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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya

DN9: Poṭṭhapāda Sutta – About Poṭṭhapāda

States of Consciousness

1Thus have I heard. Once the Lord was staying at Sāvatthī, in Jeta's grove, in Anāthapiṇḍika's park. And at that time the wanderer Poṭṭhapāda was at the debating-hall near the Tinduka tree, in the single-halled park of Queen Mallikā,[n.205] The principal queen of King Pasenadi of Kosala. She and the king were both devoted followers of the Buddha. The park had been given by the famous benefactor Anāthapiṇḍika. with a large crowd of about three hundred wanderers.

2Then the Lord, rising early, took his robe and bowl and went to Sāvatthi for alms. But it occurred to him: 'It is too early to go to Sāvatthi for alms. Suppose I were to go to the debating-hall to see the wanderer Poṭṭhapāda?' And he did so.

3There Poṭṭhapāda was sitting with his crowd of wanderers, all shouting and making a great commotion, indulging in various kinds of unedifying conversation, such as about kings, robbers, ministers, armies, dangers, wars, food, drink, clothes, beds, garlands, perfumes, relatives, carriages, villages, towns and cities, countries, women, heroes, street- and well-gossip, talk of the departed, desultory chat, speculations about land and sea, talk of being and non-being.

4But Poṭṭhapāda saw the Lord coming from a distance, and so he called his followers to order, saying: 'Be quiet, gentlemen, don't make a noise, gentlemen! That ascetic Gotama is coming, and he likes quiet and speaks in praise of quiet. If he sees that this company is quiet, he will most likely want to come and visit us.' At this the wanderers fell silent.

5Then the Lord came to Poṭṭhapāda, who said: 'Come, reverend Lord, welcome, reverend Lord! At last the reverend Lord has gone out of his way to come here. Be seated, Lord, a seat is prepared.'

6The Lord sat down on the prepared seat, and Potthapada took a low stool and sat down to one side. The Lord said: 'Poṭṭhapāda, what were you all talking about? What conversation have I interrupted?'

Higher Extinguishing of Consciousness

7Poṭṭhapāda replied: 'Lord, never mind the conversation we were having just now, it will not be difficult for the Lord to hear about that later. In the past few days, Lord, the discussion among the ascetics and Brahmins of various schools, sitting together and meeting in the debating-hall, has concerned the higher extinction of consciousness,[n.206] Abhisaññānirodha. 'The prefix abhi qualifies not saññā, but the whole compound, which means "trance" sic!. It is an expression used, not by Buddhists, but by certain wanderers' PED. and how this takes place. Some said: "One's perceptions arise and cease without cause or condition. When they arise, one is conscious, when they cease, then one is unconscious." That is how they explained it.

8But somebody else said: "No, that is not how it is. Perceptions[n.207] Saññā means primarily 'perception' as one of the five khandhas, but here approaches the meaning of 'consciousness' as such see BDic. After some hesitation, I have retained the rendering 'perception' here. are a person's self, which comes and goes. When it comes, one is conscious, when it goes, one is unconscious."

9Another said: "That is not how it is. There are ascetics and Brahmins of great powers, of great influence. They draw down consciousness into a man and withdraw it. When they draw it down into him, he is conscious, when they withdraw it, he is unconscious."[n.208] DA says athabbanikā 'Atharva priests' can do this.

10And another said: "No, that is not how it is. There are deities of great powers, of great influence. They draw down consciousness into a man and withdraw it. When they draw it down into him, he is conscious, when they withdraw it, he is unconscious."[n.209] RD accidentally omits this passage.

11It was in this connection that I thought of the Lord: "Ah, surely, the Blessed Lord, the Well-Farer, he is supremely skilled[n.210] Sukusala: an intensified form of kusala 'skilled'. about these matters! The Blessed Lord well understands the higher extinction of consciousness." What then, Lord, is this higher extinction of consciousness?'

Causes & Conditions

12'In this matter, Poṭṭhapāda, those ascetics and Brahmins who say one's perceptions arise and cease without cause or condition are totally wrong. Why is that? One's perceptions arise and cease owing to a cause and conditions. Some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.'


13'What is this training?', the Lord said. 'Potṭhapāda, a Tathāgata arises in this world an Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha … "When he sees that the five hindrances have been abandoned within himself, gladness arises. When he is gladdened, rapture arises. When his mind is filled with rapture, his body becomes tranquil; tranquil in body, he experiences happiness; being happy, his mind becomes concentrated … "Quite secluded from sense pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters and dwells in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought and filled with the rapture and happiness born of seclusion. … having reached the first jhāna, he remains in it. And whatever sensations of lust that he previously had disappear. At that time there is present a true but subtle perception of delight and happiness,[n.211] Viveka-ja-pīti-sukha-sukhuma-sacca-saññā: the regular formula for the first jhana but expanded with the words sukhuma-sacca 'subtle and true'. born of detachment, and he becomes one who is conscious of this delight and happiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. And this is that training', said the Lord.


14'Again, a monk, with the subsiding of thinking and pondering, by gaining inner tranquillity and unity of mind, reaches and remains in the second jhāna, which is free from thinking and pondering, born of concentration, filled with delight and happiness. His former true but subtle perception of delight and happiness born of detachment vanishes. At that time there arises a true but subtle perception of delight and happiness born of concentration, and he becomes one who is conscious of this delight and happiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.

15'Again, after the fading away of delight he dwells in equanimity, mindful and clearly aware, and he experiences in his body that pleasant feeling of which the Noble Ones say: "Happy dwells the man of equanimity and mindfulness", and he reaches and remains in the third jhāna. His former true but subtle sense of delight and happiness born of concentration vanishes, and there arises at that time a true but subtle sense of equanimity and happiness, and he becomes one who is conscious of this true but subtle sense of equanimity and happiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.

16'Again, with the abandonment of pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of previous joy and grief, he reaches and remains in the fourth jhana, a state beyond pleasure and pain, purified by equanimity and mindfulness. His former true but subtle sense of equanimity and happiness vanishes, and there arises a true but subtle sense of neither happiness nor unhappiness, and he becomes one who is conscious of this true but subtle sense of neither happiness nor unhappiness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.

17'Again, by passing entirely beyond bodily sensations, by the disappearance of all sense of resistance and by non-attraction to the perception of diversity, seeing that space is infinite, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Space. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.

18'Again, by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Space, seeing that consciousness is infinite, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training.

19'Again, by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, seeing that there is no thing, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of No-Thingness, and he becomes one who is conscious of this true but subtle perception of the Sphere of No-Thingness. In this way some perceptions arise through training, and some pass away through training. And this is that training', said the Lord.


20'Potthapada, from the moment when a monk has gained this controlled perception,[n.212] Saka-saññī hoti: lit. 'becomes own-perceiving'. From the first jhana on one has some control over one's perceptions. he proceeds from stage to stage till he reaches the limit of perception. When he has reached the limit of perception it occurs to him: "Mental activity is worse for me, lack of mental activity is better. If I were to think and imagine,[n.213] Abhisaṅkhāreyyaṁ. RD has 'fancying', with footnote: 'perhaps "perfecting" or "planning out"'. Mrs Bennett has 'manipulating'. these perceptions that I have attained would cease, and coarser perceptions would arise in me. Suppose I were not to think or imagine?" So he neither thinks nor imagines. And then, in him, just these perceptions arise, but other, coarser perceptions do not arise. He attains cessation. And that, Poṭṭhapāda, is the way in which the cessation of perception is brought about by successive steps.

