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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN11: Kevaddha Sutta – With Kevaddha

What Brahma Didn't Know

1Thus have I heard. Once the Lord was staying at Nālanda, in Pāvārika's mango grove. And the householder Kevaddha[n.230] Or Kevatta ('Fisher') as several manuscripts have it. RD admits that 'it may turn out to be the better of the two.' came to the Lord, prostrated himself before him, and sat down to one side. He then said: 'Lord, this Nāḷandā is rich, prosperous, populous, and full of people who have faith in the Lord. It would be well if the Lord were to cause some monk to perform superhuman feats and miracles. In this way Nāḷandā would come to have even more faith in the Lord.'

The Lord replied: 'Kevaddha, this is not the way I teach Dhamma to the monks, by saying: "Go, monks, and perform superhuman feats and miracles for the white-clothed lay-people! '


2For a second time Kevaddha said: 'Lord, I would not be importunate, but I still say: "This Nalanda is rich, prosperous … and would come to have even more faith in the Lord."' And the Lord replied as before.

3When Kevaddha repeated his request for a third time, the Lord said:

Miracles

4'Kevaddha, there are three kinds of miracle that I have declared, having realised them by my own insight. Which three? The miracle of psychic power,[n.231] Iddhi-pāṭihāriya: 'miracle of iddhi' (see n.128). the miracle of telepathy,[n.232] Ādesanā-pāṭihāriya. This is actual telepathy, not the same as manesika 'mind-searching' or guessing another's thoughts mentioned in n.31. the miracle of instruction.[n.233] Anusāsani-pāṭihāriya. The Buddha’s teaching can be called miraculous because it leads to the most wonderful results.


5–7'What is the miracle of psychic power? Here, Kevaddha, a monk displays various psychic powers in different ways. Being one he becomes many, he becomes many and having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space; he dives in and out of the earth as if it were water; he walks on water without sinking as if it were earth; sitting cross-legged he travels through space like a winged bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the sun and the moon, so mighty and powerful; he exercises mastery over the body as far as the Brahma-world.

Then someone who has faith and trust sees him doing these things.


8'He tells this to someone else who is sceptical and unbelieving, saying: "It is wonderful, sir, it is marvellous, the great power and skill of that ascetic …" And that man might say: "Sir, there is something called the Gandhāra charm.[n.234] A charm for making oneself invisible. It is by means of this that that monk becomes many…"

9What do you think, Kevaddha, would not a sceptic say that to a believer?' 'He would, Lord.' 'And that is why, Kevaddha, seeing the danger of such miracles, I dislike, reject and despise them.

Knowing Another's Mind

10–11'And what is the miracle of telepathy? Here, a monk reads the minds of other beings, of other people, reads their mental states, their thoughts and ponderings, and says: "That is how your mind is, that is how it inclines, that is in your heart." Then someone who has faith and trust sees him doing these things.


12–13'He tells this to someone else who is sceptical and unbelieving, saying: "It is wonderful, sir, it is marvellous, the great power and skill of that ascetic …" And that man might say: "Sir, there is something called the Manika charm.[n.235] Or cintamani vijjā (DA), the 'jewel of thought' charm which enabled one to know the thoughts of others. The sceptic, of course, does not have a really convincing way of explaining things away. Modem parallels suggest themselves. It is by means of this that that monk can read the minds of others …" And that is why, seeing the danger of such miracles, I… despise them.

Instruction

14'And what is the miracle of instruction? Here, Kevaddha, a monk gives instruction as follows: "Consider in this way, don't consider in that, direct your mind this way, not that way, give up that, gain this and persevere in it." That, Kevaddha, is called the miracle of instruction.

