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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN10: Subha Sutta – With Subha

Morality, Concentration, Wisdom

1Thus have I heard.[n.225] We may wonder slightly, as RD does, why this is included as a separate Sutta, consisting as it does of little more than the corresponding passages in DN 2. But repetitiveness was never regarded by the early redactors of the Canon as a bar to inclusion, and this was no doubt independently preserved as an account of Subha's conversion. RD points out that the three heads here are given as sīla, samādhi and paññā, which we render (somewhat differently from RD) as morality, concentration and wisdom. RD also states that the term samādhi is not found in any pre-Buddhist text. To his remarks on the subject should be added that its subsequent use in Hindu texts to denote the state of enlightenment is not in conformity with Buddhist usage, where the basic meaning of concentration is expanded to cover 'meditation' in general. Once the Venerable Ananda was staying at Sāvatthī, in Jeta's grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's park, shortly after the Lord's final passing.[n.226] Chronology is of little account in this Nikāya. The Buddha’s final passing is narrated in DN 16. And at that time the youth Subha, Todeyya's son,[n.227] A Brahmin, whose name means 'man of Tudi'. was staying at Sāvatthī on some business.


2And Subha said to a certain young man: 'Go, my lad, to where the ascetic Ananda is, ask him in my name if he is in good health, free from fatigue, strong, vigorous and dwelling in comfort, and say: "It would be good if the Reverend Ananda would, out of compassion, visit the dwelling of Subha the son of Todeyya."'

3'Very good, sir', replied the young man. Then he went to the Venerable Ananda, exchanged courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. Then he delivered the message.


4The Venerable Ananda replied: 'It is not the right time, young man. Today I have taken some medicine. Perhaps it will be possible to come tomorrow when the time and the occasion are suitable.'

5And the young man rose, returned to Subha and reported what had passed between him and the Venerable Ananda, adding: 'My mission has been thus far accomplished, that the Reverend Ananda will probably take the opportunity to come tomorrow.'


6And indeed, as that night was ending, the Venerable Ananda dressed in the early morning, took his robe and bowl and, accompanied by the Venerable Cetaka,[n.228] Like Todeyya, he is named after his birthplace in the Cetiya country. came to Subha's dwelling, and sat down on the prepared seat.


7Then Subha approached the Venerable Ananda, exchanged courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. Then he said:

'The Reverend Ananda was for a long time the Reverend Gotama's personal attendant, dwelling in his presence and near him. You, Reverend Ananda, would know what things the Reverend Gotama praised, and with which he aroused, exhorted and established people. Which, Reverend Ananda, were those things?'

8'Subha, there were three divisions of things which the Lord praised, and with which he aroused, exhorted and established people. Which three? The division of Ariyan morality,[n.229] Sīlakkhandha. This is also the name of the first of the three divisions of this Nikāya, but the other two do not conform to the same pattern. the division of Ariyan concentration, and the division of Ariyan wisdom. These were the three divisions of things which the Lord praised…'

The Section on Morality

9'Well, Reverend Ananda, what is the division of Ariyan morality which the Reverend Gotama praised … ?'


10'Young sir, a Tathāgata arises in the world, an Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha, endowed with wisdom and conduct, Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, incomparable Trainer of men to be tamed, Teacher of gods and humans, enlightened and blessed. He, having realised it by his own super-knowledge, proclaims this world with its devas, māras and Brahmās, its princes and people. He preaches the Dhamma which is lovely in its beginning, lovely in its middle, lovely in its ending, in the spirit and in the letter, and displays the fully-perfected and purified holy life.

"A householder, or a householder's son, or one born into some other family, hears the Dhamma. Having heard the Dhamma, he gains faith in the Tathāgata. Endowed with such faith, he reflects: 'The household life is crowded, a path of dust. Going forth is like the open air. It is not easy for one dwelling at home to lead the perfectly complete, perfectly purified holy life, bright as a polished conch. Let me then shave off my hair and beard, put on saffron robes, and go forth from home to homelessness.'

"After some time he abandons his accumulation of wealth, be it large or small; he abandons his circle of relatives, be it large or small; he shaves off his hair and beard, puts on saffron robes, and goes forth from home to homelessness.

"When he has thus gone forth, he lives restrained by the restraint of the Pāṭimokkha, possessed of proper behaviour and resort. Having taken up the rules of training, he trains himself in them, seeing danger in the slightest faults. He comes to be endowed with wholesome bodily and verbal action, his livelihood is purified, and he is possessed of moral discipline. He guards the doors of his sense faculties, is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension, and is content.


11"And how, young sir, is the bhikkhu possessed of moral discipline? Herein, young sir, having abandoned the destruction of life, the bhikkhu abstains from the destruction of life. He has laid down the rod and weapon and dwells conscientious, full of kindness, sympathetic for the welfare of all living beings. This pertains to his moral discipline.


12"Whereas some recluses and brahmins, while living on the food offered by the faithful, earn their living by a wrong means of livelihood, by such debased arts as:

  • promising gifts to deities in return for favours
  • fulfilling such promises
  • demonology
  • reciting spells after entering an earthen house
  • inducing virility and impotence
  • preparing and consecrating sites for a house
  • giving ceremonial mouthwashes and ceremonial bathing
  • offering sacrificial fires
  • administering emetics, purgatives, expectorants, and phlegmagogues
  • administering medicines through the ear and through the nose, administering ointments and counter-ointments, practising fine surgery on the eyes and ears, practising general surgery on the body, practising as a children's doctor—

he abstains from such wrong means of livelihood, from such debased arts. This too pertains to his moral discipline.


13"Young sir, the bhikkhu who is thus possessed of moral discipline sees no danger anywhere in regard to his restraint by moral discipline. Just as a head-anointed noble warrior who has defeated his enemies sees no danger anywhere from his enemies, so the bhikkhu who is thus possessed of moral discipline sees no danger anywhere in regard to his restraint by moral discipline. Endowed with this noble aggregate of moral discipline, he experiences within himself a blameless happiness. In this way, young sir, the bhikkhu is possessed of moral discipline.

Thus a monk is perfected in morality.

14'That is the division of Ariyan morality which the Lord praised… But something more remains to be done.'

