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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN33: Sangīti Sutta – Reciting in Concert

1Thus have I heard. Once the Lord was touring in the Malla country with a large company of about five hundred monks. Arrived at Pāvā, the Mallas' capital, he stayed in the mango-grove of Cunda the smith.[n.1012] This is undoubtedly a late Sutta. RD with characteristic caution says of this and DN 34: 'They contain here and there matter which suggests that they took their present shape at a later date than the bulk of the rest of the Digha'. It is associated, like DN 29, with the time immediately following the death of the Nigantha Nātaputta, the Jain leader, and it is located 'in the mango-grove of Cunda the smith', known to us from DN 16.4.14ff. If we compare DN 29, we find that that discourse is addressed to 'the novice Cunda', who is quite a different character — but we may wonder whether the two have not become confused. Part of the inspiration of DN 34 may have come from the Buddha’s words at DN 29.17. Could the whole Sutta have been expanded from that nucleus? In any case the method of listing items in expanding numerical groups was used (whether earlier or later) on a large scale in the Aṅguttara Nikāya, and in fact quite a number of entries in the lists in this Sutta appear there too.Such numerical listing has also been compared by different writers from RD onwards to the so-called 'matrices' (mātikā) of the Abhidhamma — partly with the implication that this type of presentation always represents a stratum considerably later than the Buddha’s time. In fact we do not know to what extent the Buddha himself resorted to the obvious pedagogic device of teaching 'by numbers'. In any case, when such numerical lists were in existence, they readily lent themselves to expansion, and it is likely that the material of this Sutta dates from a variety of periods, and because some of it is obviously late, this does not mean that other parts are not early. There are in existence Tibetan and other versions. It should perhaps be stressed that, arid as this type of Sutta may appear to many today, it is from the monastic point of view valuable for use in chanting (its ostensible – and probably real — original object), incorporating as it does not only the major doctrinal categories in brief, but many points on behaviour and discipline which monks should constantly bear in mind.
N.B. Since the lists in this and DN 34 consist largely of technical terms, the Pali words have been given wherever confusion or doubt seemed possible.

2Now at that time a new meeting-hall of the Mallas of Pāvā, called Ubbhaṭaka,[n.1013] The lofty ('Thrown-aloft-er', RD). had recently been built, and it had not yet been occupied by any ascetic or Brahmin, or indeed by any human being. Hearing that the Lord was staying in Cunda's mango-grove, the Mallas of Pāvā went to see him. Having saluted him, they sat down to one side and said: 'Lord, the Mallas of Pāvā have recently erected a new meeting-hall called Ubbhataka, and it has not yet been occupied by any ascetic or Brahmin, or indeed by any human being. May the Blessed Lord be the first to use it! Should he do so, that would be for the lasting good and happiness of the Mallas of Pāvā.′ And the Lord consented by silence.

3Noting his assent, the Mallas rose, saluted him, passed out to his right and went to the meeting-hall. They spread mats all round, arranged seats, put out a water-pot and an oil-lamp, and then, returning to the Lord, saluted him, sat down to one side and reported what they had done, saying: 'Whenever the Blessed Lord is ready.'

4Then the Lord dressed, took his robe and bowl, and went to the meeting-hall with his monks. There he washed his feet, entered the hall and sat down against the central pillar, facing east. The monks, having washed their feet, entered the hall and sat down along the western wall facing east, with the Lord in front of them. The Pāvā Mallas washed their feet, entered the hall, and sat down along the eastern wall facing west, with the Lord in front of them. Then the Lord spoke to the Mallas on Dhamma till far into the night, instructing, inspiring, firing and delighting them. Then he dismissed them, saying: 'Vāsetthas,[n.1014] This is the family-name (cf., n.179). The Mallas of Pāvā were, of course, closely related to those of Kusinārāā. the night has passed away.[n.1015] Not 'lovely is the night' (an odd mistranslation of a stock phrase by RD). Now do as you think fit.' 'Very good, Lord', replied the Mallas. And they got up, saluted the Lord, and went out, passing him by on the right.