15'Again, Kevaddha, a Tathāgata arises in the world, an Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha, endowed with wisdom and conduct, Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, incomparable Trainer of men to be tamed, Teacher of gods and humans, enlightened and blessed. He, having realised it by his own super-knowledge, proclaims this world with its devas, māras and Brahmās, its princes and people. He preaches the Dhamma which is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle, lovely in its ending, in the spirit and in the letter, and displays the fully-perfected and purified holy life. A disciple goes forth and practises the moralities Sutta 2, verses 41–63. He guards the sense-doors and attains the four jhānas Sutta 2, verses 64–82; he attains various insights Sutta 2, verses 83–84; he realises the Four Noble Truths, the path and the cessation of the corruptions Sutta 2, verses 85–97,[n.236] Omitting DN 2.85–96, which deal with the powers disparagingly mentioned in verse 4ff. and he knows: "…There is nothing further here." That, Kevaddha, is called the miracle of instruction.

16'And I, Kevaddha, have experienced these three miracles by my own super-knowledge.

Ceasing Without Remainder

17Once, Kevaddha, in this order of monks the thought occurred to a certain monk: "I wonder where the four great elements — the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the air element — cease without remainder."


18And that monk attained to such a state of mental concentration that the way to the deva-realms appeared before him.

'Then, coming to the Realm of the devas of the Four Great Kings,[n.237] For all these realms and their inhabitants (verses 68–81) see Introduction p. 38f. he asked those devas: "Friends, where do the four great elements -- earth, water, fire and air — cease without remainder?"

19At this question the devas of the Four Great Kings said to him: "Monk, we don't know where the four great elements cease without remainder. But the Four Great Kings are loftier and wiser than we are. They may know where the four great elements cease … "


20'So that monk went to the Four Great Kings and asked the same question, but they replied: "We don't know, but the Thirty-Three Gods may know…"


21'So that monk went to the Thirty-Three Gods, who said: "We don't know, but Sakka, lord of the gods, may know…"


22'Sakka, lord of the gods, said: "The Yāma devas may know … "

'The Yama devas said: "Suyāma, son of the devas,[n.238] Devaputta here denotes the ruler of a certain group of devas. In other contexts it simply means 'male deva'. may know … "

'Suyama said: "The Tusita devas may know…"

'The Tusita devas said: "Santusita, son of the devas, may know…"

'Santusita said: "The Nimmanarati devas may know…"

'The Nimmanarati devas said: "Sunimmita, son of the devas, may know…"

'Sunimitta said: "The Paranimmita-Vasavatti devas may know…"

'The Paranimmita-Vasavatti devas said: "Vasavatti, son of the devas, may know…"


'Vasavatti said: "The devas of Brahmā's retinue may know … "


24'Then that monk, by the appropriate concentration, made the way to the Brahmā world appear before him. He went to the devas of Brahmā's retinue and asked them. They said: "We don't know. But there is Brahmā, Great Brahmā, the Conqueror, the Unconquered, the All-Seeing, All-Powerful, the Lord, the Maker and Creator, the Ruler, Appointer and Orderer, Father of All That Have Been and Shall Be. He is loftier and wiser than we are. He would know where the four great elements cease without remainder."

25"And where, friends, is this Great Brahmā now?" "Monk, we do not know when, how and where Brahmā will appear. But when the signs are seen — when a light appears and a radiance shines forth — then Brahmā will appear. Such signs are an indication that he will appear."

Then it was not long before the Great Brahmā appeared.


26And that monk went up to him and said: "Friend, where do the four great elements — earth, water, fire, air — cease without remainder?" to which the Great Brahmā replied: "Monk, I am Brahmā, Great Brahmā, the Conqueror, the Unconquered, the All-Seeing, All-Powerful, the Lord, the Maker and Creator, the Ruler, Appointer and Orderer, Father of All That Have Been and Shall Be."


27'A second time the monk said: "Friend, I did not ask if you are Brahmā, Great Brahmā … I asked you where the four great elements cease without remainder."

28And a second time the Great Brahmā replied as before.

'And a third time the monk said: "Friend, I did not ask you that, I asked where the four great elements — earth, water, fire, air — cease without remainder."


29Then, Kevaddha, the Great Brahmā took that monk by the arm, led him aside and said: "Monk, these devas believe there is nothing Brahmā does not see, there is nothing he does not know, there is nothing he is unaware of. That is why I did not speak in front of them. But, monk, I don't know where the four great elements cease without remainder. And therefore, monk, you have acted wrongly, you have acted incorrectly by going beyond the Blessed Lord and going in search of an answer to this question elsewhere. Now, monk, you just go to the Blessed Lord and put this question to him, and whatever answer he gives, accept it."