15'It is wonderful, Reverend Ananda, it is marvellous! This division of Ariyan morality is perfectly fulfilled, not left incomplete. And I do not see this division of Ariyan morality fulfilled thus anywhere among the ascetics and Brahmins of other schools. And if any of them were to have found this perfection in themselves, they would have been so delighted that they would have said: "We've done enough! The goal of our asceticism has been reached! There's nothing more to be done!" And yet the Reverend Ananda declares that there is more to be done!'

End of first recitation-section

The Section on Concentration

16'Reverend Ananda, what is the division of Ariyan concentration which the Reverend Gotama praised? …'

17"And how, young sir, does the bhikkhu guard the doors of his sense faculties? Herein, young sir, having seen a form with the eye, the bhikkhu does not grasp at the sign or the details. Since, if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the eye, evil unwholesome states such as covetousness and grief might assail him, he practises restraint, guards the faculty of the eye, and achieves restraint over the faculty of the eye. Having heard a sound with the ear … having smelled an odour with the nose … having tasted a flavour with the tongue … having touched a tangible object with the body … having cognized a mind-object with the mind, the bhikkhu does not grasp at the sign or the details. Since, if he were to dwell without restraint over the faculty of the mind, evil unwholesome states such as covetousness and grief might assail him, he practises restraint, guards the faculty of the mind, and achieves restraint over the faculty of the mind. Endowed with this noble restraint of the sense faculties, he experiences within himself an unblemished happiness. In this way, young sir, the bhikkhu guards the doors of the sense faculties.


18"And how, young sir, is the bhikkhu endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension? Herein, young sir, in going forward and returning, the bhikkhu acts with clear comprehension. In looking ahead and looking aside, he acts with clear comprehension. In bending and stretching the limbs, he acts with clear comprehension. In wearing his robes and cloak and using his alms-bowl, he acts with clear comprehension. In eating, drinking, chewing, and tasting, he acts with clear comprehension. In defecating and urinating, he acts with clear comprehension. In going, standing, sitting, lying down, waking up, speaking, and remaining silent, he acts with clear comprehension. In this way, young sir, the bhikkhu is endowed with mindfulness and clear comprehension.


19"And how, young sir, is the bhikkhu content? Herein, young sir, a bhikkhu is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to sustain his belly; wherever he goes he sets out taking only (his requisites) along with him. Just as a bird, wherever it goes, flies with its wings as its only burden, in the same way a bhikkhu is content with robes to protect his body and almsfood to sustain his belly; wherever he goes he sets out taking only (his requisites) along with him. In this way, young sir, the bhikkhu is content.

20"Endowed with this noble aggregate of moral discipline, this noble restraint over the sense faculties, this noble mindfulness and clear comprehension, and this noble contentment, he resorts to a secluded dwelling—a forest, the foot of a tree, a mountain, a glen, a hillside cave, a cremation ground, a jungle grove, the open air, a heap of straw. After returning from his alms-round, following his meals, he sits down, crosses his legs, holds his body erect, and sets up mindfulness before him.

21"Having abandoned covetousness for the world, he dwells with a mind free from covetousness; he purifies his mind from covetousness. Having abandoned ill will and hatred, he dwells with a benevolent mind, sympathetic for the welfare of all living beings; he purifies his mind from ill will and hatred. Having abandoned dullness and drowsiness, he dwells perceiving light, mindful and clearly comprehending; he purifies his mind from dullness and drowsiness. Having abandoned restlessness and worry, he dwells at ease within himself, with a peaceful mind; he purifies his mind from restlessness and worry. Having abandoned doubt, he dwells as one who has passed beyond doubt, unperplexed about wholesome states; he purifies his mind from doubt.


22"Young sir, suppose a man were to take a loan and apply it to his business, and his business were to succeed, so that he could pay back his old debts and would have enough money left over to maintain a wife. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

23"Again, young sir, suppose a man were to become sick, afflicted, gravely ill, so that he could not enjoy his food and his strength would decline. After some time he would recover from that illness and would enjoy his food and regain his bodily strength. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.


24"Again, young sir, suppose a man were locked up in a prison. After some time he would be released from prison, safe and secure, with no loss of his possessions. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

25"Again, young sir, suppose a man were a slave, without independence, subservient to others, unable to go where he wants. After some time he would be released from slavery and gain his independence; he would no longer be subservient to others but a free man able to go where he wants. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.

26"Again, young sir, suppose a man with wealth and possessions were travelling along a desert road where food was scarce and dangers were many. After some time he would cross over the desert and arrive safely at a village which is safe and free from danger. He would reflect on this, and as a result he would become glad and experience joy.


27"In the same way, young sir, when a bhikkhu sees that these five hindrances are unabandoned within himself, he regards that as a debt, as a sickness, as confinement in prison, as slavery, as a desert road.

28"But when he sees that these five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, he regards that as freedom from debt, as good health, as release from prison, as freedom from slavery, as a place of safety.

29"When he sees that these five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, gladness arises. When he is gladdened, rapture arises. When his mind is filled with rapture, his body becomes tranquil; tranquil in body, he experiences happiness; being happy, his mind becomes concentrated.


30"Quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought and filled with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion. He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this rapture and happiness born of seclusion, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.

31"Young sir, suppose a skilled bath attendant or his apprentice were to pour soap-powder into a metal basin, sprinkle it with water, and knead it into a ball, so that the ball of soap-powder be pervaded by moisture, encompassed by moisture, suffused with moisture inside and out, yet would not trickle. In the same way, young sir, the bhikkhu drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.


32"Further, young sir, with the subsiding of applied and sustained thought, the bhikkhu enters and dwells in the second jhāna, which is accompanied by internal confidence and unification of mind, is without applied and sustained thought, and is filled with the rapture and happiness born of concentration. He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this rapture and happiness born of concentration, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.

33"Young sir, suppose there were a deep lake whose waters welled up from below. It would have no inlet for water from the east, west, north, or south, nor would it be refilled from time to time with showers of rain; yet a current of cool water, welling up from within the lake, would drench, steep, saturate and suffuse the whole lake, so that there would be no part of that entire lake which is not suffused with the cool water. In the same way, young sir, the bhikkhu drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with the rapture and happiness born of concentration, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this rapture and happiness.


