho māṇavo samaṇena gotamena saddhiṁ asmiṁ vacane paṭimantetun'ti, tiṭṭhatu ambaṭṭho māṇavo, tumhe mayā saddhiṁ mantavho asmiṁ vacane. Sace pana tumhākaṁ māṇavakānaṁ evaṁ hoti: 'sujāto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, kulaputto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, bahussuto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, kalyāṇavākkaraṇo ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, paṇḍito ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, pahoti ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo samaṇena gotamena saddhiṁ asmiṁ vacane paṭimantetun'ti, tiṭṭhatha tumhe; ambaṭṭho māṇavo mayā saddhiṁ paṭimantetū"ti.


21"Sujāto ca, bho gotama, ambaṭṭho māṇavo, kulaputto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, bahussuto ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, kalyāṇavākkaraṇo ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, paṇḍito ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo, pahoti ca ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhotā gotamena saddhiṁ asmiṁ vacane paṭimantetuṁ, tuṇhī mayaṁ bhavissāma, ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhotā gotamena saddhiṁ asmiṁ vacane paṭimantetū"ti.


22Atha kho bhagavā ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ kho pana te, ambaṭṭha, sahadhammiko pañho āgacchati, akāmā byākātabbo. Sace tvaṁ na byākarissasi, aññena vā aññaṁ paṭicarissasi, tuṇhī vā bhavissasi, pakkamissasi vā ettheva te sattadhā muddhā phalissati. Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, kinti te sutaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ kutopabhutikā kaṇhāyanā, ko ca kaṇhāyanānaṁ pubbapuriso"ti?

23Evaṁ vutte, ambaṭṭho māṇavo tuṇhī ahosi. Dutiyampi kho bhagavā ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca: "taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, kinti te sutaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ kutopabhutikā kaṇhāyanā, ko ca kaṇhāyanānaṁ pubbapuriso"ti? Dutiyampi kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo tuṇhī ahosi. Atha kho bhagavā ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca: "byākarohi dāni, ambaṭṭha, na dāni, te tuṇhībhāvassa kālo. Yo kho, ambaṭṭha, tathāgatena yāvatatiyakaṁ sahadhammikaṁ pañhaṁ puṭṭho na byākaroti, etthevassa sattadhā muddhā phalissatī"ti.


24Tena kho pana samayena vajirapāṇī yakkho mahantaṁ ayokūṭaṁ ādāya ādittaṁ sampajjalitaṁ sajotibhūtaṁ ambaṭṭhassa māṇavassa upari vehāsaṁ ṭhito hoti: "sacāyaṁ ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavatā yāvatatiyakaṁ sahadhammikaṁ pañhaṁ puṭṭho na byākarissati, etthevassa sattadhā muddhaṁ phālessāmī"ti. Taṁ kho pana vajirapāṇiṁ yakkhaṁ bhagavā ceva passati ambaṭṭho ca māṇavo.

25Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhīto saṁviggo lomahaṭṭhajāto bhagavantaṁyeva tāṇaṁ gavesī bhagavantaṁyeva leṇaṁ gavesī bhagavantaṁyeva saraṇaṁ gavesī upanisīditvā bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: " kimetaṁ bhavaṁ gotamo āha? Punabhavaṁ gotamo bravitū"ti.

26"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, kinti te sutaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ kutopabhutikā kaṇhāyanā, ko ca kaṇhāyanānaṁ pubbapuriso"ti?

"Evameva me, bho gotama, sutaṁ yatheva bhavaṁ gotamo āha. Tatopabhutikā kaṇhāyanā; so ca kaṇhāyanānaṁ pubbapuriso"ti.

2.5. Ambaṭṭhavaṁsakathā

27Evaṁ vutte, te māṇavakā unnādino uccāsaddamahāsaddā ahesuṁ: "dujjāto kira, bho, ambaṭṭho māṇavo; akulaputto kira, bho, ambaṭṭho māṇavo; dāsiputto kira, bho, ambaṭṭho māṇavo sakyānaṁ. Ayyaputtā kira, bho, ambaṭṭhassa māṇavassa sakyā bhavanti. Dhammavādiṁyeva kira mayaṁ samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ apasādetabbaṁ amaññimhā"ti.

28Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: "atibāḷhaṁ kho ime māṇavakā ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ dāsiputtavādena nimmādenti, yannūnāhaṁ parimoceyyan"ti. Atha kho bhagavā te māṇavake etadavoca: "Mā kho tumhe, māṇavakā, ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ atibāḷhaṁ dāsiputtavādena nimmādetha. Uḷāro so kaṇho isi ahosi. So dakkhiṇajanapadaṁ gantvā brahmamante adhīyitvā rājānaṁ okkākaṁ upasaṅkamitvā maddarūpiṁ dhītaraṁ yāci. Tassa rājā okkāko: 'ko nevaṁ re ayaṁ mayhaṁ dāsiputto samāno maddarūpiṁ dhītaraṁ yācatī'ti, kupito anattamano khurappaṁ sannayhi. So taṁ khurappaṁ neva asakkhi muñcituṁ, no paṭisaṁharituṁ.

29Atha kho, māṇavakā, amaccā pārisajjā kaṇhaṁ isiṁ upasaṅkamitvā etadavocuṁ: 'sotthi, bhaddante, hotu rañño; sotthi, bhaddante, hotu rañño'ti.

'Sotthi bhavissati rañño, api ca rājā yadi adho khurappaṁ muñcissati, yāvatā rañño vijitaṁ, ettāvatā pathavī undriyissatī'ti.

'Sotthi, bhaddante, hotu rañño, sotthi janapadassā'ti.

'Sotthi bhavissati rañño, sotthi janapadassa, api ca rājā yadi uddhaṁ khurappaṁ muñcissati, yāvatā rañño vijitaṁ, ettāvatā satta vassāni devo na vassissatī'ti.

'Sotthi, bhaddante, hotu rañño sotthi janapadassa devo ca vassatū'ti.

'Sotthi bhavissati rañño sotthi janapadassa devo ca vassissati, api ca rājā jeṭṭhakumāre khurappaṁ patiṭṭhāpetu, sotthi kumāro pallomo bhavissatī'ti. Atha kho, māṇavakā, amaccā okkākassa ārocesuṁ:

'Okkāko jeṭṭhakumāre khurappaṁ patiṭṭhāpetu. Sotthi kumāro pallomo bhavissatī'ti. Atha kho rājā okkāko jeṭṭhakumāre khurappaṁ patiṭṭhapesi, sotthi kumāro pallomo samabhavi. Atha kho tassa rājā okkāko bhīto saṁviggo lomahaṭṭhajāto brahmadaṇḍena tajjito maddarūpiṁ dhītaraṁ adāsi. Mā kho tumhe, māṇavakā, ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ atibāḷhaṁ dāsiputtavādena nimmādetha, uḷāro so kaṇho isi ahosī"ti.

3. Khattiyaseṭṭhabhāva

30Atha kho bhagavā ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ āmantesi: "taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, idha khattiyakumāro brāhmaṇakaññāya saddhiṁ saṁvāsaṁ kappeyya, tesaṁ saṁvāsamanvāya putto jāyetha. Yo so khattiyakumārena brāhmaṇakaññāya putto uppanno, api nu so labhetha brāhmaṇesu āsanaṁ vā udakaṁ vā"ti?

"Labhetha, bho gotama".


"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā bhojeyyuṁ saddhe vā thālipāke vā yaññe vā pāhune vā"ti?

"Bhojeyyuṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā mante vāceyyuṁ vā no vā"ti?


"Vāceyyuṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nussa itthīsu āvaṭaṁ vā assa anāvaṭaṁ vā"ti?

"Anāvaṭaṁ hissa, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ khattiyā khattiyābhisekena abhisiñceyyun"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


"Taṁ kissa hetu?"

"Mātito hi, bho gotama, anupapanno"ti.


31"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, idha brāhmaṇakumāro khattiyakaññāya saddhiṁ saṁvāsaṁ kappeyya, tesaṁ saṁvāsamanvāya putto jāyetha. Yo so brāhmaṇakumārena khattiyakaññāya putto uppanno, api nu so labhetha brāhmaṇesu āsanaṁ vā udakaṁ vā"ti?


"Labhetha, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā bhojeyyuṁ saddhe vā thālipāke vā yaññe vā pāhune vā"ti?

"Bhojeyyuṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā mante vāceyyuṁ vā no vā"ti?

"Vāceyyuṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nussa itthīsu āvaṭaṁ vā assa anāvaṭaṁ vā"ti?

"Anāvaṭaṁ hissa, bho gotama".


"Api nu naṁ khattiyā khattiyābhisekena abhisiñceyyun"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

"Taṁ kissa hetu"?


"Pitito hi, bho gotama, anupapanno"ti.


32"Iti kho, ambaṭṭha, itthiyā vā itthiṁ karitvā purisena vā purisaṁ karitvā khattiyāva seṭṭhā, hīnā brāhmaṇā.

Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, idha brāhmaṇā brāhmaṇaṁ kismiñcideva pakaraṇe khuramuṇḍaṁ karitvā bhassapuṭena vadhitvā raṭṭhā vā nagarā vā pabbājeyyuṁ. Api nu so labhetha brāhmaṇesu āsanaṁ vā udakaṁ vā"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā bhojeyyuṁ saddhe vā thālipāke vā yaññe vā pāhune vā"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā mante vāceyyuṁ vā no vā"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nussa itthīsu āvaṭaṁ vā assa anāvaṭaṁ vā"ti?

"Āvaṭaṁ hissa, bho gotama".


33"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, idha khattiyā khattiyaṁ kismiñcideva pakaraṇe khuramuṇḍaṁ karitvā bhassapuṭena vadhitvā raṭṭhā vā nagarā vā pabbājeyyuṁ. Api nu so labhetha brāhmaṇesu āsanaṁ vā udakaṁ vā"ti?

"Labhetha, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā bhojeyyuṁ saddhe vā thālipāke vā yaññe vā pāhune vā"ti?

"Bhojeyyuṁ, bho gotama".

"Api nu naṁ brāhmaṇā mante vāceyyuṁ vā no vā"ti?


"Vāceyyuṁ, bho gotama".


"Api nussa itthīsu āvaṭaṁ vā assa anāvaṭaṁ vā"ti?

"Anāvaṭaṁ hissa, bho gotama".

34"Ettāvatā kho, ambaṭṭha, khattiyo paramanihīnataṁ patto hoti, yadeva naṁ khattiyā khuramuṇḍaṁ karitvā bhassapuṭena vadhitvā raṭṭhā vā nagarā vā pabbājenti. Iti kho, ambaṭṭha, yadā khattiyo paramanihīnataṁ patto hoti, tadāpi khattiyāva seṭṭhā, hīnā brāhmaṇā.

Brahmunā pesā, ambaṭṭha, sanaṅkumārena gāthā bhāsitā:


35 'Khattiyo seṭṭho janetasmiṁ,
ye gottapaṭisārino;
Vijjācaraṇasampanno,
so seṭṭho devamānuse'ti.

36Sā kho panesā, ambaṭṭha, brahmunā sanaṅkumārena gāthā sugītā no duggītā, subhāsitā no dubbhāsitā, atthasaṁhitā no anatthasaṁhitā, anumatā mayā. Ahampi hi, ambaṭṭha, evaṁ vadāmi – 

37 Khattiyo seṭṭho janetasmiṁ,
ye gottapaṭisārino;
Vijjācaraṇasampanno,
so seṭṭho devamānuse"ti.

Bhāṇavāro paṭhamo.

4. Vijjācaraṇakathā

38"Katamaṁ pana taṁ, bho gotama, caraṇaṁ, katamā ca pana sā vijjā"ti?

"Na kho, ambaṭṭha, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya jātivādo vā vuccati, gottavādo vā vuccati, mānavādo vā vuccati: 'arahasi vā maṁ tvaṁ, na vā maṁ tvaṁ arahasī'ti. Yattha kho, ambaṭṭha, āvāho vā hoti, vivāho vā hoti, āvāhavivāho vā hoti, etthetaṁ vuccati jātivādo vā itipi gottavādo vā itipi mānavādo vā itipi: 'arahasi vā maṁ tvaṁ, na vā maṁ tvaṁ arahasī'ti. Ye hi keci, ambaṭṭha, jātivādavinibaddhā vā gottavādavinibaddhā vā mānavādavinibaddhā vā āvāhavivāhavinibaddhā vā, ārakā te anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya. Pahāya kho, ambaṭṭha, jātivādavinibaddhañca gottavādavinibaddhañca mānavādavinibaddhañca āvāhavivāhavinibaddhañca anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya sacchikiriyā hotī"ti.