30'So that monk, as swiftly as a strong man might flex or unflex his arm, vanished from the Brahma world and appeared in my presence. He prostrated himself before me, then sat down to one side and said: "Lord, where do the four great elements — the earth element, the water element, the fire element and the air element — cease without remainder?"

Parable of the Land-Sighting Bird

31'I replied: "Monk, once upon a time seafaring merchants, when they set sail on the ocean, took in their ship a land-sighting bird. When they could not see the land themselves, they released this bird. The bird flew to the east, to the south, to the west, to the north, it flew to the zenith and to the intermediate points of the compass. If it saw land anywhere, it flew there. But if it saw no land, it returned to the ship. In the same way, monk, you have been as far as the Brahma world searching for an answer to your question and not finding it, and now you come back to me. But, monk, you should not ask your question in this way: 'Where do the four great elements — the earth element, the water element, the fire element, the air element — cease without remainder?'

32Instead, this is how the question should have been put:


33'Where do water, earth,
fire and air no footing find?
Where are long and short,
small and great, fair and foul
Where are "name-and-form"
wholly destroyed?'[n.239] Mind and body, i.e. 'subject and object' (Neumann quoted by RD).

34And the answer is:

35'Where consciousness is signless,[n.240] Anidassanaṁ: or 'invisible'. Ñāṇananda renders it 'non-manifesting'. boundless, all-luminous,[n.241] This word (pabhaṁ or pahaṁ) has been variously interpreted. DA takes it in the sense of a ford, or a place to enter the water 'accessible from all sides', by means of which one can reach Nibbāna. There is an improbable suggestion that the meaning is 'rejecting', and Mrs Bennett translates the line: 'Where the consciousness that makes endless comparisons is entirely abandoned', which seems to involve a misunderstanding of anidassanaṁ. (But see next note). The same sequence also occurs at MN 49.11 rendered by I.B. Horner (MLS i, 392): 'Discriminative consciousness (= viññāṇaṁ) which cannot be characterised (= anidassanaṁ), which is unending, lucid in every respect (= sabbato pabhaṁ).' The two passages should be studied in conjunction. Cf. also AN 1.6: 'This mind (citta) is luminous, but is defiled by adventitious defilements.' See important discussion by Ñāṇananda, 57–63.

That's where water, earth,
fire and air find no footing.

36There both long and short,
small and great, fair and foul
There "name-and-form"
are wholly destroyed.
With the cessation of consciousness
this is all destroyed."[n.242] G.C. Pande (Studies in the Origins of Buddhism, 92, note 21) says: 'Buddha says that the question should not be asked in the manner in which it is done in the prose quotation above, but thus — as in the metrical lines that follow. One may pertinently ask: "Why? what is wrong with the prose formulation?" The only answer would seem to be: "Nothing. But the verses have to be brought in!".Ñāṇananda (Concept and Reality, 59) explains it thus: 'The last line of the verse stresses the fact that the four great elements do not find a footing — and that 'Name-and-Form' (comprehending them) can be cut-off completely — in that 'anidassana-viññāṇa' (the 'nonmanifestative consciousness') of the Arahant, by the cessation of his normal consciousness which rests on the data of sense-experience. This is a corrective to that monk's notion that the four elements can cease altogether somewhere — a notion which has its roots in the popular conception of self-existing material elements. The Buddha’s reformulation of the original question and this concluding line are meant to combat this wrong notion.'

37Thus the Lord spoke, and the householder Kevaddha, delighted, rejoiced at his words.