34"Further, young sir, with the fading away of rapture, the bhikkhu dwells in equanimity, mindful and clearly comprehending, and experiences happiness with the body. Thus he enters and dwells in the third jhāna, of which the noble ones declare: 'He dwells happily with equanimity and mindfulness.' He drenches, steeps, saturates, and suffuses his body with this happiness free from rapture, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this happiness.

35"Young sir, suppose in a lotus pond there were blue, white, or red lotuses that have been born in the water, grow in the water, and never rise up above the water, but flourish immersed in the water. From their tips to their roots they would be drenched, steeped, saturated, and suffused with cool water, so that there would be no part of those lotuses not suffused with cool water. In the same way, young sir, the bhikkhu drenches, steeps, saturates and suffuses his body with the happiness free from rapture, so that there is no part of his entire body which is not suffused by this happiness.


36"Further, young sir, with the abandoning of pleasure and pain, and with the previous passing away of joy and grief, the bhikkhu enters and dwells in the fourth jhāna, which is neither pleasant nor painful and contains mindfulness fully purified by equanimity. He sits suffusing his body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his entire body not suffused by a pure bright mind.

37"Young sir, suppose a man were to be sitting covered from the head down by a white cloth, so that there would be no part of his entire body not suffused by the white cloth. In the same way, young sir, the bhikkhu sits suffusing his body with a pure bright mind, so that there is no part of his entire body not suffused by a pure bright mind.


38'That is the division of Ariyan concentration which the Lord praised … But something more remains to be done.'

39'It is wonderful, Reverend Ananda, it is marvellous! This division of Ariyan concentration is perfectly fulfilled, not left incomplete. And I do not see this division of Ariyan concentration fulfilled thus anywhere among the ascetics and Brahmins of other schools. And if any of them were to have found this perfection in themselves, they would have been so delighted that they would have said: "We've done enough! The goal of our asceticism has been reached! There's nothing more to be done!" And yet the Reverend Ananda declares that there is more to be done!'

The Section on Wisdom

40'Reverend Ananda, what is the division of Ariyan wisdom which the Reverend Gotama praised?'

41"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision. He understands thus: 'This is my body, having material form, composed of the four primary elements, originating from father and mother, built up out of rice and gruel, impermanent, subject to rubbing and pressing, to dissolution and dispersion. And this is my consciousness, supported by it and bound up with it.'

42"Young sir, suppose there were a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight-faceted, well cut, clear, limpid, flawless, endowed with all excellent qualities. And through it there would run a blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread. A man with keen sight, taking it in his hand, would reflect upon it thus: 'This is a beautiful beryl gem of purest water, eight faceted, well cut, clear, limpid, flawless, endowed with all excellent qualities. And running through it there is this blue, yellow, red, white, or brown thread.' In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to knowledge and vision and understands thus: 'This is my body, having material form … . and this is my consciousness, supported by it and bound up with it.' That is known to him by wisdom.


43"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made body. From this body he creates another body having material form, mind-made, complete in all its parts, not lacking any faculties.

44"Young sir, suppose a man were to draw out a reed from its sheath. He would think: 'This is the reed; this is the sheath. The reed is one thing, the sheath another, but the reed has been drawn out from the sheath.' Or suppose a man were to draw a sword out from its scabbard. He would think: 'This is the sword; this is the scabbard. The sword is one thing, the scabbard another, but the sword has been drawn out from the scabbard.' Or suppose a man were to pull a snake out from its slough. He would think: 'This is the snake; this is the slough. The snake is one thing, the slough another, but the snake has been pulled out from the slough.' In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … The bhikkhu directs and inclines it to creating a mind-made body. From this body he creates another body having material form, mind-made, complete in all its parts, not lacking any faculties. That is known to him by wisdom.

45"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the modes of supernormal power. He exercises the various modes of supernormal power: having been one, he becomes many and having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unimpeded through walls, ramparts, and mountains as if through space; he dives in and out of the earth as if it were water; he walks on water without sinking as if it were earth; sitting cross-legged he travels through space like a winged bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the sun and the moon, so mighty and powerful; he exercises mastery over the body as far as the Brahma-world.

46"Young sir, suppose a skilled potter or his apprentice were to make and fashion out of well-prepared clay whatever kind of vessel he might desire. Or suppose a skilled ivory-worker or his apprentice were to make and fashion out of well-prepared ivory whatever kind of ivory work he might desire. Or suppose a skilled goldsmith or his apprentice were to make and fashion out of well-prepared gold whatever kind of gold work he might desire. In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the modes of supernormal power and exercises the various modes of supernormal power.


47"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element. With the divine ear-element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sound, the divine and the human, those which are distant and those which are near.

"Young sir, suppose a man travelling along a highway were to hear the sounds of kettledrums, tambours, horns, cymbals and tom-toms, and would think: 'This is the sound of kettledrums, this is the sound of tambours, this the sound of horns, cymbals and tom-toms.' In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the divine ear-element. With the divine ear-element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sound, the divine and the human, those which are distant and those which are near.

48"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of encompassing the minds (of others). He understands the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with his own mind. He understands a mind with lust as a mind with lust and a mind without lust as a mind without lust; he understands a mind with hatred as a mind with hatred and a mind without hatred as a mind without hatred; he understands a mind with delusion as a mind with delusion and a mind without delusion as a mind without delusion; he understands a contracted mind as a contracted mind and a distracted mind as a distracted mind; he understands an exalted mind as an exalted mind and an unexalted mind as an unexalted mind; he understands a surpassable mind as a surpassable mind and an unsurpassable mind as an unsurpassable mind; he understands a concentrated mind as a concentrated mind and an unconcentrated mind as an unconcentrated mind; he understands a liberated mind as a liberated mind and an unliberated mind as an unliberated mind.

49"Young sir, suppose a young man or woman, fond of ornaments, examining his or her own facial reflection in a pure bright mirror or in a bowl of clear water, would know, if there were a mole, 'It has a mole,' and if there were no mole, 'It has no mole.' In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of encompassing the minds (of others). He understands the minds of other beings and persons, having encompassed them with his own mind.

50"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of recollecting past lives. He recollects his numerous past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three, four, or five births; ten, twenty, thirty, forty, or fifty births; a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births; many aeons of world contraction, many aeons of world expansion, many aeons of world contraction and expansion, (recollecting): 'There I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away from that state, I re-arose there. There too I had such a name, belonged to such a clan, had such an appearance; such was my food, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my span of life. Passing away from that state I re-arose here.' Thus he recollects his numerous past lives in their modes and their details.