21'What do you think, Poṭṭhapāda? Have you heard of this before?' 'No, Lord. As I understand it, the Lord has said: "Poṭṭhapāda, from the moment when a monk has gained this controlled perception, he proceeds from stage to stage until he reaches the limit of perception… He attains cessation … and that is the way in which the cessation of perception is brought about by successive steps."' 'That is right, Poṭṭhapāda.'


22'Lord, do you teach that the summit of perception is just one, or that it is many?' 'I teach it as both one and many.' 'Lord, how is it one, and how is it many?' 'According as he attains successively to the cessation of each perception, so I teach the summit of that perception: thus I teach both one summit of perception, and I also teach many.'

23'Lord, does perception arise before knowledge, or knowledge arise before perception, or do both arise simultaneously? ' 'Perception arises first, Poṭṭhapāda, then knowledge, and from the arising of perception comes the arising of knowledge. And one knows: "Thus conditioned, knowledge arises." In this way you can see how perception arises first, and then knowledge, and that from the arising of perception comes the arising of knowledge.'[n 214] DA offers alternative explanations: 1. 'Perception' = 'jhāna-perception', 'Knowledge' = 'insight-knowledge' vipassanā-ñāṇaṁ; 2. 'Perception' = 'insight-perception', 'Knowledge' = 'path-knowledge'; 3. 'Perception' = 'path-perception', 'Knowledge' = 'fruition-knowledge' (phalañāṇaṁ . He then quotes an authority as saying'Perception' is the perception of the fruition of Arahantship, and 'Knowledge' the immediately following 'reviewing-knowledge' paccavekkhaṇa-ñāṇaṁ): cf. VM 1.32, 22.19 and BDic. But in fact 'reviewing-knowledge' is said also to occur at lower stages on the enlightenment path. It is, however, this 'reviewing-knowledge' which best seems to explain just how one is supposed to know that perception arises first and then knowledge.

Perception & Self

24'Lord, is perception a person's self, or is perception one thing, and self another?'[n.215] RD quotes DA's comment that a village pig, even if bathed in perfumed water, garlanded and laid on the best bed, will still return to the dunghill. In the same way Potthapada still returns to the idea of a 'self'. 'Well, Poṭṭhapāda, do you postulate[n.216] Paccesi 'fall back on'. a self?' 'Lord, I postulate a gross self, material, composed of the four elements, and feeding on solid food.' 'But with such a gross self, Poṭṭhapāda, perception would be one thing, and the self another. You can see that in this way. Given such a gross self, certain perceptions would arise in a person, and others pass away. In this way you can see that perception must be one thing, the self another.'[n.217] Cf. DN 1.153.


25'Lord, I postulate a mind-made self complete with all its parts, not defective in any sense-organ.'[n.218] Cf. DN 1.154. 'But with such a mind-made self, perception would be one thing, and the self another…'


26'Lord, I assume a formless self, made up of perception. '[n.219] Cf. DN 1.155. According to DA, this represents Potthapada's real opinion.
'But with such a formless self, perception would be one thing, and self another…'


27'But Lord, is it possible for me to know whether perception is a person's self, or whether perception is one thing, and self another?' 'Poṭṭhāpada, it is difficult for one of different views, a different faith, under different influences, with different pursuits and a different training to know whether these are two different things or not.'


28'Well, Lord, if this question of self and perceptions is difficult for one like me — tell me: Is the world eternal?[n.220] These are the ten avyākatāni or so-called indeterminates better: 'undeclared points' or questions which the Buddha refused to answer:
1–2. Is the world eternal or not?
3–4. Is the world infinite or not?
5–6. Is the soul (jīvaṁ) the same as the body or not?
7–10. Does the Tathagata exist, not exist, both exist and not exist, neither exist nor not exist, after death?
All of these are vain speculations, not conducive to enlightenment, and as stated with reference to numbers 5 and 6 in DN 6, for one who 'thus knows and thus sees' it is not proper to speculate on such things: in other words, the questions will drop away as meaningless. The same ten questions are found in various parts of the Canon, notably at MN 63 with the famous analogy of the man wounded by an arrow, who refuses treatment until he has received the answers to a long string of questions and MN 72 the fire that went out; and there is a whole section saṁyutta (44) in SN. It has been thought that these questions formed a sort of questionnaire among the 'wanderers' to determine a man's position. This is only possible if the word Tathāgata had a pre-Buddhist meaning, which may well be the case. See discussion by Ñāṇananda, Concept and Reality, 95ff.
Is only this true and the opposite false?' 'Poṭṭhapāda, I have not declared that the world is eternal and that the opposite view is false.' 'Well, Lord, is the world not eternal?' 'I have not declared that the world is not eternal…' 'Well, Lord, is the world infinite,… not infinite?…' 'I have not declared that the world is not infinite and that the opposite view is false.'

29'Well, Lord, is the soul the same as the body, … is the soul one thing and the body another?' 'I have not declared that the soul is one thing and the body another.'


30'Well, Lord, does the Tathāgata exist after death? Is only this true and all else false?' 'I have not declared that the Tathāgata exists after death.' 'Well, Lord, does the Tathāgata not exist after death,…both exist and not exist after death? … neither exist nor not exist after death?' 'I have not declared that the Tathāgata neither exists nor does not exist after death, and that all else is false.'

31'But, Lord, why has the Lord not declared these things?' 'Poṭṭhāpada, that is not conducive to the purpose, not conducive to Dhamma, not the way to embark on the holy life; it does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to higher knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. That is why I have not declared it.'

32'But, Lord, what has the Lord declared?' 'Poṭṭhapāda, I have declared: "This is suffering, this is the origin of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, and this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering."'

33'But, Lord, why has the Lord declared this?' 'Because, Poṭṭhapāda, this is conducive to the purpose, conducive to Dhamma, the way to embark on the holy life; it leads to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to higher knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. That is why I have declared it.'

'So it is, Lord, so it is, Well-Farer. And now is the time for the Blessed Lord to do as he sees fit.' Then the Lord rose from his seat and went away.


34Then the wanderers, as soon as the Lord had left, reproached, sneered and jeered at Poṭṭhapāda from all sides, saying: 'Whatever the ascetic Gotama says, Poṭṭhapāda agrees with him: "So it is, Lord, so it is, Well-Farer!" We don't understand a word of the ascetic Gotama's whole discourse: "Is the world eternal or not? — Is it finite or infinite? — Is the soul the same as the body or different? — Does the Tathāgata exist after death or not, or both, or neither?"'

35Poṭṭhapāda replied: 'I don't understand either about whether the world is eternal or not…or whether the Tathāgata exists after death or not, or both, or neither. But the ascetic Gotama teaches a true and real way of practice which is consonant with Dhamma and grounded in Dhamma. And why should not a man like me express approval of such a true and real practice, so well taught by the ascetic Gotama?'

Citta & Potthapada

36Two or three days later, Citta, the son of the elephant-trainer, went with Poṭṭhāpada to see the Lord. Citta prostrated himself before the Lord and sat down to one side. Potthapada exchanged courtesies with the Lord, sat down to one side, and told him what had happened.


37'Poṭṭhapāda, all those wanderers are blind and sightless, you alone among them are sighted. Some things I have taught and pointed out, Poṭṭhāpada, as being certain, others as being uncertain.


38Which are the things I have pointed out as uncertain? "The world is eternal" I have declared to be uncertain… "The Tathāgata exists after death …"

39Why? Because they are not conducive… to Nibbāna. That is why I have declared them as uncertain.

Other Teachings

40'But what things have I pointed out as certain? "This is suffering, this is the origin of suffering, this is the cessation of suffering, this is the path leading to the cessation of suffering."

41Why? Because they are conducive to the purpose, conducive to Dhamma, the way to embark on the holy life; they lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to calm, to higher knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. That is why I have declared them as certain.