 

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā nāḷandāyaṁ viharati pāvārikambavane. Atha kho kevaṭṭo gahapatiputto yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho kevaṭṭo gahapatiputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, bhante, nāḷandā iddhā ceva phītā ca bahujanā ākiṇṇamanussā bhagavati abhippasannā. Sādhu, bhante, bhagavā ekaṁ bhikkhuṁ samādisatu, yo uttari manussadhammā iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ karissati; evāyaṁ nāḷandā bhiyyoso mattāya bhagavati abhippasīdissatī"ti. Evaṁ vutte, bhagavā kevaṭṭaṁ gahapatiputtaṁ etadavoca:

"na kho ahaṁ, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ dhammaṁ desemi: 'etha tumhe, bhikkhave, gihīnaṁ odātavasanānaṁ uttari manussadhammā iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ karothā'"ti.


2Dutiyampi kho kevaṭṭo gahapatiputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "nāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ dhaṁsemi; api ca evaṁ vadāmi: 'ayaṁ, bhante, nāḷandā iddhā ceva phītā ca bahujanā ākiṇṇamanussā bhagavati abhippasannā. Sādhu, bhante, bhagavā ekaṁ bhikkhuṁ samādisatu, yo uttari manussadhammā iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ karissati; evāyaṁ nāḷandā bhiyyoso mattāya bhagavati abhippasīdissatī'"ti. Dutiyampi kho bhagavā kevaṭṭaṁ gahapatiputtaṁ etadavoca: "na kho ahaṁ, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhūnaṁ evaṁ dhammaṁ desemi: 'etha tumhe, bhikkhave, gihīnaṁ odātavasanānaṁ uttari manussadhammā iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ karothā'"ti.

3Tatiyampi kho kevaṭṭo gahapatiputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "nāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ dhaṁsemi; api ca evaṁ vadāmi: 'ayaṁ, bhante, nāḷandā iddhā ceva phītā ca bahujanā ākiṇṇamanussā bhagavati abhippasannā. Sādhu, bhante, bhagavā ekaṁ bhikkhuṁ samādisatu, yo uttari manussadhammā iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ karissati. Evāyaṁ nāḷandā bhiyyoso mattāya bhagavati abhippasīdissatī'"ti.

1. Iddhipāṭihāriya

4"Tīṇi kho imāni, kevaṭṭa, pāṭihāriyāni mayā sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā paveditāni. Katamāni tīṇi? Iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ, ādesanāpāṭihāriyaṁ, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ.


5Katamañca, kevaṭṭa, iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ? Idha, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhoti—ekopi hutvā bahudhā hoti, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hoti; āvibhāvaṁ tirobhāvaṁ tirokuṭṭaṁ tiropākāraṁ tiropabbataṁ asajjamāno gacchati seyyathāpi ākāse; pathaviyāpi ummujjanimujjaṁ karoti seyyathāpi udake; udakepi abhijjamāne gacchati seyyathāpi pathaviyaṁ; ākāsepi pallaṅkena kamati seyyathāpi pakkhī sakuṇo; imepi candimasūriye evaṁ mahiddhike evaṁ mahānubhāve pāṇinā parāmasati parimajjati; yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vatteti.

6Tamenaṁ aññataro saddho pasanno passati taṁ bhikkhuṁ anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhontaṁ—ekopi hutvā bahudhā hontaṁ, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hontaṁ; āvibhāvaṁ tirobhāvaṁ; tirokuṭṭaṁ tiropākāraṁ tiropabbataṁ asajjamānaṁ gacchantaṁ seyyathāpi ākāse; pathaviyāpi ummujjanimujjaṁ karontaṁ seyyathāpi udake; udakepi abhijjamāne gacchantaṁ seyyathāpi pathaviyaṁ; ākāsepi pallaṅkena kamantaṁ seyyathāpi pakkhī sakuṇo; imepi candimasūriye evaṁ mahiddhike evaṁ mahānubhāve pāṇinā parāmasantaṁ parimajjantaṁ yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vattentaṁ.

7Tamenaṁ so saddho pasanno aññatarassa assaddhassa appasannassa āroceti: 'acchariyaṁ vata bho, abbhutaṁ vata bho, samaṇassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā. Amāhaṁ bhikkhuṁ addasaṁ anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhontaṁ—ekopi hutvā bahudhā hontaṁ, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hontaṁ … pe … yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vattentan'ti.