51"Young sir, suppose a man were to go from his own village to another village, then from that village to still another village, and then from that village he would return to his own village. He would think to himself: 'I went from my own village to that village. There I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I went to still another village. There too I stood in such a way, sat in such a way, spoke in such a way, and remained silent in such a way. From that village I returned to my own village.' In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of recollecting past lives, and he recollects his numerous past lives in their modes and their details.

52"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing—inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate—and he understands how beings fare according to their kamma, thus: 'These beings—who were endowed with bad conduct of body, speech, and mind, who reviled the noble ones, held wrong views, and undertook actions governed by wrong views—with the breakup of the body, after death, have reappeared in the plane of misery, the bad destinations, the lower realms, in hell. But these beings—who were endowed with good conduct of body, speech, and mind, who did not revile the noble ones, held right views, and undertook actions governed by right views—with the breakup of the body, after death, have reappeared in the good destinations, in the heavenly world.' Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing—inferior and superior, beautiful and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate—and he understands how beings fare in accordance with their kamma.


53"Young sir, suppose in a central square there were a building with an upper terrace, and a man with keen sight standing there were to see people entering a house, leaving it, walking along the streets, and sitting in the central square. He would think to himself: 'Those people are entering the house, those are leaving it, those are walking along the streets, and those are sitting in the central square.' In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, and he understands how beings fare according to their kamma.

54"When his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright, unblemished, free from defects, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers. He understands as it really is: 'This is suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the origin of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the cessation of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering.' He understands as it really is: 'These are the cankers.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the origin of the cankers.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the cessation of the cankers.' He understands as it really is: 'This is the way leading to the cessation of the cankers.'

"Knowing and seeing thus, his mind is liberated from the canker of sensual desire, from the canker of existence, and from the canker of ignorance. When it is liberated, the knowledge arises: 'It is liberated.' He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further beyond this.'


55"Young sir, suppose in a mountain glen there were a lake with clear water, limpid and unsullied. A man with keen sight, standing on the bank, would see oyster-shells, sand and pebbles, and shoals of fish moving about and keeping still. He would think to himself: 'This is a lake with clear water, limpid and unsullied, and there within it are oyster-shells, sand and pebbles, and shoals of fish moving about and keeping still.'

"In the same way, young sir, when his mind is thus concentrated, pure and bright … . the bhikkhu directs and inclines it to the knowledge of the destruction of the cankers. He understands as it really is: 'This is suffering' … He understands: 'Destroyed is birth, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further beyond this.'


56'That is the division of Ariyan wisdom which the Lord praised, with which he aroused, exhorted and established people. Beyond that there is nothing to be done.'


57'It is wonderful, Reverend Ananda, it is marvellous! This division of Ariyan wisdom is perfectly fulfilled, not left incomplete. And I do not see this division of Ariyan wisdom fulfilled thus anywhere among the ascetics and Brahmins of other schools. And there is nothing further to be done! Excellent, Reverend Ananda, excellent! It is as if someone were to set up what had been knocked down, or to point out the way to one who had got lost, or to bring an oil-lamp into a dark place, so that those with eyes could see what was there. Just so the Reverend Ananda has expounded the Dhamma in various ways.

'Reverend Ananda, I go for refuge to the Lord Gotama, the Dhamma and the Saṅgha. May the Reverend Ananda accept me as a lay-follower who has taken refuge from this day forth as long as life shall last!'

 

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ āyasmā ānando sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme aciraparinibbute bhagavati. Tena kho pana samayena subho māṇavo todeyyaputto sāvatthiyaṁ paṭivasati kenacideva karaṇīyena.


2Atha kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto aññataraṁ māṇavakaṁ āmantesi: "ehi tvaṁ, māṇavaka, yena samaṇo ānando tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā mama vacanena samaṇaṁ ānandaṁ appābādhaṁ appātaṅkaṁ lahuṭṭhānaṁ balaṁ phāsuvihāraṁ puccha: 'subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhavantaṁ ānandaṁ appābādhaṁ appātaṅkaṁ lahuṭṭhānaṁ balaṁ phāsuvihāraṁ pucchatī'ti. Evañca vadehi: 'sādhu kira bhavaṁ ānando yena subhassa māṇavassa todeyyaputtassa nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkamatu anukampaṁ upādāyā'"ti.

3"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho so māṇavako subhassa māṇavassa todeyyaputtassa paṭissutvā yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmatā ānandena saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho so māṇavako āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhavantaṁ ānandaṁ appābādhaṁ appātaṅkaṁ lahuṭṭhānaṁ balaṁ phāsuvihāraṁ pucchati; evañca vadeti: 'sādhu kira bhavaṁ ānando yena subhassa māṇavassa todeyyaputtassa nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkamatu anukampaṁ upādāyā'"ti.


4Evaṁ vutte, āyasmā ānando taṁ māṇavakaṁ etadavoca: "akālo kho, māṇavaka. Atthi me ajja bhesajjamattā pītā. Appevanāma svepi upasaṅkameyyāma kālañca samayañca upādāyā"ti.

5"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho so māṇavako āyasmato ānandassa paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā yena subho māṇavo todeyyaputto tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā subhaṁ māṇavaṁ todeyyaputtaṁ etadavoca: "avocumhā kho mayaṁ bhoto vacanena taṁ bhavantaṁ ānandaṁ: 'subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhavantaṁ ānandaṁ appābādhaṁ appātaṅkaṁ lahuṭṭhānaṁ balaṁ phāsuvihāraṁ pucchati, evañca vadeti: "sādhu kira bhavaṁ ānando yena subhassa māṇavassa todeyyaputtassa nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkamatu anukampaṁ upādāyā"'ti. Evaṁ vutte, bho, samaṇo ānando maṁ etadavoca: 'akālo kho, māṇavaka. Atthi me ajja bhesajjamattā pītā. Appevanāma svepi upasaṅkameyyāma kālañca samayañca upādāyā'ti. Ettāvatāpi kho, bho, katameva etaṁ, yato kho so bhavaṁ ānando okāsamakāsi svātanāyapi upasaṅkamanāyā"ti.