42'Poṭṭhapāda, there are some ascetics and Brahmins who declare and believe that after death the self is entirely happy and free from disease. I approached them and asked if this was indeed what they declared and believed, and they replied: "Yes." Then I said: "Do you, friends, living in the world, know and see it as an entirely happy place?" and they replied: "No."

43I said: "Have you ever experienced a single night or day, or half a night or day, that was entirely happy?" and they replied: "No."

44I said: "Do you know a path or a practice whereby an entirely happy world might be brought about?" and they replied: "No."

45I said: "Have you heard the voices of deities who have been reborn in an entirely happy world, saying: 'The attainment of an entirely happy world has been well and rightly gained, and we, gentlemen, have been reborn in such a realm'?" and they replied: "No."

46What do you think, Poṭṭhapāda? Such being the case, does not the talk of those ascetics and Brahmins turn out to be stupid?


47'It is just as if a man were to say: "1 am going to seek out and love the most beautiful girl in the country." They might say to him: "Well, as to this most beautiful girl in the country, do you know whether she belongs to the Khattiya, the Brahmin, the merchant or the artisan class?" and he would say: "No." Then they might say: "Well, do you know her name, her clan, whether she is tall or short or of medium height, whether she is dark or light-complexioned or sallow-skinned, or what village or town or city she comes from?" and he would say: "No." And they might say: "Well then, you don't know or see the one you seek for and desire?" and he would say: "No."


48Does not the talk of that man turn out to be stupid?' 'Certainly, Lord.'


49–53'And so it is with those ascetics and Brahmins who declare and believe that after death the self is entirely happy and free from disease… Does not their talk turn out to be stupid?' 'Certainly, Lord.'


54'It is just as if a man were to build a staircase for a palace at a crossroads. People might say to him: "Well now, this staircase for a palace that you are building — do you know whether the palace will face east, or west, or north or south, or whether it will be high, low or of medium height?" and he would say: "No." And they might say: "Well then, you don't know or see what kind of a palace you are building the staircase for?" and he would say: "No."


55Don't you think that man's talk would turn out to be stupid?' 'Certainly, Lord.'

56'Poṭṭhapāda, there are some ascetics and Brahmins who declare and believe that after death the self is entirely happy and free from disease. I approached them and asked if this was indeed what they declared and believed, and they replied: "Yes." Then I said: "Do you, friends, living in the world, know and see it as an entirely happy place?" and they replied: "No."

57I said: "Have you ever experienced a single night or day, or half a night or day, that was entirely happy?" and they replied: "No."

58I said: "Do you know a path or a practice whereby an entirely happy world might be brought about?" and they replied: "No."

59I said: "Have you heard the voices of deities who have been reborn in an entirely happy world, saying: 'The attainment of an entirely happy world has been well and rightly gained, and we, gentlemen, have been reborn in such a realm'?" and they replied: "No."

60What do you think, Poṭṭhapāda? Such being the case, does not the talk of those ascetics and Brahmins turn out to be stupid?

Acquired Self

61'Poṭṭhapāda, there are three kinds of "acquired self":[n.221] Atta-paṭilābha. This is, of course, only an 'assumed' or 'presumed' self: 'the fleeting union of qualities that make up, for a time only, an unstable individuality' (RD). The word is glossed by DA as attabhāva-paṭilābha 'adoption or assumption of selfhood'. The three kinds of 'acquired self' correspond to the three realms of Sense-Desire, of Form and of No-Form. Cf. DN 33.108 and AN 4.172. the gross acquired self, the mind-made acquired self, the formless acquired self. What is the gross acquired self? It has form, is composed of the four great elements, nourished by material food. What is the mind-made self? It has form, complete with all its parts, not defective in any sense-organ. What is the formless acquired self? It is without form, and made up of perception.

62'But I teach a doctrine for getting rid of the gross acquired self, whereby defiling mental states disappear and states tending to purification grow strong, and one gains and remains in the purity and perfection of wisdom here and now, having realised and attained it by one's own super-knowledge. Now, Poṭṭhāpada, you might think: "Perhaps these defiling mental states might disappear…, and one might still be unhappy."[n.222] Doubtless alluding to the well-known fact that higher states tend to appear very boring to the worldling who has not experienced them. That is not how it should be regarded. If defiling states disappear…, nothing but happiness and delight develops, tranquillity, mindfulness and clear awareness — and that is a happy state.


63'I also teach a doctrine for getting rid of the mind-made acquired self…as verse 40.


64'I also teach a doctrine for getting rid of the formless acquired self…as verse 40.


65'Poṭṭhapāda, if others ask us: "What, friend, is this gross acquired self whose abandonment you preach … ?" being so asked, we should reply: "This is[n.223] 'This very one that you see'. that gross acquired self for the getting rid of which we teach a doctrine…"


66'If others ask us: "What is this mind-made acquired self …?" as verse 43.


67'If others ask us: "What is this formless acquired self …?" as verse 43. What do you think, Poṭṭhapāda?


68Does not that statement turn out to be well-founded?' 'Certainly, Lord.'


69'It is just as if a man were to build a staircase for a palace, which was below that palace. They might say to him: "Well now, this staircase for a palace that you are building, do you know whether the palace will face east or west, or north or south, or whether it will be high, low or of medium height?" and he would say: "This staircase is right under the palace."


70Don't you think that man's statement would be well-founded?' 'Certainly, Lord.'

71'In just the same way, Poṭṭhapāda, if others ask us: "What is this gross acquired self…?" "What is this mind-made acquired self…?" "What is this formless acquired self … ?" we reply: "This is this gross, mind-made, formless acquired self for the getting rid of which we teach a doctrine, whereby defiling mental states disappear and states tending to purification grow strong, and one gains and remains in the purity and perfection of wisdom here and now, having realised and attained it by one's own super-knowledge."


72Don't you think that statement is well-founded?' 'Certainly, Lord.'


73At this, Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, said to the Lord: 'Lord, whenever the gross acquired self is present, would it be wrong to assume the existence of the mind-made acquired self, or of the formless acquired self? Does only the gross acquired self truly exist then? And similarly with the mind-made acquired self, and the formless acquired self?'

74'Citta, whenever the gross acquired self is present, we do not at that time speak of a mind-made acquired self, we do not speak of a formless acquired self. We speak only of a gross acquired self.[n.224] Sankhaṁ gacchati: lit. 'enters the reckoning'.
Whenever the mind-made acquired self is present, we speak only of a mind-made acquired self, and whenever the formless acquired self is present, we speak only of a formless acquired self.

75'Citta, suppose they were to ask you: "Did you exist in the past or didn't you, will you exist in the future or won't you, do you exist now or don't you?" how would you answer?'

76'Lord, if I were asked such a question, I would say: "I did exist in the past, I did not not exist; I shall exist in the future, I shall not not exist; I do exist now, I do not not exist." That, Lord, would be my answer.'

77'But, Citta, if they asked: "The past acquired self that you had, is that your only true acquired self, and are the future and present ones false? Or is the one you will have in the future the only true one, and are the past and present ones false? Or is your present acquired self the only true one, and are the past and future ones false?" how would you reply?'


78'Lord, if they asked me these things, I would reply: "My past acquired self was at the time my only true one, the future and present ones were false. My future acquired self will then be the only true one, the past and present ones will be false. My present acquired self is now the only true one, the past and future ones are false." That is how I would reply.'

79'In just the same way, Citta, whenever the gross acquired self is present, we do not at that time speak of a mind-made acquired self… or of a formless acquired self.


80'In just the same way, Citta, from the cow we get milk, from the milk curds, from the curds butter, from the butter ghee, and from the ghee cream of ghee. And when there is milk we don't speak of curds, of butter, of ghee or of cream of ghee, we speak of milk; when there are curds we don't speak of butter…; when there is cream of ghee… we speak of cream of ghee.