8Tamenaṁ so assaddho appasanno taṁ saddhaṁ pasannaṁ evaṁ vadeyya: 'atthi kho, bho, gandhārī nāma vijjā. Tāya so bhikkhu anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhoti—ekopi hutvā bahudhā hoti, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hoti … pe … yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vattetī'ti.

9Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, kevaṭṭa, api nu so assaddho appasanno taṁ saddhaṁ pasannaṁ evaṁ vadeyyā"ti? "Vadeyya, bhante"ti. "Imaṁ kho ahaṁ, kevaṭṭa, iddhipāṭihāriye ādīnavaṁ sampassamāno iddhipāṭihāriyena aṭṭīyāmi harāyāmi jigucchāmi.

2. Ādesanāpāṭihāriya

10Katamañca, kevaṭṭa, ādesanāpāṭihāriyaṁ? Idha, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cittampi ādisati, cetasikampi ādisati, vitakkitampi ādisati, vicāritampi ādisati: 'evampi te mano, itthampi te mano, itipi te cittan'ti.

11Tamenaṁ aññataro saddho pasanno passati taṁ bhikkhuṁ parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cittampi ādisantaṁ, cetasikampi ādisantaṁ, vitakkitampi ādisantaṁ, vicāritampi ādisantaṁ: 'evampi te mano, itthampi te mano, itipi te cittan'ti. Tamenaṁ so saddho pasanno aññatarassa assaddhassa appasannassa āroceti: 'acchariyaṁ vata bho, abbhutaṁ vata bho, samaṇassa mahiddhikatā mahānubhāvatā. Amāhaṁ bhikkhuṁ addasaṁ parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cittampi ādisantaṁ, cetasikampi ādisantaṁ, vitakkitampi ādisantaṁ, vicāritampi ādisantaṁ: "evampi te mano, itthampi te mano, itipi te cittan"'ti.


12Tamenaṁ so assaddho appasanno taṁ saddhaṁ pasannaṁ evaṁ vadeyya: 'atthi kho, bho, maṇikā nāma vijjā; tāya so bhikkhu parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cittampi ādisati, cetasikampi ādisati, vitakkitampi ādisati, vicāritampi ādisati: "evampi te mano, itthampi te mano, itipi te cittan"'ti.

13Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, kevaṭṭa, api nu so assaddho appasanno taṁ saddhaṁ pasannaṁ evaṁ vadeyyā"ti? "Vadeyya, bhante"ti. "Imaṁ kho ahaṁ, kevaṭṭa, ādesanāpāṭihāriye ādīnavaṁ sampassamāno ādesanāpāṭihāriyena aṭṭīyāmi harāyāmi jigucchāmi.

3. Anusāsanīpāṭihāriya

14Katamañca, kevaṭṭa, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ? Idha, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu evamanusāsati: 'evaṁ vitakketha, mā evaṁ vitakkayittha, evaṁ manasikarotha, mā evaṁ manasākattha, idaṁ pajahatha, idaṁ upasampajja viharathā'ti. Idaṁ vuccati, kevaṭṭa, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ.

15Puna caparaṁ, kevaṭṭa, idha tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho … pe … Evaṁ kho, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti … pe … paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Idampi vuccati, kevaṭṭa, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ … pe … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ … pe … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ … pe … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Idampi vuccati, kevaṭṭa, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ … pe … ñāṇadassanāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti … pe … idampi vuccati, kevaṭṭa, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ … pe … nāparaṁ itthattāyāti pajānāti … pe … idampi vuccati, kevaṭṭa, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ.

16Imāni kho, kevaṭṭa, tīṇi pāṭihāriyāni mayā sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā paveditāni.

4. Bhūtanirodhesakabhikkhuvatthu

17Bhūtapubbaṁ, kevaṭṭa, imasmiññeva bhikkhusaṅghe aññatarassa bhikkhuno evaṁ cetaso parivitakko udapādi: 'kattha nu kho ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti?


18Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu tathārūpaṁ samādhiṁ samāpajji, yathāsamāhite citte devayāniyo maggo pāturahosi.

Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu yena cātumahārājikā devā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā cātumahārājike deve etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti?