39"Katamaṁ pana taṁ, bho gotama, caraṇaṁ, katamā ca sā vijjā"ti?

"Idha, ambaṭṭha, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā. So imaṁ lokaṁ sadevakaṁ samārakaṁ sabrahmakaṁ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṁ pajaṁ sadevamanussaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṁ deseti ādikalyāṇaṁ majjhekalyāṇaṁ pariyosānakalyāṇaṁ sātthaṁ sabyañjanaṁ kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ pakāseti. Taṁ dhammaṁ suṇāti gahapati vā gahapatiputto vā aññatarasmiṁ vā kule paccājāto. So taṁ dhammaṁ sutvā tathāgate saddhaṁ paṭilabhati. So tena saddhāpaṭilābhena samannāgato iti paṭisañcikkhati … pe …

40So vivicceva kāmehi, vivicca akusalehi dhammehi, savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati … pe … idampissa hoti caraṇasmiṁ.

41Puna caparaṁ, ambaṭṭha, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati … pe … idampissa hoti caraṇasmiṁ.

42Puna caparaṁ, ambaṭṭha, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti: 'upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī'ti, tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati … pe … idampissa hoti caraṇasmiṁ.

43Puna caparaṁ, ambaṭṭha, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā, pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati … pe … idampissa hoti caraṇasmiṁ. Idaṁ kho taṁ, ambaṭṭha, caraṇaṁ.

44So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte ñāṇadassanāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti … pe … idampissa hoti vijjāya … pe … nāparaṁ itthattāyāti pajānāti, idampissa hoti vijjāya. Ayaṁ kho sā, ambaṭṭha, vijjā.

45Ayaṁ vuccati, ambaṭṭha, bhikkhu 'vijjāsampanno' itipi, 'caraṇasampanno' itipi, 'vijjācaraṇasampanno' itipi. Imāya ca, ambaṭṭha, vijjāsampadāya caraṇasampadāya ca aññā vijjāsampadā ca caraṇasampadā ca uttaritarā vā paṇītatarā vā natthi.

5. Catuapāyamukha

46Imāya kho, ambaṭṭha, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya cattāri apāyamukhāni bhavanti. Katamāni cattāri?


Idha, ambaṭṭha, ekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā imaññeva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno khārividhamādāya araññāyatanaṁ ajjhogāhati: 'pavattaphalabhojano bhavissāmī'ti. So aññadatthu vijjācaraṇasampannasseva paricārako sampajjati. Imāya kho, ambaṭṭha, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya idaṁ paṭhamaṁ apāyamukhaṁ bhavati.

47Puna caparaṁ, ambaṭṭha, idhekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā imañceva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno pavattaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno kudālapiṭakaṁ ādāya araññavanaṁ ajjhogāhati: 'kandamūlaphalabhojano bhavissāmī'ti. So aññadatthu vijjācaraṇasampannasseva paricārako sampajjati. Imāya kho, ambaṭṭha, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya idaṁ dutiyaṁ apāyamukhaṁ bhavati.

48Puna caparaṁ, ambaṭṭha, idhekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā imañceva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno pavattaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno kandamūlaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno gāmasāmantaṁ vā nigamasāmantaṁ vā agyāgāraṁ karitvā aggiṁ paricaranto acchati. So aññadatthu vijjācaraṇasampannasseva paricārako sampajjati. Imāya kho, ambaṭṭha, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya idaṁ tatiyaṁ apāyamukhaṁ bhavati.

49Puna caparaṁ, ambaṭṭha, idhekacco samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā imaṁ ceva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno pavattaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno kandamūlaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno aggipāricariyañca anabhisambhuṇamāno cātumahāpathe catudvāraṁ agāraṁ karitvā acchati: 'yo imāhi catūhi disāhi āgamissati samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā, tamahaṁ yathāsatti yathābalaṁ paṭipūjessāmī'ti. So aññadatthu vijjācaraṇasampannasseva paricārako sampajjati. Imāya kho, ambaṭṭha, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya idaṁ catutthaṁ apāyamukhaṁ bhavati.