'So too, whenever the gross acquired self is present, we do not speak of the mind-made or formless acquired self; whenever the mind-made acquired self is present, we do not speak of the gross or formless acquired self; whenever the formless acquired self is present, we do not speak of the gross acquired self or the mind-made acquired self, we speak of the formless acquired self. But, Citta, these are merely names, expressions, turns of speech, designations in common use in the world, which the Tathāgata uses without misapprehending them.'[n.225] An important reference to the two truths referred to in DA as 'conventional speech' (sammuti-kathā) and 'ultimately true speech' (paramattha-kathā). It is important to be aware of the level of truth at which any statements are made. In MA and MN 5: Anangana Sutta, the following verse is quoted (source unknown):
Two truths the Buddha, best of all who speak, declared:
Conventional and ultimate — no third can be.
Terms agreed are true by usage of the world;
Words of ultimate significance are true
In terms of dhammas. Thus the Lord, a Teacher, he
Who's skilled in this world's speech, can use it, and not lie.
 

81And at these words Poṭṭhapāda the wanderer said to the Lord: 'Excellent, Lord, excellent! It is as if someone were to set up what had been knocked down, or to point out the way to one who had got lost, or to bring an oil-lamp into a dark place, so that those with eyes could see what was there. Just so the Blessed Lord has expounded the Dhamma in various ways. Lord, I go for refuge to the Lord, the Dhamma and the Saṅgha. May the Lord accept me as a lay-follower who has taken refuge in him from this day forth as long as life shall last!'

Citta Goes Forth

82But Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, said to the Lord: 'Excellent, Lord, excellent! It is as if someone were to set up what had been knocked down, or to point out the way to one who had got lost, or to bring an oil-lamp into a dark place, so that those with eyes could see what was there. Just so the Blessed Lord has expounded the Dhamma in various ways. Lord, I go for refuge to the Lord, the Dhamma and the Saṅgha. May I, Lord, receive the going-forth at the Lord's hands, may I receive ordination!'

83And Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, received the going-forth at the Lord's hands, and the ordination. And the newly-ordained Venerable Citta, alone, secluded, unwearying, zealous and resolute, in a short time attained to that for the sake of which young men of good birth go forth from the household life into homelessness, that unexcelled culmination of the holy life, having realised it here and now by his own super-knowledge and dwelt therein, knowing: 'Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is nothing further here.'

And the Venerable Citta, son of the elephant-trainer, became another of the Arahants.

1. Poṭṭhapādaparibbājakavatthu

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Tena kho pana samayena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako samayappavādake tindukācīre ekasālake mallikāya ārāme paṭivasati mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṁ tiṁsamattehi paribbājakasatehi. Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya sāvatthiṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi.

2Atha kho bhagavato etadahosi: "atippago kho tāva sāvatthiyaṁ piṇḍāya carituṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ yena samayappavādako tindukācīro ekasālako mallikāya ārāmo, yena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako tenupasaṅkameyyan"ti. Atha kho bhagavā yena samayappavādako tindukācīro ekasālako mallikāya ārāmo tenupasaṅkami.

3Tena kho pana samayena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṁ nisinno hoti unnādiniyā uccāsaddamahāsaddāya anekavihitaṁ tiracchānakathaṁ kathentiyā. Seyyathidaṁ—rājakathaṁ corakathaṁ mahāmattakathaṁ senākathaṁ bhayakathaṁ yuddhakathaṁ annakathaṁ pānakathaṁ vatthakathaṁ sayanakathaṁ mālākathaṁ gandhakathaṁ ñātikathaṁ yānakathaṁ gāmakathaṁ nigamakathaṁ nagarakathaṁ janapadakathaṁ itthikathaṁ sūrakathaṁ visikhākathaṁ kumbhaṭṭhānakathaṁ pubbapetakathaṁ nānattakathaṁ lokakkhāyikaṁ samuddakkhāyikaṁ itibhavābhavakathaṁ iti vā.

4Addasā kho poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṁ dūratova āgacchantaṁ; disvāna sakaṁ parisaṁ saṇṭhapesi: "appasaddā bhonto hontu, mā bhonto saddamakattha. Ayaṁ samaṇo gotamo āgacchati. Appasaddakāmo kho so āyasmā appasaddassa vaṇṇavādī. Appeva nāma appasaddaṁ parisaṁ viditvā upasaṅkamitabbaṁ maññeyyā"ti. Evaṁ vutte, te paribbājakā tuṇhī ahesuṁ.

5Atha kho bhagavā yena poṭṭhapādo paribbājako tenupasaṅkami. Atha kho poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "etu kho, bhante, bhagavā. Svāgataṁ, bhante, bhagavato. Cirassaṁ kho, bhante, bhagavā imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi, yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya. Nisīdatu, bhante, bhagavā, idaṁ āsanaṁ paññattan"ti.

6Nisīdi bhagavā paññatte āsane. Poṭṭhapādopi kho paribbājako aññataraṁ nīcaṁ āsanaṁ gahetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho poṭṭhapādaṁ paribbājakaṁ bhagavā etadavoca: "kāya nuttha, poṭṭhapāda, etarahi kathāya sannisinnā, kā ca pana vo antarākathā vippakatā"ti?

1.1. Abhisaññānirodhakathā

7Evaṁ vutte, poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "tiṭṭhatesā, bhante, kathā, yāya mayaṁ etarahi kathāya sannisinnā. Nesā, bhante, kathā bhagavato dullabhā bhavissati pacchāpi savanāya. Purimāni, bhante, divasāni purimatarāni, nānātitthiyānaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ kotūhalasālāya sannisinnānaṁ sannipatitānaṁ abhisaññānirodhe kathā udapādi: 'kathaṁ nu kho, bho, abhisaññānirodho hotī'ti? Tatrekacce evamāhaṁsu: 'ahetū appaccayā purisassa saññā uppajjantipi nirujjhantipi. Yasmiṁ samaye uppajjanti, saññī tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Yasmiṁ samaye nirujjhanti, asaññī tasmiṁ samaye hotī'ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṁ paññapenti. (1)

8Tamañño evamāha: 'na kho pana metaṁ, bho, evaṁ bhavissati. Saññā hi, bho, purisassa attā. Sā ca kho upetipi apetipi. Yasmiṁ samaye upeti, saññī tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Yasmiṁ samaye apeti, asaññī tasmiṁ samaye hotī'ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṁ paññapenti. (2)

9Tamañño evamāha: 'na kho pana metaṁ, bho, evaṁ bhavissati. Santi hi, bho, samaṇabrāhmaṇā mahiddhikā mahānubhāvā. Te imassa purisassa saññaṁ upakaḍḍhantipi apakaḍḍhantipi. Yasmiṁ samaye upakaḍḍhanti, saññī tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Yasmiṁ samaye apakaḍḍhanti, asaññī tasmiṁ samaye hotī'ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṁ paññapenti. (3)

10Tamañño evamāha: 'na kho pana metaṁ, bho, evaṁ bhavissati. Santi hi, bho, devatā mahiddhikā mahānubhāvā. Tā imassa purisassa saññaṁ upakaḍḍhantipi apakaḍḍhantipi. Yasmiṁ samaye upakaḍḍhanti, saññī tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Yasmiṁ samaye apakaḍḍhanti, asaññī tasmiṁ samaye hotī'ti. Ittheke abhisaññānirodhaṁ paññapenti. (4)

11Tassa mayhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁyeva ārabbha sati udapādi: 'aho nūna bhagavā, aho nūna sugato, yo imesaṁ dhammānaṁ sukusalo'ti. Bhagavā, bhante, kusalo, bhagavā pakataññū abhisaññānirodhassa. Kathaṁ nu kho, bhante, abhisaññānirodho hotī"ti?