6Atha kho āyasmā ānando tassā rattiyā accayena pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya cetakena bhikkhunā pacchāsamaṇena yena subhassa māṇavassa todeyyaputtassa nivesanaṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi.


7Atha kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmatā ānandena saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca:

"bhavañhi ānando tassa bhoto gotamassa dīgharattaṁ upaṭṭhāko santikāvacaro samīpacārī. Bhavametaṁ ānando jāneyya, yesaṁ so bhavaṁ gotamo dhammānaṁ vaṇṇavādī ahosi, yattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesi. Katamesānaṁ kho, bho ānanda, dhammānaṁ so bhavaṁ gotamo vaṇṇavādī ahosi; kattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesī"ti?

8"Tiṇṇaṁ kho, māṇava, khandhānaṁ so bhagavā vaṇṇavādī ahosi; ettha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesi. Katamesaṁ tiṇṇaṁ? Ariyassa sīlakkhandhassa, ariyassa samādhikkhandhassa, ariyassa paññākkhandhassa. Imesaṁ kho, māṇava, tiṇṇaṁ khandhānaṁ so bhagavā vaṇṇavādī ahosi; ettha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesī"ti.

1. Sīlakkhandha

9"Katamo pana so, bho ānanda, ariyo sīlakkhandho, yassa so bhavaṁ gotamo vaṇṇavādī ahosi, yattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesī"ti?


10"Idha, māṇava, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā. So imaṁ lokaṁ sadevakaṁ samārakaṁ sabrahmakaṁ sassamaṇabrāhmaṇiṁ pajaṁ sadevamanussaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedeti. So dhammaṁ deseti ādikalyāṇaṁ majjhekalyāṇaṁ pariyosānakalyāṇaṁ sātthaṁ sabyañjanaṁ kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ pakāseti.

Taṁ dhammaṁ suṇāti gahapati vā gahapatiputto vā aññatarasmiṁ vā kule paccājāto. So taṁ dhammaṁ sutvā tathāgate saddhaṁ paṭilabhati. So tena saddhāpaṭilābhena samannāgato iti paṭisañcikkhati: 'sambādho gharāvāso rajopatho, abbhokāso pabbajjā, nayidaṁ sukaraṁ agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā ekantaparipuṇṇaṁ ekantaparisuddhaṁ saṅkhalikhitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ carituṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan'ti.

So aparena samayena appaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya appaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati.

So evaṁ pabbajito samāno pātimokkhasaṁvarasaṁvuto viharati, ācāragocarasampanno, anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī, samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu, kāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalena, parisuddhājīvo, sīlasampanno, indriyesu guttadvāro, satisampajaññena samannāgato, santuṭṭho.


11Kathañca, māṇava, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti? Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati. Yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu pāṇātipātaṁ pahāya pāṇātipātā paṭivirato hoti, nihitadaṇḍo nihitasattho lajjī dayāpanno, sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī viharati; idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


12Yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ— santikammaṁ paṇidhikammaṁ bhūtakammaṁ bhūrikammaṁ vassakammaṁ vossakammaṁ vatthukammaṁ vatthuparikammaṁ ācamanaṁ nhāpanaṁ juhanaṁ vamanaṁ virecanaṁ uddhaṁvirecanaṁ adhovirecanaṁ sīsavirecanaṁ kaṇṇatelaṁ nettatappanaṁ natthukammaṁ añjanaṁ paccañjanaṁ sālākiyaṁ sallakattiyaṁ dārakatikicchā mūlabhesajjānaṁ anuppadānaṁ osadhīnaṁ paṭimokkho iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu yathā vā paneke bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā saddhādeyyāni bhojanāni bhuñjitvā te evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvena jīvitaṁ kappenti, seyyathidaṁ—santikammaṁ paṇidhikammaṁ … pe … osadhīnaṁ paṭimokkho iti vā iti evarūpāya tiracchānavijjāya micchājīvā paṭivirato hoti. Idampissa hoti sīlasmiṁ.


13Sa kho so, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṁ samanupassati, yadidaṁ sīlasaṁvarato. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, rājā khattiyo muddhāvasitto nihatapaccāmitto na kutoci bhayaṁ samanupassati, yadidaṁ paccatthikato; evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ sīlasampanno na kutoci bhayaṁ samanupassati, yadidaṁ sīlasaṁvarato. So iminā ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato ajjhattaṁ anavajjasukhaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti.

Evaṁ kho, māṇava, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti.

14Ayaṁ kho so, māṇava, ariyo sīlakkhandho yassa so bhagavā vaṇṇavādī ahosi, yattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesi. Atthi cevettha uttarikaraṇīyan"ti.

15"Acchariyaṁ, bho ānanda, abbhutaṁ, bho ānanda. So cāyaṁ, bho ānanda, ariyo sīlakkhandho paripuṇṇo, no aparipuṇṇo. Evaṁ paripuṇṇañcāhaṁ, bho ānanda, ariyaṁ sīlakkhandhaṁ ito bahiddhā aññesu samaṇabrāhmaṇesu na samanupassāmi. Evaṁ paripuṇṇañca, bho ānanda, ariyaṁ sīlakkhandhaṁ ito bahiddhā aññe samaṇabrāhmaṇā attani samanupasseyyuṁ, te tāvatakeneva attamanā assu: 'alamettāvatā, katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttarikaraṇīyan'ti. Atha ca pana bhavaṁ ānando evamāha: 'atthi cevettha uttarikaraṇīyan'"ti.

2. Samādhikkhandha

16"Katamo pana so, bho ānanda, ariyo samādhikkhandho, yassa so bhavaṁ gotamo vaṇṇavādī ahosi, yattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesī"ti?

17"Kathañca, māṇava, bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti? Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī; yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ; tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriyaṁ, cakkhundriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī; yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ manindriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ; tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati manindriyaṁ, manindriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. So iminā ariyena indriyasaṁvarena samannāgato ajjhattaṁ abyāsekasukhaṁ paṭisaṁvedeti. Evaṁ kho, māṇava, bhikkhu indriyesu guttadvāro hoti.