19Evaṁ vutte, kevaṭṭa, cātumahārājikā devā taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavocuṁ: 'mayampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāma: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"ti. Atthi kho, bhikkhu, cattāro mahārājāno amhehi abhikkantatarā ca paṇītatarā ca. Te kho etaṁ jāneyyuṁ: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ— pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti.


20Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu yena cattāro mahārājāno tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā cattāro mahārāje etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti? Evaṁ vutte, kevaṭṭa, cattāro mahārājāno taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavocuṁ: 'mayampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāma: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"ti. Atthi kho, bhikkhu, tāvatiṁsā nāma devā amhehi abhikkantatarā ca paṇītatarā ca. Te kho etaṁ jāneyyuṁ: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti.


21Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu yena tāvatiṁsā devā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā tāvatiṁse deve etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti? Evaṁ vutte, kevaṭṭa, tāvatiṁsā devā taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavocuṁ: 'mayampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāma: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"ti. Atthi kho, bhikkhu, sakko nāma devānamindo amhehi abhikkantataro ca paṇītataro ca. So kho etaṁ jāneyya: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti.


22Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu yena sakko devānamindo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā sakkaṁ devānamindaṁ etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti? Evaṁ vutte, kevaṭṭa, sakko devānamindo taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavoca: 'ahampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāmi: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"ti. Atthi kho, bhikkhu, tusitā nāma devā … sunimmito nāma devaputto … paranimmitavasavattī nāma devā … vasavattī nāma devaputto amhehi abhikkantataro ca paṇītataro ca. So kho etaṁ jāneyya: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti.


23Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu yena vasavattī devaputto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā vasavattiṁ devaputtaṁ etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti? Evaṁ vutte, kevaṭṭa, vasavattī devaputto taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavoca: 'ahampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāmi: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"ti. Atthi kho, bhikkhu, brahmakāyikā nāma devā amhehi abhikkantatarā ca paṇītatarā ca. Te kho etaṁ jāneyyuṁ: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti.


24Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu tathārūpaṁ samādhiṁ samāpajji, yathāsamāhite citte brahmayāniyo maggo pāturahosi. Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu yena brahmakāyikā devā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā brahmakāyike deve etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti? Evaṁ vutte, kevaṭṭa, brahmakāyikā devā taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavocuṁ: 'mayampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāma: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ— pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"ti. Atthi kho, bhikkhu, brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānaṁ amhehi abhikkantataro ca paṇītataro ca. So kho etaṁ jāneyya: "yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti.

25'Kahaṁ panāvuso, etarahi so mahābrahmā'ti? 'Mayampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāma, yattha vā brahmā yena vā brahmā yahiṁ vā brahmā; api ca, bhikkhu, yathā nimittā dissanti, āloko sañjāyati, obhāso pātubhavati, brahmā pātubhavissati, brahmuno hetaṁ pubbanimittaṁ pātubhāvāya, yadidaṁ āloko sañjāyati, obhāso pātubhavatī'ti.

Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, mahābrahmā nacirasseva pāturahosi.


26Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu yena so mahābrahmā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā taṁ mahābrahmānaṁ etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti? Evaṁ vutte, kevaṭṭa, so mahābrahmā taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavoca: 'ahamasmi, bhikkhu, brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānan'ti.


27Dutiyampi kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu taṁ mahābrahmānaṁ etadavoca: 'na khohaṁ taṁ, āvuso, evaṁ pucchāmi: "tvamasi brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānan"ti. Evañca kho ahaṁ taṁ, āvuso, pucchāmi: "kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti?

28Dutiyampi kho so, kevaṭṭa, mahābrahmā taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavoca: 'ahamasmi, bhikkhu, brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānan'ti.

Tatiyampi kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu taṁ mahābrahmānaṁ etadavoca: 'na khohaṁ taṁ, āvuso, evaṁ pucchāmi: "tvamasi brahmā mahābrahmā abhibhū anabhibhūto aññadatthudaso vasavattī issaro kattā nimmātā seṭṭho sajitā vasī pitā bhūtabhabyānan"ti. Evañca kho ahaṁ taṁ, āvuso, pucchāmi: "kattha nu kho, āvuso, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū"'ti?


29Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, mahābrahmā taṁ bhikkhuṁ bāhāyaṁ gahetvā ekamantaṁ apanetvā taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavoca: 'ime kho maṁ, bhikkhu, brahmakāyikā devā evaṁ jānanti, "natthi kiñci brahmuno aññātaṁ, natthi kiñci brahmuno adiṭṭhaṁ, natthi kiñci brahmuno aviditaṁ, natthi kiñci brahmuno asacchikatan"ti. Tasmāhaṁ tesaṁ sammukhā na byākāsiṁ. Ahampi kho, bhikkhu, na jānāmi yatthime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātūti. Tasmātiha, bhikkhu, tuyhevetaṁ dukkaṭaṁ, tuyhevetaṁ aparaddhaṁ, yaṁ tvaṁ taṁ bhagavantaṁ atidhāvitvā bahiddhā pariyeṭṭhiṁ āpajjasi imassa pañhassa veyyākaraṇāya. Gaccha tvaṁ, bhikkhu, tameva bhagavantaṁ upasaṅkamitvā imaṁ pañhaṁ puccha, yathā ca te bhagavā byākaroti, tathā naṁ dhāreyyāsī'ti.

30Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu—seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṁ vā bāhaṁ pasāreyya, pasāritaṁ vā bāhaṁ samiñjeyya; evameva brahmaloke antarahito mama purato pāturahosi. Atha kho so, kevaṭṭa, bhikkhu maṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi, ekamantaṁ nisinno kho, kevaṭṭa, so bhikkhu maṁ etadavoca: 'kattha nu kho, bhante, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ— pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti?

4.1. Tīradassisakuṇupamā

31Evaṁ vutte, ahaṁ, kevaṭṭa, taṁ bhikkhuṁ etadavocaṁ—bhūtapubbaṁ, bhikkhu, sāmuddikā vāṇijā tīradassiṁ sakuṇaṁ gahetvā nāvāya samuddaṁ ajjhogāhanti. Te atīradakkhiniyā nāvāya tīradassiṁ sakuṇaṁ muñcanti. So gacchateva puratthimaṁ disaṁ, gacchati dakkhiṇaṁ disaṁ, gacchati pacchimaṁ disaṁ, gacchati uttaraṁ disaṁ, gacchati uddhaṁ disaṁ, gacchati anudisaṁ. Sace so samantā tīraṁ passati, tathāgatakova hoti. Sace pana so samantā tīraṁ na passati, tameva nāvaṁ paccāgacchati. Evameva kho tvaṁ, bhikkhu, yato yāva brahmalokā pariyesamāno imassa pañhassa veyyākaraṇaṁ nājjhagā, atha mamaññeva santike paccāgato. Na kho eso, bhikkhu, pañho evaṁ pucchitabbo: 'kattha nu kho, bhante, ime cattāro mahābhūtā aparisesā nirujjhanti, seyyathidaṁ—pathavīdhātu āpodhātu tejodhātu vāyodhātū'ti?

32Evañca kho eso, bhikkhu, pañho pucchitabbo: 


33'Kattha āpo ca pathavī,
tejo vāyo na gādhati;
Kattha dīghañca rassañca,
aṇuṁ thūlaṁ subhāsubhaṁ;
Kattha nāmañca rūpañca,
asesaṁ uparujjhatī'ti.

34Tatra veyyākaraṇaṁ bhavati: 

35'Viññāṇaṁ anidassanaṁ,
anantaṁ sabbatopabhaṁ;
Ettha āpo ca pathavī,
tejo vāyo na gādhati.

36Ettha dīghañca rassañca,
aṇuṁ thūlaṁ subhāsubhaṁ;
Ettha nāmañca rūpañca,
asesaṁ uparujjhati;
Viññāṇassa nirodhena,
etthetaṁ uparujjhatī'"ti.

37Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamano kevaṭṭo gahapatiputto bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandīti.

Kevaṭṭasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ ekādasamaṁ.