1.2. Sahetukasaññuppādanirodhakathā

12"Tatra, poṭṭhapāda, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evamāhaṁsu: 'ahetū appaccayā purisassa saññā uppajjantipi nirujjhantipī'ti, āditova tesaṁ aparaddhaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Sahetū hi, poṭṭhapāda, sappaccayā purisassa saññā uppajjantipi nirujjhantipi. Sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati.


13Kā ca sikkhā"ti? Bhagavā avoca. "Idha, poṭṭhapāda, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ, sammāsambuddho … pe … Evaṁ kho, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sīlasampanno hoti … pe … tassime pañcanīvaraṇe pahīne attani samanupassato pāmojjaṁ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vedeti, sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati. So vivicceva kāmehi, vivicca akusalehi dhammehi, savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā kāmasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Vivekajapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti, vivekajapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayaṁ sikkhā"ti bhagavā avoca.


14"Puna caparaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā vivekajapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Samādhijapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti, samādhijapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā"ti bhagavā avoca.

15"Puna caparaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti: 'upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī'ti, tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā samādhijapītisukhasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Upekkhāsukhasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti, upekkhāsukhasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā"ti bhagavā avoca.

16"Puna caparaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā upekkhāsukhasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Adukkhamasukhasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti, adukkhamasukhasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā"ti bhagavā avoca.

17"Puna caparaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā 'ananto ākāso'ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā rūpasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Ākāsānañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti, ākāsānañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā"ti bhagavā avoca.

18"Puna caparaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'anantaṁ viññāṇan'ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā ākāsānañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Viññāṇañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti, viññāṇañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā"ti bhagavā avoca.

19"Puna caparaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'natthi kiñcī'ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Tassa yā purimā viññāṇañcāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā, sā nirujjhati. Ākiñcaññāyatanasukhumasaccasaññā tasmiṁ samaye hoti, ākiñcaññāyatanasukhumasaccasaññīyeva tasmiṁ samaye hoti. Evampi sikkhā ekā saññā uppajjati, sikkhā ekā saññā nirujjhati. Ayampi sikkhā"ti bhagavā avoca.


20"Yato kho, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti, so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṁ phusati. Tassa saññagge ṭhitassa evaṁ hoti: 'cetayamānassa me pāpiyo, acetayamānassa me seyyo. Ahañceva kho pana ceteyyaṁ, abhisaṅkhareyyaṁ, imā ca me saññā nirujjheyyuṁ, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā uppajjeyyuṁ; yannūnāhaṁ na ceva ceteyyaṁ na ca abhisaṅkhareyyan'ti. So na ceva ceteti, na ca abhisaṅkharoti. Tassa acetayato anabhisaṅkharoto tā ceva saññā nirujjhanti, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā na uppajjanti. So nirodhaṁ phusati. Evaṁ kho, poṭṭhapāda, anupubbābhisaññānirodhasampajānasamāpatti hoti.

21Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, api nu te ito pubbe evarūpā anupubbābhisaññānirodhasampajānasamāpatti sutapubbā"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante. Evaṁ kho ahaṁ, bhante, bhagavato bhāsitaṁ ājānāmi: 'yato kho, poṭṭhapāda, bhikkhu idha sakasaññī hoti, so tato amutra tato amutra anupubbena saññaggaṁ phusati, tassa saññagge ṭhitassa evaṁ hoti: "cetayamānassa me pāpiyo, acetayamānassa me seyyo. Ahañceva kho pana ceteyyaṁ abhisaṅkhareyyaṁ, imā ca me saññā nirujjheyyuṁ, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā uppajjeyyuṁ; yannūnāhaṁ na ceva ceteyyaṁ, na ca abhisaṅkhareyyan"ti. So na ceva ceteti, na cābhisaṅkharoti, tassa acetayato anabhisaṅkharoto tā ceva saññā nirujjhanti, aññā ca oḷārikā saññā na uppajjanti. So nirodhaṁ phusati. Evaṁ kho, poṭṭhapāda, anupubbābhisaññānirodhasampajānasamāpatti hotī'"ti. "Evaṁ, poṭṭhapādā"ti.


22"Ekaññeva nu kho, bhante, bhagavā saññaggaṁ paññapeti, udāhu puthūpi saññagge paññapetī"ti? "Ekampi kho ahaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, saññaggaṁ paññapemi, puthūpi saññagge paññapemī"ti. "Yathā kathaṁ pana, bhante, bhagavā ekampi saññaggaṁ paññapeti, puthūpi saññagge paññapetī"ti? "Yathā yathā kho, poṭṭhapāda, nirodhaṁ phusati tathā tathāhaṁ saññaggaṁ paññapemi. Evaṁ kho ahaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, ekampi saññaggaṁ paññapemi, puthūpi saññagge paññapemī"ti.

23"Saññā nu kho, bhante, paṭhamaṁ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṁ, udāhu ñāṇaṁ paṭhamaṁ uppajjati, pacchā saññā, udāhu saññā ca ñāṇañca apubbaṁ acarimaṁ uppajjantī"ti? "Saññā kho, poṭṭhapāda, paṭhamaṁ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṁ, saññuppādā ca pana ñāṇuppādo hoti. So evaṁ pajānāti: 'idappaccayā kira me ñāṇaṁ udapādī'ti. Iminā kho etaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ—yathā saññā paṭhamaṁ uppajjati, pacchā ñāṇaṁ, saññuppādā ca pana ñāṇuppādo hotī"ti.

1.3. Saññāattakathā

24"Saññā nu kho, bhante, purisassa attā, udāhu aññā saññā añño attā"ti? "Kaṁ pana tvaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, attānaṁ paccesī"ti? "Oḷārikaṁ kho ahaṁ, bhante, attānaṁ paccemi rūpiṁ cātumahābhūtikaṁ kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkhan"ti. "Oḷāriko ca hi te, poṭṭhapāda, attā abhavissa rūpī cātumahābhūtiko kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkho. Evaṁ santaṁ kho te, poṭṭhapāda, aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tadamināpetaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tiṭṭhateva sāyaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, oḷāriko attā rūpī cātumahābhūtiko kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkho, atha imassa purisassa aññā ca saññā uppajjanti, aññā ca saññā nirujjhanti. Iminā kho etaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā"ti.


25"Manomayaṁ kho ahaṁ, bhante, attānaṁ paccemi sabbaṅgapaccangiṁ ahīnindriyan"ti. "Manomayo ca hi te, poṭṭhapāda, attā abhavissa sabbaṅgapaccangī ahīnindriyo, evaṁ santampi kho te, poṭṭhapāda, aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tadamināpetaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tiṭṭhateva sāyaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, manomayo attā sabbaṅgapaccangī ahīnindriyo, atha imassa purisassa aññā ca saññā uppajjanti, aññā ca saññā nirujjhanti. Imināpi kho etaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā"ti.


26"Arūpiṁ kho ahaṁ, bhante, attānaṁ paccemi saññāmayan"ti. "Arūpī ca hi te, poṭṭhapāda, attā abhavissa saññāmayo, evaṁ santampi kho te, poṭṭhapāda, aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tadamināpetaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā. Tiṭṭhateva sāyaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, arūpī attā saññāmayo, atha imassa purisassa aññā ca saññā uppajjanti, aññā ca saññā nirujjhanti. Imināpi kho etaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ yathā aññāva saññā bhavissati añño attā"ti.