18Kathañca, māṇava, bhikkhu satisampajaññena samannāgato hoti? Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti, ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti, samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti, saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti, asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakārī hoti, uccārapassāvakamme sampajānakārī hoti, gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakārī hoti. Evaṁ kho, māṇava, bhikkhu satisampajaññena samannāgato hoti.


19Kathañca, māṇava, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti? Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yeneva pakkamati, samādāyeva pakkamati. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, pakkhī sakuṇo yena yeneva ḍeti, sapattabhārova ḍeti; evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yeneva pakkamati, samādāyeva pakkamati. Evaṁ kho, māṇava, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti.

20So iminā ca ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato, iminā ca ariyena indriyasaṁvarena samannāgato, iminā ca ariyena satisampajaññena samannāgato, imāya ca ariyāya santuṭṭhiyā samannāgato vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ. So pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto nisīdati pallaṅkaṁ ābhujitvā, ujuṁ kāyaṁ paṇidhāya, parimukhaṁ satiṁ upaṭṭhapetvā.

21So abhijjhaṁ loke pahāya vigatābhijjhena cetasā viharati abhijjhāya cittaṁ parisodheti. Byāpādapadosaṁ pahāya abyāpannacitto viharati sabbapāṇabhūtahitānukampī byāpādapadosā cittaṁ parisodheti. Thinamiddhaṁ pahāya vigatathinamiddho viharati ālokasaññī sato sampajāno, thinamiddhā cittaṁ parisodheti. Uddhaccakukkuccaṁ pahāya anuddhato viharati ajjhattaṁ vūpasantacitto uddhaccakukkuccā cittaṁ parisodheti. Vicikicchaṁ pahāya tiṇṇavicikiccho viharati akathaṅkathī kusalesu dhammesu, vicikicchāya cittaṁ parisodheti.


22Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso iṇaṁ ādāya kammante payojeyya. Tassa te kammantā samijjheyyuṁ. So yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni tāni ca byantiṁ kareyya, siyā cassa uttariṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ dārabharaṇāya. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe iṇaṁ ādāya kammante payojesiṁ. Tassa me te kammantā samijjhiṁsu. Sohaṁ yāni ca porāṇāni iṇamūlāni tāni ca byantiṁ akāsiṁ, atthi ca me uttariṁ avasiṭṭhaṁ dārabharaṇāyā'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

23Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso ābādhiko assa dukkhito bāḷhagilāno; bhattañcassa nacchādeyya, na cassa kāye balamattā. So aparena samayena tamhā ābādhā mucceyya, bhattañcassa chādeyya, siyā cassa kāye balamattā. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe ābādhiko ahosiṁ dukkhito bāḷhagilāno, bhattañca me nacchādesi, na ca me āsi kāye balamattā. Somhi etarahi tamhā ābādhā mutto bhattañca me chādeti, atthi ca me kāye balamattā'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.


24Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso bandhanāgāre baddho assa. So aparena samayena tamhā bandhanāgārā mucceyya sotthinā abbhayena, na cassa kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe bandhanāgāre baddho ahosiṁ. Somhi etarahi tamhā bandhanāgārā mutto sotthinā abbhayena, natthi ca me kiñci bhogānaṁ vayo'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

25Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso dāso assa anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṅgamo. So aparena samayena tamhā dāsabyā mucceyya, attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṅgamo. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe dāso ahosiṁ anattādhīno parādhīno na yenakāmaṅgamo. Somhi etarahi tamhā dāsabyā mutto attādhīno aparādhīno bhujisso yenakāmaṅgamo'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.

26Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṁ paṭipajjeyya dubbhikkhaṁ sappaṭibhayaṁ. So aparena samayena taṁ kantāraṁ nitthareyya, sotthinā gāmantaṁ anupāpuṇeyya khemaṁ appaṭibhayaṁ. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho pubbe sadhano sabhogo kantāraddhānamaggaṁ paṭipajjiṁ dubbhikkhaṁ sappaṭibhayaṁ. Somhi etarahi taṁ kantāraṁ nitthiṇṇo, sotthinā gāmantaṁ anuppatto khemaṁ appaṭibhayan'ti. So tatonidānaṁ labhetha pāmojjaṁ, adhigaccheyya somanassaṁ.


27Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu yathā iṇaṁ yathā rogaṁ yathā bandhanāgāraṁ yathā dāsabyaṁ yathā kantāraddhānamaggaṁ, evaṁ ime pañca nīvaraṇe appahīne attani samanupassati.

28Seyyathāpi, māṇava, yathā āṇaṇyaṁ yathā ārogyaṁ yathā bandhanāmokkhaṁ yathā bhujissaṁ yathā khemantabhūmiṁ. Evameva kho bhikkhu ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassati.

29Tassime pañca nīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassato pāmojjaṁ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vedeti, sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati.


30So vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

31Seyyathāpi, māṇava, dakkho nhāpako vā nhāpakantevāsī vā kaṁsathāle nhānīyacuṇṇāni ākiritvā udakena paripphosakaṁ paripphosakaṁ sanneyya. Sāyaṁ nhānīyapiṇḍi snehānugatā snehaparetā santarabāhirā phuṭā snehena, na ca paggharaṇī. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu imameva kāyaṁ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ vivekajena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa vivekajena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampissa hoti samādhismiṁ.


32Puna caparaṁ, māṇava, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

33Seyyathāpi, māṇava, udakarahado gambhīro ubbhidodako. Tassa nevassa puratthimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na dakkhiṇāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na pacchimāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, na uttarāya disāya udakassa āyamukhaṁ, devo ca na kālena kālaṁ sammā dhāraṁ anupaveccheyya. Atha kho tamhāva udakarahadā sītā vāridhārā ubbhijjitvā tameva udakarahadaṁ sītena vārinā abhisandeyya parisandeyya paripūreyya paripphareyya, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato udakarahadassa sītena vārinā apphuṭaṁ assa. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā … pe … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ samādhijena pītisukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa samādhijena pītisukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampissa hoti samādhismiṁ.