Imāya kho, ambaṭṭha, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya imāni cattāri apāyamukhāni bhavanti.


50Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, api nu tvaṁ imāya anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya sandissasi sācariyako"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama. Kocāhaṁ, bho gotama, sācariyako, kā ca anuttarā vijjācaraṇasampadā? Ārakāhaṁ, bho gotama, anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya sācariyako"ti.


51"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, api nu tvaṁ imañceva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno khārividhamādāya araññavanamajjhogāhasi sācariyako: 'pavattaphalabhojano bhavissāmī'"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

52"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, api nu tvaṁ imañceva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno pavattaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno kudālapiṭakaṁ ādāya araññavanamajjhogāhasi sācariyako: 'kandamūlaphalabhojano bhavissāmī'"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

53"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, api nu tvaṁ imañceva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno pavattaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno kandamūlaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno gāmasāmantaṁ vā nigamasāmantaṁ vā agyāgāraṁ karitvā aggiṁ paricaranto acchasi sācariyako"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


54"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, api nu tvaṁ imañceva anuttaraṁ vijjācaraṇasampadaṁ anabhisambhuṇamāno pavattaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno kandamūlaphalabhojanatañca anabhisambhuṇamāno aggipāricariyañca anabhisambhuṇamāno cātumahāpathe catudvāraṁ agāraṁ karitvā acchasi sācariyako: 'yo imāhi catūhi disāhi āgamissati samaṇo vā brāhmaṇo vā, taṁ mayaṁ yathāsatti yathābalaṁ paṭipūjessāmā'"ti?


"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

55"Iti kho, ambaṭṭha, imāya ceva tvaṁ anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya parihīno sācariyako. Ye cime anuttarāya vijjācaraṇasampadāya cattāri apāyamukhāni bhavanti, tato ca tvaṁ parihīno sācariyako. Bhāsitā kho pana te esā, ambaṭṭha, ācariyena brāhmaṇena pokkharasātinā vācā: 'ke ca muṇḍakā samaṇakā ibbhā kaṇhā bandhupādāpaccā, kā ca tevijjānaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ sākacchā'ti attanā āpāyikopi aparipūramāno. Passa, ambaṭṭha, yāva aparaddhañca te idaṁ ācariyassa brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa.

6. Pubbakaisibhāvānuyoga

56Brāhmaṇo kho pana, ambaṭṭha, pokkharasāti rañño pasenadissa kosalassa dattikaṁ bhuñjati. Tassa rājā pasenadi kosalo sammukhībhāvampi na dadāti. Yadāpi tena manteti, tirodussantena manteti. Yassa kho pana, ambaṭṭha, dhammikaṁ payātaṁ bhikkhaṁ paṭiggaṇheyya, kathaṁ tassa rājā pasenadi kosalo sammukhībhāvampi na dadeyya. Passa, ambaṭṭha, yāva aparaddhañca te idaṁ ācariyassa brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa.

57Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, idha rājā pasenadi kosalo hatthigīvāya vā nisinno assapiṭṭhe vā nisinno rathūpatthare vā ṭhito uggehi vā rājaññehi vā kiñcideva mantanaṁ manteyya. So tamhā padesā apakkamma ekamantaṁ tiṭṭheyya. Atha āgaccheyya suddo vā suddadāso vā, tasmiṁ padese ṭhito tadeva mantanaṁ manteyya: 'evampi rājā pasenadi kosalo āha, evampi rājā pasenadi kosalo āhā'ti. Api nu so rājabhaṇitaṁ vā bhaṇati rājamantanaṁ vā manteti? Ettāvatā so assa rājā vā rājamatto vā"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


58"Evameva kho tvaṁ, ambaṭṭha, ye te ahesuṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ pubbakā isayo mantānaṁ kattāro mantānaṁ pavattāro, yesamidaṁ etarahi brāhmaṇā porāṇaṁ mantapadaṁ gītaṁ pavuttaṁ samihitaṁ, tadanugāyanti tadanubhāsanti bhāsitamanubhāsanti vācitamanuvācenti, seyyathidaṁ— aṭṭhako vāmako vāmadevo vessāmitto yamataggi aṅgīraso bhāradvājo vāseṭṭho kassapo bhagu: 'tyāhaṁ mante adhiyāmi sācariyako'ti, tāvatā tvaṁ bhavissasi isi vā isitthāya vā paṭipannoti netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

59Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ambaṭṭha, kinti te sutaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ—ye te ahesuṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ pubbakā isayo mantānaṁ kattāro mantānaṁ pavattāro, yesamidaṁ etarahi brāhmaṇā porāṇaṁ mantapadaṁ gītaṁ pavuttaṁ samihitaṁ, tadanugāyanti tadanubhāsanti bhāsitamanubhāsanti vācitamanuvācenti, seyyathidaṁ—aṭṭhako vāmako vāmadevo vessāmitto yamataggi aṅgīraso bhāradvājo vāseṭṭho kassapo bhagu, evaṁ su te sunhātā suvilittā kappitakesamassū āmukkamaṇikuṇḍalābharaṇā odātavatthavasanā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitā samaṅgībhūtā paricārenti, seyyathāpi tvaṁ etarahi sācariyako"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


60" … pe … Evaṁ su te sālīnaṁ odanaṁ sucimaṁsūpasecanaṁ vicitakāḷakaṁ anekasūpaṁ anekabyañjanaṁ paribhuñjanti, seyyathāpi tvaṁ etarahi sācariyako"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


61" … pe … Evaṁ su te veṭhakanatapassāhi nārīhi paricārenti, seyyathāpi tvaṁ etarahi sācariyako"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


62" … pe … Evaṁ su te kuttavālehi vaḷavārathehi dīghāhi patodalaṭṭhīhi vāhane vitudentā vipariyāyanti, seyyathāpi tvaṁ etarahi sācariyako"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


63" … pe … Evaṁ su te ukkiṇṇaparikhāsu okkhittapalighāsu nagarūpakārikāsu dīghāsivudhehi purisehi rakkhāpenti, seyyathāpi tvaṁ etarahi sācariyako"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".


64"Iti kho, ambaṭṭha, neva tvaṁ isi na isitthāya paṭipanno sācariyako. Yassa kho pana, ambaṭṭha, mayi kaṅkhā vā vimati vā so maṁ pañhena, ahaṁ veyyākaraṇena sodhissāmī"ti.

7. Dvelakkhaṇādassana

65Atha kho bhagavā vihārā nikkhamma caṅkamaṁ abbhuṭṭhāsi. Ambaṭṭhopi māṇavo vihārā nikkhamma caṅkamaṁ abbhuṭṭhāsi. Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavantaṁ caṅkamantaṁ anucaṅkamamāno bhagavato kāye dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni samannesi. Addasā kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavato kāye dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni yebhuyyena ṭhapetvā dve. Dvīsu mahāpurisalakkhaṇesu kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati—kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahūtajivhatāya ca.


66Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: "passati kho me ayaṁ ambaṭṭho māṇavo dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni yebhuyyena ṭhapetvā dve. Dvīsu mahāpurisalakkhaṇesu kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati – kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahūtajivhatāya cā"ti. Atha kho bhagavā tathārūpaṁ iddhābhisaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkhāsi. Yathā addasa ambaṭṭho māṇavo bhagavato kosohitaṁ vatthaguyhaṁ. Atha kho bhagavā jivhaṁ ninnāmetvā ubhopi kaṇṇasotāni anumasi paṭimasi, ubhopi nāsikasotāni anumasi paṭimasi, kevalampi nalāṭamaṇḍalaṁ jivhāya chādesi. Atha kho ambaṭṭhassa māṇavassa etadahosi:


"Samannāgato kho samaṇo gotamo dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi paripuṇṇehi, no aparipuṇṇehī"ti. Bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "handa ca dāni mayaṁ, bho gotama, gacchāma, bahukiccā mayaṁ bahukaraṇīyā"ti. "Yassadāni tvaṁ, ambaṭṭha, kālaṁ maññasī"ti.

Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo vaḷavārathamāruyha pakkāmi.