27"Sakkā panetaṁ, bhante, mayā ñātuṁ: 'saññā purisassa attā'ti vā 'aññāva saññā añño attā'ti vā"ti? "Dujjānaṁ kho etaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, tayā aññadiṭṭhikena aññakhantikena aññarucikena aññatrāyogena aññatrācariyakena: 'saññā purisassa attā'ti vā, 'aññāva saññā añño attāti' vā"ti.


28"Sacetaṁ, bhante, mayā dujjānaṁ aññadiṭṭhikena aññakhantikena aññarucikena aññatrāyogena aññatrācariyakena: 'saññā purisassa attā'ti vā, 'aññāva saññā añño attā'ti vā; kiṁ pana, bhante, 'sassato loko, idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan'"ti? "Abyākataṁ kho etaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, mayā: 'sassato loko, idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan'"ti.

29"Kiṁ pana, bhante, 'asassato loko, idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan'"ti? "Etampi kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā abyākataṁ: 'asassato loko, idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan'"ti.


30"Kiṁ pana, bhante, 'antavā loko … pe … 'anantavā loko … 'taṁ jīvaṁ taṁ sarīraṁ … 'aññaṁ jīvaṁ aññaṁ sarīraṁ … 'hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … 'na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … 'hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā … 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā, idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan'"ti? "Etampi kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā abyākataṁ: 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā, idameva saccaṁ moghamaññan'"ti.

31"Kasmā panetaṁ, bhante, bhagavatā abyākatan"ti? "Na hetaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṁhitaṁ na dhammasaṁhitaṁ nādibrahmacariyakaṁ, na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati, tasmā etaṁ mayā abyākatan"ti.

32"Kiṁ pana, bhante, bhagavatā byākatan"ti? "Idaṁ dukkhanti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākataṁ. Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākataṁ. Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākataṁ. Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā byākatan"ti.

33"Kasmā panetaṁ, bhante, bhagavatā byākatan"ti? "Etañhi, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṁhitaṁ, etaṁ dhammasaṁhitaṁ, etaṁ ādibrahmacariyakaṁ, etaṁ nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati; tasmā etaṁ mayā byākatan"ti.

"Evametaṁ, bhagavā, evametaṁ, sugata. Yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṁ maññatī"ti. Atha kho bhagavā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.


34Atha kho te paribbājakā acirapakkantassa bhagavato poṭṭhapādaṁ paribbājakaṁ samantato vācā sannitodakena sañjhabbharimakaṁsu: "evameva panāyaṁ bhavaṁ poṭṭhapādo yaññadeva samaṇo gotamo bhāsati, taṁ tadevassa abbhanumodati: 'evametaṁ, bhagavā, evametaṁ, sugatā'ti. Na kho pana mayaṁ kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṁsikaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāma: 'sassato loko'ti vā, 'asassato loko'ti vā, 'antavā loko'ti vā, 'anantavā loko'ti vā, 'taṁ jīvaṁ taṁ sarīran'ti vā, 'aññaṁ jīvaṁ aññaṁ sarīran'ti vā, 'hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti vā, 'na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti vā, 'hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti vā, 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti vā"ti.

35Evaṁ vutte, poṭṭhapādo paribbājako te paribbājake etadavoca: "ahampi kho, bho, na kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṁsikaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi: 'sassato loko'ti vā, 'asassato loko'ti vā … pe … 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti vā; api ca samaṇo gotamo bhūtaṁ tacchaṁ tathaṁ paṭipadaṁ paññapeti dhammaṭṭhitataṁ dhammaniyāmataṁ. Bhūtaṁ kho pana tacchaṁ tathaṁ paṭipadaṁ paññapentassa dhammaṭṭhitataṁ dhammaniyāmataṁ, kathañhi nāma mādiso viññū samaṇassa gotamassa subhāsitaṁ subhāsitato nābbhanumodeyyā"ti?

2. Cittahatthisāriputtapoṭṭhapādavatthu

36Atha kho dvīhatīhassa accayena citto ca hatthisāriputto poṭṭhapādo ca paribbājako yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā citto hatthisāriputto bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Poṭṭhapādo pana paribbājako bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "tadā maṁ, bhante, te paribbājakā acirapakkantassa bhagavato samantato vācāsannitodakena sañjhabbharimakaṁsu: 'evameva panāyaṁ bhavaṁ poṭṭhapādo yaññadeva samaṇo gotamo bhāsati, taṁ tadevassa abbhanumodati: "evametaṁ, bhagavā, evametaṁ, sugatā"ti. Na kho pana mayaṁ kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṁsikaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāma: "sassato loko"ti vā, "asassato loko"ti vā, "antavā loko"ti vā, "anantavā loko"ti vā, "taṁ jīvaṁ taṁ sarīran"ti vā, "aññaṁ jīvaṁ aññaṁ sarīran"ti vā, "hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā"ti vā, "na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā"ti vā, "hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā"ti vā, "neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā"ti vā'ti. Evaṁ vuttāhaṁ, bhante, te paribbājake etadavocaṁ: 'ahampi kho, bho, na kiñci samaṇassa gotamassa ekaṁsikaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi: "sassato loko"ti vā, "asassato loko"ti vā … pe … "neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā"ti vā; api ca samaṇo gotamo bhūtaṁ tacchaṁ tathaṁ paṭipadaṁ paññapeti dhammaṭṭhitataṁ dhammaniyāmataṁ. Bhūtaṁ kho pana tacchaṁ tathaṁ paṭipadaṁ paññapentassa dhammaṭṭhitataṁ dhammaniyāmataṁ, kathañhi nāma mādiso viññū samaṇassa gotamassa subhāsitaṁ subhāsitato nābbhanumodeyyā'"ti?


37"Sabbeva kho ete, poṭṭhapāda, paribbājakā andhā acakkhukā; tvaṁyeva nesaṁ eko cakkhumā. Ekaṁsikāpi hi kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā dhammā desitā paññattā; anekaṁsikāpi hi kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā dhammā desitā paññattā.


38Katame ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṁsikā dhammā desitā paññattā? 'Sassato loko'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṁsiko dhammo desito paññatto; 'asassato loko'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṁsiko dhammo desito paññatto; 'antavā loko'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda … pe … 'anantavā loko'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda … 'taṁ jīvaṁ taṁ sarīran'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda … 'aññaṁ jīvaṁ aññaṁ sarīran'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda … 'hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda … na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda … 'hoti ca na ca hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda … 'neva hoti na na hoti tathāgato paraṁ maraṇā'ti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṁsiko dhammo desito paññatto.

39Kasmā ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā anekaṁsikā dhammā desitā paññattā? Na hete, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṁhitā na dhammasaṁhitā na ādibrahmacariyakā na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattanti. Tasmā te mayā anekaṁsikā dhammā desitā paññattā.

2.1. Ekaṁsikadhammā

40Katame ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṁsikā dhammā desitā paññattā? Idaṁ dukkhanti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṁsiko dhammo desito paññatto. Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṁsiko dhammo desito paññatto. Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhoti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṁsiko dhammo desito paññatto. Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadāti kho, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṁsiko dhammo desito paññatto.

41Kasmā ca te, poṭṭhapāda, mayā ekaṁsikā dhammā desitā paññattā? Ete hi, poṭṭhapāda, atthasaṁhitā, ete dhammasaṁhitā, ete ādibrahmacariyakā ete nibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattanti. Tasmā te mayā ekaṁsikā dhammā desitā paññattā.