34Puna caparaṁ, māṇava, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti: 'upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī'ti, tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

35Seyyathāpi, māṇava, uppaliniyaṁ vā paduminiyaṁ vā puṇḍarīkiniyaṁ vā appekaccāni uppalāni vā padumāni vā puṇḍarīkāni vā udake jātāni udake saṁvaḍḍhāni udakānuggatāni antonimuggaposīni, tāni yāva caggā yāva ca mūlā sītena vārinā abhisannāni parisannāni paripūrāni paripphuṭāni, nāssa kiñci sabbāvataṁ uppalānaṁ vā padumānaṁ vā puṇḍarīkānaṁ vā sītena vārinā apphuṭaṁ assa. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā … pe … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ nippītikena sukhena abhisandeti parisandeti paripūreti parippharati, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa nippītikena sukhena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampissa hoti samādhismiṁ.


36Puna caparaṁ, māṇava, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṁ hoti.

37Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso odātena vatthena sasīsaṁ pārupitvā nisinno assa, nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa odātena vatthena apphuṭaṁ assa. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. So imameva kāyaṁ parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena pharitvā nisinno hoti; nāssa kiñci sabbāvato kāyassa parisuddhena cetasā pariyodātena apphuṭaṁ hoti. Idampissa hoti samādhismiṁ.


38Ayaṁ kho so, māṇava, ariyo samādhikkhandho yassa so bhagavā vaṇṇavādī ahosi, yattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesi. Atthi cevettha uttarikaraṇīyan"ti.

39"Acchariyaṁ, bho ānanda, abbhutaṁ, bho ānanda. So cāyaṁ, bho ānanda, ariyo samādhikkhandho paripuṇṇo, no aparipuṇṇo. Evaṁ paripuṇṇañcāhaṁ, bho ānanda, ariyaṁ samādhikkhandhaṁ ito bahiddhā aññesu samaṇabrāhmaṇesu na samanupassāmi. Evaṁ paripuṇṇañca, bho ānanda, ariyaṁ samādhikkhandhaṁ ito bahiddhā aññe samaṇabrāhmaṇā attani samanupasseyyuṁ, te tāvatakeneva attamanā assu: 'alamettāvatā, katamettāvatā, anuppatto no sāmaññattho, natthi no kiñci uttarikaraṇīyan'ti. Atha ca pana bhavaṁ ānando evamāha: 'atthi cevettha uttarikaraṇīyan'ti.

3. Paññākkhandha

40Katamo pana so, bho ānanda, ariyo paññākkhandho, yassa bho bhavaṁ gotamo vaṇṇavādī ahosi, yattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesī"ti?

41"So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte ñāṇadassanāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So evaṁ pajānāti: 'ayaṁ kho me kāyo rūpī cātumahābhūtiko mātāpettikasambhavo odanakummāsūpacayo aniccucchādanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaṁsanadhammo; idañca pana me viññāṇaṁ ettha sitaṁ ettha paṭibaddhan'ti.

42Seyyathāpi, māṇava, maṇi veḷuriyo subho jātimā aṭṭhaṁso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anāvilo sabbākārasampanno. Tatrāssa suttaṁ āvutaṁ nīlaṁ vā pītaṁ vā lohitaṁ vā odātaṁ vā paṇḍusuttaṁ vā. Tamenaṁ cakkhumā puriso hatthe karitvā paccavekkheyya: 'ayaṁ kho maṇi veḷuriyo subho jātimā aṭṭhaṁso suparikammakato accho vippasanno anāvilo sabbākārasampanno. Tatridaṁ suttaṁ āvutaṁ nīlaṁ vā pītaṁ vā lohitaṁ vā odātaṁ vā paṇḍusuttaṁ vā'ti. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte ñāṇadassanāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So evaṁ pajānāti: 'ayaṁ kho me kāyo rūpī cātumahābhūtiko mātāpettikasambhavo odanakummāsūpacayo aniccucchādanaparimaddanabhedanaviddhaṁsanadhammo. Idañca pana me viññāṇaṁ ettha sitaṁ ettha paṭibaddhan'ti. Yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte ñāṇadassanāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So evaṁ pajānāti … pe … ettha paṭibaddhanti. Idampissa hoti paññāya.


43So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte manomayaṁ kāyaṁ abhinimmānāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So imamhā kāyā aññaṁ kāyaṁ abhinimmināti rūpiṁ manomayaṁ sabbaṅgapaccangiṁ ahīnindriyaṁ.

44Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso muñjamhā īsikaṁ pavāheyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ muñjo ayaṁ īsikā; añño muñjo aññā īsikā; muñjamhā tveva īsikā pavāḷhā'ti. Seyyathā vā pana, māṇava, puriso asiṁ kosiyā pavāheyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ asi, ayaṁ kosi; añño asi, aññā kosi; kosiyā tveva asi pavāḷho'ti. Seyyathā vā pana, māṇava, puriso ahiṁ karaṇḍā uddhareyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ ahi, ayaṁ karaṇḍo; añño ahi, añño karaṇḍo; karaṇḍā tveva ahi ubbhato'ti. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte manomayaṁ kāyaṁ abhinimmānāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti … pe … . Idampissa hoti paññāya.

45So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte iddhividhāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhoti—ekopi hutvā bahudhā hoti, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hoti; āvibhāvaṁ tirobhāvaṁ tirokuṭṭaṁ tiropākāraṁ tiropabbataṁ asajjamāno gacchati seyyathāpi ākāse; pathaviyāpi ummujjanimujjaṁ karoti seyyathāpi udake; udakepi abhijjamāne gacchati seyyathāpi pathaviyaṁ; ākāsepi pallaṅkena kamati seyyathāpi pakkhī sakuṇo; imepi candimasūriye evaṁ mahiddhike evaṁ mahānubhāve pāṇinā parāmasati parimajjati; yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vatteti.

46Seyyathāpi, māṇava, dakkho kumbhakāro vā kumbhakārantevāsī vā suparikammakatāya mattikāya yaññadeva bhājanavikatiṁ ākaṅkheyya, taṁ tadeva kareyya abhinipphādeyya. Seyyathā vā pana, māṇava, dakkho dantakāro vā dantakārantevāsī vā suparikammakatasmiṁ dantasmiṁ yaññadeva dantavikatiṁ ākaṅkheyya, taṁ tadeva kareyya abhinipphādeyya. Seyyathā vā pana, māṇava, dakkho suvaṇṇakāro vā suvaṇṇakārantevāsī vā suparikammakatasmiṁ suvaṇṇasmiṁ yaññadeva suvaṇṇavikatiṁ ākaṅkheyya, taṁ tadeva kareyya abhinipphādeyya. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi māṇava bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte iddhividhāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhoti—ekopi hutvā bahudhā hoti … pe … yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vatteti. Idampissa hoti paññāya.