67Tena kho pana samayena brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti ukkaṭṭhāya nikkhamitvā mahatā brāhmaṇagaṇena saddhiṁ sake ārāme nisinno hoti ambaṭṭhaṁyeva māṇavaṁ paṭimānento. Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo yena sako ārāmo tena pāyāsi. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi, yānena gantvā yānā paccorohitvā pattikova yena brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā brāhmaṇaṁ pokkharasātiṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi.

68Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti etadavoca:


"Kacci, tāta ambaṭṭha, addasa taṁ bhavantaṁ gotaman"ti?

"Addasāma kho mayaṁ, bho, taṁ bhavantaṁ gotaman"ti.

"Kacci, tāta ambaṭṭha, taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ tathā santaṁyeva saddo abbhuggato no aññathā; kacci pana so bhavaṁ gotamo tādiso no aññādiso"ti?

"Tathā santaṁyeva, bho, taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ saddo abbhuggato no aññathā, tādisova so bhavaṁ gotamo no aññādiso. Samannāgato ca so bhavaṁ gotamo dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi paripuṇṇehi no aparipuṇṇehī"ti.

"Ahu pana te, tāta ambaṭṭha, samaṇena gotamena saddhiṁ kocideva kathāsallāpo"ti?

"Ahu kho me, bho, samaṇena gotamena saddhiṁ kocideva kathāsallāpo"ti.

"Yathā kathaṁ pana te, tāta ambaṭṭha, ahu samaṇena gotamena saddhiṁ kocideva kathāsallāpo"ti? Atha kho ambaṭṭho māṇavo yāvatako ahosi bhagavatā saddhiṁ kathāsallāpo, taṁ sabbaṁ brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa ārocesi.


69Evaṁ vutte, brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca: "aho vata re amhākaṁ, paṇḍitaka, aho vata re amhākaṁ, bahussutaka, aho vata re amhākaṁ, tevijjaka, evarūpena kira, bho, puriso atthacarakena kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjeyya. Yadeva kho tvaṁ, ambaṭṭha, taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ evaṁ āsajja āsajja avacāsi, atha kho so bhavaṁ gotamo amhepi evaṁ upaneyya upaneyya avaca. Aho vata re amhākaṁ, paṇḍitaka, aho vata re amhākaṁ, bahussutaka, aho vata re amhākaṁ, tevijjaka, evarūpena kira, bho, puriso atthacarakena kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjeyyā"ti, kupito anattamano ambaṭṭhaṁ māṇavaṁ padasāyeva pavattesi. Icchati ca tāvadeva bhagavantaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṁ.

8. Pokkharasātibuddhūpasaṅkamana

70Atha kho te brāhmaṇā brāhmaṇaṁ pokkharasātiṁ etadavocuṁ: "ativikālo kho, bho, ajja samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamituṁ. Svedāni bhavaṁ pokkharasāti samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ dassanāya upasaṅkamissatī"ti.

Atha kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti sake nivesane paṇītaṁ khādanīyaṁ bhojanīyaṁ paṭiyādāpetvā yāne āropetvā ukkāsu dhāriyamānāsu ukkaṭṭhāya niyyāsi, yena icchānaṅgalavanasaṇḍo tena pāyāsi. Yāvatikā yānassa bhūmi yānena gantvā, yānā paccorohitvā pattikova yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami. Upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodi, sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi.

71Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:

"Āgamā nu khvidha, bho gotama, amhākaṁ antevāsī ambaṭṭho māṇavo"ti?

"Āgamā kho te, brāhmaṇa, antevāsī ambaṭṭho māṇavo"ti.


"Ahu pana te, bho gotama, ambaṭṭhena māṇavena saddhiṁ kocideva kathāsallāpo"ti?

"Ahu kho me, brāhmaṇa, ambaṭṭhena māṇavena saddhiṁ kocideva kathāsallāpo"ti.

"Yathākathaṁ pana te, bho gotama, ahu ambaṭṭhena māṇavena saddhiṁ kocideva kathāsallāpo"ti?


Atha kho bhagavā yāvatako ahosi ambaṭṭhena māṇavena saddhiṁ kathāsallāpo, taṁ sabbaṁ brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa ārocesi. Evaṁ vutte, brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:

"Bālo, bho gotama, ambaṭṭho māṇavo, khamatu bhavaṁ gotamo ambaṭṭhassa māṇavassā"ti. "Sukhī hotu, brāhmaṇa, ambaṭṭho māṇavo"ti.