42Santi, poṭṭhapāda, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino: 'ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā'ti. Tyāhaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evaṁ vadāmi: 'saccaṁ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino: "ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā"'ti? Te ce me evaṁ puṭṭhā 'āmā'ti paṭijānanti. Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ viharathā'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

43Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekaṁ vā rattiṁ ekaṁ vā divasaṁ upaḍḍhaṁ vā rattiṁ upaḍḍhaṁ vā divasaṁ ekantasukhiṁ attānaṁ sañjānāthā'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

44Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto jānātha: "Ayaṁ maggo ayaṁ paṭipadā ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāyā"'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

45Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto yā tā devatā ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ upapannā, tāsaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ saddaṁ suṇātha: "suppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ujuppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāya; mayampi hi, mārisā, evaṁpaṭipannā ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ upapannā"'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

46Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante tesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante tesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.


47"Seyyathāpi, poṭṭhapāda, puriso evaṁ vadeyya: 'ahaṁ yā imasmiṁ janapade janapadakalyāṇī, taṁ icchāmi taṁ kāmemī'ti. Tamenaṁ evaṁ vadeyyuṁ: 'ambho purisa, yaṁ tvaṁ janapadakalyāṇiṁ icchasi kāmesi, jānāsi taṁ janapadakalyāṇiṁ khattiyī vā brāhmaṇī vā vessī vā suddī vā'ti? Iti puṭṭho 'no'ti vadeyya. Tamenaṁ evaṁ vadeyyuṁ: 'ambho purisa, yaṁ tvaṁ janapadakalyāṇiṁ icchasi kāmesi, jānāsi taṁ janapadakalyāṇiṁ evaṁnāmā evaṅgottāti vā, dīghā vā rassā vā majjhimā vā kāḷī vā sāmā vā maṅguracchavī vāti, amukasmiṁ gāme vā nigame vā nagare vā'ti? Iti puṭṭho 'no'ti vadeyya. Tamenaṁ evaṁ vadeyyuṁ: 'ambho purisa, yaṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi, taṁ tvaṁ icchasi kāmesī'ti? Iti puṭṭho 'āmā'ti vadeyya.


48Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.


49"Evameva kho, poṭṭhapāda, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino: 'ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā'ti. Tyāhaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evaṁ vadāmi: 'saccaṁ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino: "ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā"'ti? Te ce me evaṁ puṭṭhā 'āmā'ti paṭijānanti. Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ viharathā'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

50Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekaṁ vā rattiṁ ekaṁ vā divasaṁ upaḍḍhaṁ vā rattiṁ upaḍḍhaṁ vā divasaṁ ekantasukhiṁ attānaṁ sañjānāthā'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

51Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto jānātha: "Ayaṁ maggo ayaṁ paṭipadā ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāyā"'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

52Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto yā tā devatā ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ upapannā, tāsaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ saddaṁ suṇātha: "suppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ujuppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāya; mayampi hi, mārisā, evaṁpaṭipannā ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ upapannā"'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

53Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante tesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante tesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.


54"Seyyathāpi, poṭṭhapāda, puriso cātumahāpathe nisseṇiṁ kareyya pāsādassa ārohaṇāya. Tamenaṁ evaṁ vadeyyuṁ: 'ambho purisa, yassa tvaṁ pāsādassa ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṁ karosi, jānāsi taṁ pāsādaṁ puratthimāya vā disāya dakkhiṇāya vā disāya pacchimāya vā disāya uttarāya vā disāya ucco vā nīco vā majjhimo vā'ti? Iti puṭṭho 'no'ti vadeyya. Tamenaṁ evaṁ vadeyyuṁ: 'ambho purisa, yaṁ tvaṁ na jānāsi na passasi, tassa tvaṁ pāsādassa ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṁ karosī'ti? Iti puṭṭho 'āmā'ti vadeyya.


55Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante tassa purisassa appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.

56"Evameva kho, poṭṭhapāda, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino: 'ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā'ti. Tyāhaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evaṁ vadāmi: 'saccaṁ kira tumhe āyasmanto evaṁvādino evaṁdiṭṭhino: "ekantasukhī attā hoti arogo paraṁ maraṇā"'ti? Te ce me evaṁ puṭṭhā 'āmā'ti paṭijānanti. Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ viharathā'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

57Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto ekaṁ vā rattiṁ ekaṁ vā divasaṁ upaḍḍhaṁ vā rattiṁ upaḍḍhaṁ vā divasaṁ ekantasukhiṁ attānaṁ sañjānāthā'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

58Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto jānātha ayaṁ maggo ayaṁ paṭipadā ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāyā'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

59Tyāhaṁ evaṁ vadāmi: 'api pana tumhe āyasmanto yā tā devatā ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ upapannā tāsaṁ devatānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ saddaṁ suṇātha: "suppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ujuppaṭipannāttha, mārisā, ekantasukhassa lokassa sacchikiriyāya; mayampi hi, mārisā, evaṁ paṭipannā ekantasukhaṁ lokaṁ upapannā"'ti? Iti puṭṭhā 'no'ti vadanti.

60Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante tesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante tesaṁ samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ appāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.

2.2. Tayoattapaṭilābha

61"Tayo kho me, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhā—oḷāriko attapaṭilābho, manomayo attapaṭilābho, arūpo attapaṭilābho. Katamo ca, poṭṭhapāda, oḷāriko attapaṭilābho? Rūpī cātumahābhūtiko kabaḷīkārāhārabhakkho, ayaṁ oḷāriko attapaṭilābho. Katamo manomayo attapaṭilābho? Rūpī manomayo sabbaṅgapaccangī ahīnindriyo, ayaṁ manomayo attapaṭilābho. Katamo arūpo attapaṭilābho? Arūpī saññāmayo, ayaṁ arūpo attapaṭilābho.

62Oḷārikassapi kho ahaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhassa pahānāya dhammaṁ desemi: 'yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti. Siyā kho pana te, poṭṭhapāda, evamassa: 'saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, dukkho ca kho vihāro'ti. Na kho panetaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, evaṁ daṭṭhabbaṁ. Sankilesikā ceva dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā ca dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, pāmujjañceva bhavissati pīti ca passaddhi ca sati ca sampajaññañca sukho ca vihāro.


63Manomayassapi kho ahaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhassa pahānāya dhammaṁ desemi: 'yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti. Siyā kho pana te, poṭṭhapāda, evamassa: 'saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, dukkho ca kho vihāro'ti. Na kho panetaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, evaṁ daṭṭhabbaṁ. Sankilesikā ceva dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā ca dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, pāmujjañceva bhavissati pīti ca passaddhi ca sati ca sampajaññañca sukho ca vihāro.


64Arūpassapi kho ahaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, attapaṭilābhassa pahānāya dhammaṁ desemi: 'yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti. Siyā kho pana te, poṭṭhapāda, evamassa: 'saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, dukkho ca kho vihāro'ti. Na kho panetaṁ, poṭṭhapāda, evaṁ daṭṭhabbaṁ. Sankilesikā ceva dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā ca dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissati, pāmujjañceva bhavissati pīti ca passaddhi ca sati ca sampajaññañca sukho ca vihāro.


65Pare ce, poṭṭhapāda, amhe evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'katamo pana so, āvuso, oḷāriko attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṁ desetha, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti, tesaṁ mayaṁ evaṁ puṭṭhā evaṁ byākareyyāma: 'ayaṁ vā so, āvuso, oḷāriko attapaṭilābho, yassa mayaṁ pahānāya dhammaṁ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti.


66Pare ce, poṭṭhapāda, amhe evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'katamo pana so, āvuso, manomayo attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṁ desetha, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti? Tesaṁ mayaṁ evaṁ puṭṭhā evaṁ byākareyyāma: 'ayaṁ vā so, āvuso, manomayo attapaṭilābho yassa mayaṁ pahānāya dhammaṁ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti.