47So evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte dibbāya sotadhātuyā cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇāti dibbe ca mānuse ca ye dūre santike ca.

Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso addhānamaggappaṭipanno. So suṇeyya bherisaddampi mudiṅgasaddampi saṅkhapaṇavadindimasaddampi. Tassa evamassa— bherisaddo itipi mudiṅgasaddo itipi saṅkhapaṇavadindimasaddo itipi. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte dibbāya sotadhātuyā cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇāti dibbe ca mānuse ca ye dūre santike ca. Idampissa hoti paññāya.

48So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte cetopariyañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānāti, sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ 'sarāgaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītarāgaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ 'sadosaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītadosaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, samohaṁ vā cittaṁ 'samohaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vītamohaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ 'saṅkhittaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vikkhittaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ 'mahaggataṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ 'amahaggataṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ 'sauttaraṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ 'anuttaraṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ 'samāhitaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ 'asamāhitaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ 'vimuttaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti, avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ 'avimuttaṁ cittan'ti pajānāti.

49Seyyathāpi, māṇava, itthī vā puriso vā daharo yuvā maṇḍanajātiko ādāse vā parisuddhe pariyodāte acche vā udakapatte sakaṁ mukhanimittaṁ paccavekkhamāno sakaṇikaṁ vā sakaṇikanti jāneyya, akaṇikaṁ vā akaṇikanti jāneyya. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite … pe … āneñjappatte cetopariyañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānāti, sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ sarāgaṁ cittanti pajānāti … pe … avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ avimuttaṁ cittanti pajānāti. Idampissa hoti paññāya.

50So evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Seyyathidaṁ—ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṁsampi jātiyo cattālīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekepi saṁvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe: 'amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto. So tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto; so tato cuto idhūpapanno'ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati.

51Seyyathāpi, māṇava, puriso sakamhā gāmā aññaṁ gāmaṁ gaccheyya; tamhāpi gāmā aññaṁ gāmaṁ gaccheyya; so tamhā gāmā sakaṁyeva gāmaṁ paccāgaccheyya. Tassa evamassa: 'ahaṁ kho sakamhā gāmā amuṁ gāmaṁ agacchiṁ, tatra evaṁ aṭṭhāsiṁ evaṁ nisīdiṁ evaṁ abhāsiṁ evaṁ tuṇhī ahosiṁ. So tamhāpi gāmā amuṁ gāmaṁ gacchiṁ, tatrāpi evaṁ aṭṭhāsiṁ evaṁ nisīdiṁ evaṁ abhāsiṁ evaṁ tuṇhī ahosiṁ. Somhi tamhā gāmā sakaṁyeva gāmaṁ paccāgato'ti. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Seyyathidaṁ—ekampi jātiṁ … pe … iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Idampissa hoti paññāya.

52So evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti: 'ime vata bhonto sattā kāyaduccaritena samannāgatā vacīduccaritena samannāgatā manoduccaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ upavādakā micchādiṭṭhikā micchādiṭṭhikammasamādānā. Te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapannā. Ime vā pana bhonto sattā kāyasucaritena samannāgatā vacīsucaritena samannāgatā manosucaritena samannāgatā ariyānaṁ anupavādakā sammādiṭṭhikā sammādiṭṭhikammasamādānā. Te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapannā'ti. Iti dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti.


53Seyyathāpi, māṇava, majjhesiṅghāṭake pāsādo, tattha cakkhumā puriso ṭhito passeyya manusse gehaṁ pavisantepi nikkhamantepi rathikāyapi vīthiṁ sañcarante majjhesiṅghāṭake nisinnepi. Tassa evamassa: 'ete manussā gehaṁ pavisanti, ete nikkhamanti, ete rathikāya vīthiṁ sañcaranti, ete majjhesiṅghāṭake nisinnā'ti. Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate, yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. Idampissa hoti paññāya.

54So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So idaṁ dukkhanti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ dukkhasamudayoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ dukkhanirodhoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti; ime āsavāti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ āsavasamudayoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ āsavanirodhoti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ayaṁ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, vimuttasmiṁ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṁ hoti. 'Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā'ti pajānāti.


55Seyyathāpi, māṇava, pabbatasaṅkhepe udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tattha cakkhumā puriso tīre ṭhito passeyya sippisambukampi sakkharakathalampi macchagumbampi carantampi tiṭṭhantampi. Tassa evamassa: 'ayaṁ kho udakarahado accho vippasanno anāvilo. Tatrime sippisambukāpi sakkharakathalāpi macchagumbāpi carantipi tiṭṭhantipī'ti

Evameva kho, māṇava, bhikkhu … pe … yampi, māṇava, bhikkhu evaṁ samāhite citte … pe … āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti. So idaṁ dukkhanti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti … pe … āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti. Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, vimuttasmiṁ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṁ hoti, 'khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā'ti pajānāti. Idampissa hoti paññāya.


56Ayaṁ kho so, māṇava, ariyo paññākkhandho yassa so bhagavā vaṇṇavādī ahosi, yattha ca imaṁ janataṁ samādapesi nivesesi patiṭṭhāpesi. Natthi cevettha uttarikaraṇīyan"ti.


57"Acchariyaṁ, bho ānanda, abbhutaṁ, bho ānanda. So cāyaṁ, bho ānanda, ariyo paññākkhandho paripuṇṇo, no aparipuṇṇo. Evaṁ paripuṇṇañcāhaṁ, bho ānanda, ariyaṁ paññākkhandhaṁ ito bahiddhā aññesu samaṇabrāhmaṇesu na samanupassāmi. Natthi cevettha uttarikaraṇīyaṁ. Abhikkantaṁ, bho ānanda, abhikkantaṁ, bho ānanda. Seyyathāpi, bho ānanda, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: 'cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī'ti; evamevaṁ bhotā ānandena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito.

Esāhaṁ, bho ānanda, taṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṁghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhavaṁ ānando dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gatan"ti.

Subhasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dasamaṁ.