72Atha kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavato kāye dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni samannesi. Addasā kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavato kāye dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni yebhuyyena ṭhapetvā dve. Dvīsu mahāpurisalakkhaṇesu kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati—kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahūtajivhatāya ca.

73Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: "passati kho me ayaṁ brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇāni yebhuyyena ṭhapetvā dve. Dvīsu mahāpurisalakkhaṇesu kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati – kosohite ca vatthaguyhe pahūtajivhatāya cā"ti. Atha kho bhagavā tathārūpaṁ iddhābhisaṅkhāraṁ abhisaṅkhāsi yathā addasa brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavato kosohitaṁ vatthaguyhaṁ. Atha kho bhagavā jivhaṁ ninnāmetvā ubhopi kaṇṇasotāni anumasi paṭimasi, ubhopi nāsikasotāni anumasi paṭimasi, kevalampi nalāṭamaṇḍalaṁ jivhāya chādesi.

74Atha kho brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa etadahosi: "samannāgato kho samaṇo gotamo dvattiṁsamahāpurisalakkhaṇehi paripuṇṇehi no aparipuṇṇehī"ti. Bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "adhivāsetu me bhavaṁ gotamo ajjatanāya bhattaṁ saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṅghenā"ti. Adhivāsesi bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena.


75Atha kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavato adhivāsanaṁ viditvā bhagavato kālaṁ ārocesi: "kālo, bho gotama, niṭṭhitaṁ bhattan"ti. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṅghena yena brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Atha kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavantaṁ paṇītena khādanīyena bhojanīyena sahatthā santappesi sampavāresi, māṇavakāpi bhikkhusaṅghaṁ. Atha kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti bhagavantaṁ bhuttāviṁ onītapattapāṇiṁ aññataraṁ nīcaṁ āsanaṁ gahetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi.

76Ekamantaṁ nisinnassa kho brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa bhagavā anupubbiṁ kathaṁ kathesi, seyyathidaṁ—dānakathaṁ sīlakathaṁ saggakathaṁ; kāmānaṁ ādīnavaṁ okāraṁ saṅkilesaṁ, nekkhamme ānisaṁsaṁ pakāsesi. Yadā bhagavā aññāsi brāhmaṇaṁ pokkharasātiṁ kallacittaṁ muducittaṁ vinīvaraṇacittaṁ udaggacittaṁ pasannacittaṁ, atha yā buddhānaṁ sāmukkaṁsikā dhammadesanā, taṁ pakāsesi – dukkhaṁ samudayaṁ nirodhaṁ maggaṁ. Seyyathāpi nāma suddhaṁ vatthaṁ apagatakāḷakaṁ sammadeva rajanaṁ paṭiggaṇheyya; evameva brāhmaṇassa pokkharasātissa tasmiññeva āsane virajaṁ vītamalaṁ dhammacakkhuṁ udapādi: "yaṁ kiñci samudayadhammaṁ sabbaṁ taṁ nirodhadhamman"ti.

9. Pokkharasātiupāsakattapaṭivedanā

77Atha kho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti diṭṭhadhammo pattadhammo viditadhammo pariyogāḷhadhammo tiṇṇavicikiccho vigatakathaṁkatho vesārajjappatto aparappaccayo satthusāsane bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:

"Abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama, abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama. Seyyathāpi, bho gotama, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: 'cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī'ti; evamevaṁ bhotā gotamena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ, bho gotama, saputto sabhariyo sapariso sāmacco bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṁghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhavaṁ gotamo dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gataṁ. Yathā ca bhavaṁ gotamo ukkaṭṭhāya aññāni upāsakakulāni upasaṅkamati, evameva bhavaṁ gotamo pokkharasātikulaṁ upasaṅkamatu. Tattha ye te māṇavakā vā māṇavikā vā bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ abhivādessanti vā paccuṭṭhissanti vā āsanaṁ vā udakaṁ vā dassanti cittaṁ vā pasādessanti, tesaṁ taṁ bhavissati dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāyā"ti.

"Kalyāṇaṁ vuccati, brāhmaṇā"ti.

Ambaṭṭhasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ tatiyaṁ.