67Pare ce, poṭṭhapāda, amhe evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'katamo pana so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṁ desetha, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti? Tesaṁ mayaṁ evaṁ puṭṭhā evaṁ byākareyyāma: 'ayaṁ vā so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho yassa mayaṁ pahānāya dhammaṁ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti.


68Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante sappāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante sappāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.


69"Seyyathāpi, poṭṭhapāda, puriso nisseṇiṁ kareyya pāsādassa ārohaṇāya tasseva pāsādassa heṭṭhā. Tamenaṁ evaṁ vadeyyuṁ: 'ambho purisa, yassa tvaṁ pāsādassa ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṁ karosi, jānāsi taṁ pāsādaṁ, puratthimāya vā disāya dakkhiṇāya vā disāya pacchimāya vā disāya uttarāya vā disāya ucco vā nīco vā majjhimo vā'ti? So evaṁ vadeyya: 'ayaṁ vā so, āvuso, pāsādo, yassāhaṁ ārohaṇāya nisseṇiṁ karomi, tasseva pāsādassa heṭṭhā'ti.


70Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante tassa purisassa sappāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante tassa purisassa sappāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.

71"Evameva kho, poṭṭhapāda, pare ce amhe evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'katamo pana so, āvuso, oḷāriko attapaṭilābho … pe … katamo pana so, āvuso, manomayo attapaṭilābho … pe … katamo pana so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho, yassa tumhe pahānāya dhammaṁ desetha, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti? Tesaṁ mayaṁ evaṁ puṭṭhā evaṁ byākareyyāma: 'ayaṁ vā so, āvuso, arūpo attapaṭilābho, yassa mayaṁ pahānāya dhammaṁ desema, yathāpaṭipannānaṁ vo saṅkilesikā dhammā pahīyissanti, vodāniyā dhammā abhivaḍḍhissanti, paññāpāripūriṁ vepullattañca diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharissathā'ti.


72Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, poṭṭhapāda, nanu evaṁ sante sappāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti? "Addhā kho, bhante, evaṁ sante sappāṭihīrakataṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjatī"ti.


73Evaṁ vutte, citto hatthisāriputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "yasmiṁ, bhante, samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, moghassa tasmiṁ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti, mogho arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti; oḷāriko vāssa attapaṭilābho tasmiṁ samaye sacco hoti. Yasmiṁ, bhante, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti, moghassa tasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, mogho arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti; manomayo vāssa attapaṭilābho tasmiṁ samaye sacco hoti. Yasmiṁ, bhante, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, moghassa tasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, mogho manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti; arūpo vāssa attapaṭilābho tasmiṁ samaye sacco hotī"ti.

74"Yasmiṁ, citta, samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na arūpo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati; oḷāriko attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati. Yasmiṁ, citta, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na arūpo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati; manomayo attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati. Yasmiṁ, citta, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati; arūpo attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati.

75Sace taṁ, citta, evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'ahosi tvaṁ atītamaddhānaṁ, na tvaṁ nāhosi; bhavissasi tvaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ, na tvaṁ na bhavissasi; atthi tvaṁ etarahi, na tvaṁ natthī'ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho tvaṁ, citta, kinti byākareyyāsī"ti?

76"Sace maṁ, bhante, evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'ahosi tvaṁ atītamaddhānaṁ, na tvaṁ na ahosi; bhavissasi tvaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ, na tvaṁ na bhavissasi; atthi tvaṁ etarahi, na tvaṁ natthī'ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho ahaṁ, bhante, evaṁ byākareyyaṁ: 'ahosāhaṁ atītamaddhānaṁ, nāhaṁ na ahosiṁ; bhavissāmahaṁ anāgatamaddhānaṁ, nāhaṁ na bhavissāmi; atthāhaṁ etarahi, nāhaṁ natthī'ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho ahaṁ, bhante, evaṁ byākareyyan"ti.

77"Sace pana taṁ, citta, evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'yo te ahosi atīto attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho anāgato, mogho paccuppanno? Yo te bhavissati anāgato attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho paccuppanno? Yo te etarahi paccuppanno attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho anāgato'ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho tvaṁ, citta, kinti byākareyyāsī"ti?


78"Sace pana maṁ, bhante, evaṁ puccheyyuṁ: 'yo te ahosi atīto attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho anāgato, mogho paccuppanno. Yo te bhavissati anāgato attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho paccuppanno. Yo te etarahi paccuppanno attapaṭilābho, sova te attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho anāgato'ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho ahaṁ, bhante, evaṁ byākareyyaṁ: 'yo me ahosi atīto attapaṭilābho, sova me attapaṭilābho tasmiṁ samaye sacco ahosi, mogho anāgato, mogho paccuppanno. Yo me bhavissati anāgato attapaṭilābho, sova me attapaṭilābho tasmiṁ samaye sacco bhavissati, mogho atīto, mogho paccuppanno. Yo me etarahi paccuppanno attapaṭilābho, sova me attapaṭilābho sacco, mogho atīto, mogho anāgato'ti. Evaṁ puṭṭho ahaṁ, bhante, evaṁ byākareyyan"ti.

79"Evameva kho, citta, yasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na arūpo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati. Oḷāriko attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati. Yasmiṁ, citta, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti … pe … yasmiṁ, citta, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati; arūpo attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati.


80Seyyathāpi, citta, gavā khīraṁ, khīramhā dadhi, dadhimhā navanītaṁ, navanītamhā sappi, sappimhā sappimaṇḍo. Yasmiṁ samaye khīraṁ hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye dadhīti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na navanītanti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na sappīti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na sappimaṇḍoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati; khīrantveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati. Yasmiṁ samaye dadhi hoti … pe … navanītaṁ hoti … sappi hoti … sappimaṇḍo hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye khīranti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na dadhīti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na navanītanti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na sappīti saṅkhaṁ gacchati; sappimaṇḍotveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati.

Evameva kho, citta, yasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābho hoti … pe … yasmiṁ, citta, samaye manomayo attapaṭilābho hoti … pe … yasmiṁ, citta, samaye arūpo attapaṭilābho hoti, neva tasmiṁ samaye oḷāriko attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati, na manomayo attapaṭilābhoti saṅkhaṁ gacchati; arūpo attapaṭilābhotveva tasmiṁ samaye saṅkhaṁ gacchati. Imā kho, citta, lokasamaññā lokaniruttiyo lokavohārā lokapaññattiyo, yāhi tathāgato voharati aparāmasan"ti.

81Evaṁ vutte, poṭṭhapādo paribbājako bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Abhikkantaṁ, bhante, abhikkantaṁ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: 'cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī'ti; evamevaṁ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhagavā dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gatan"ti.

2.3. Cittahatthisāriputtaupasampadā

82Citto pana hatthisāriputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Abhikkantaṁ, bhante, abhikkantaṁ, bhante. Seyyathāpi, bhante, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: 'cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī'ti; evamevaṁ bhagavatā anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Labheyyāhaṁ, bhante, bhagavato santike pabbajjaṁ, labheyyaṁ upasampadan"ti.

83Alattha kho citto hatthisāriputto bhagavato santike pabbajjaṁ, alattha upasampadaṁ. Acirūpasampanno kho panāyasmā citto hatthisāriputto eko vūpakaṭṭho appamatto ātāpī pahitatto viharanto na cirasseva—yassatthāya kulaputtā sammadeva agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajanti, tadanuttaraṁ— brahmacariyapariyosānaṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsi. "Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā"ti—abbhaññāsi.

Aññataro kho panāyasmā citto hatthisāriputto arahataṁ ahosīti.

Poṭṭhapādasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ navamaṁ.