5As soon as the Mallas had gone the Lord, surveying the monks sitting silently all about, said to the Venerable Sāriputta: 'The monks are free from sloth-and-torpor,[n.1016] The third of the five hindrances (below, 2.1 (6)). Sāriputta. You think of a discourse on Dhamma to give to them. My back aches, I want to stretch it.' 'Very good, Lord', replied Sāriputta.

6Then the Lord, having folded his robe in four, lay down on his right side in the lion-posture,[n.1017] As at DN16. with one foot on the other, mindful and clearly aware, and bearing in mind the time to arise.


7Now at that time the Nigantha Nātaputta had just died at Pāvā. And at his death the Niganthas were split into two parties, quarrelling and disputing, fighting and attacking each other with wordy warfare: 'You don't understand this doctrine and discipline — I do!' 'How could you understand this doctrine and discipline?' 'Your way is all wrong — mine is right!' 'I am consistent — you aren't!' 'You said last what you should have said first, and you said first what you should have said last!' 'What you took so long to think up has been refuted!' 'Your argument has been overthrown, you're defeated!' 'Go on, save your doctrine — get out of that if you can!' You would have thought the Niganthas, Nataputtaʹs disciples, were bent on killing each other. Even the white-robed lay followers were disgusted, displeased and repelled when they saw that their doctrine and discipline was so ill-proclaimed, so unedifyingly displayed, and so ineffectual in calming the passions, having been proclaimed by one not fully enlightened, and now with its support gone, without an arbiter.Paṭisaraṇaṁ 'a resort'.

8And the Venerable Sāriputta addressed the monks, referring to this situation, and said: 'So ill-proclaimed was their teaching and discipline, so unedifyingly displayed, and so ineffectual in calming the passions, having been proclaimed by one who was not fully enlightened. But, friends, this Dhamma has been well proclaimed by the Lord, the fully-enlightened One. And so we should all recite it together[n.1018] As proposed at DN29. without disagreement, so that this holy life may be enduring and established for a long time, thus to be for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.


9And what is this Dhamma that has been well proclaimed by the Lord…?

One Thing

10'There is one thing that was perfectly proclaimed by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha. So we should all recite together … for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.


'What is this one thing?[n.1019] Or really, like the parallel following groups, '(set of) one thing'. (eko dhammo).

(1) 'All beings are maintained by nutriment (āhāratthitikā).


(2) 'All beings are maintained by conditions (saṅkhdratthitikā).'[n.1020] This second 'one thing' is not found in all texts, or in the AN parallel passage, perhaps owing to a misunderstanding of 'one thing'.

Two Things

11'There are sets of two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord… Which are they?


12(1) 'Mind and body (nāmañ ca rūpañ ca).

13(2) 'Ignorance and craving for existence (avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca).

14(3) 'Belief in continued existence and belief in non-existence (bhava-ditthi ca vibhava-diṭṭhi ca).

15(4) 'Lack of moral shame and lack of moral dread (ahirikañ ca anottappan ca).

16(5) 'Moral shame and moral dread (hiri ca ottappañ ca).

17(6) 'Roughness and friendship with evil (dovacassatā ca pāpamittata ca).

18(7) 'Gentleness and friendship with good (sovacassatā ca kalyānamittatā ca).

19(8) 'Skill in knowing offences and the procedure for rehabilitation from them (āpatti-kusalatā ca āpatti-vuṭṭhāna-kusalatā ca).

20(9) 'Skill in entering and returning from jhāna (samāpattikusalatā ca samāpatti-vuṭṭhāna-kusalatā ca).[n.1021] The link here with (8) seems to be simply a play on words: āpatti 'offence', and samāpatti 'attainment'. Despite the divergence in meaning, the two verbs are from the same root.

21(10) 'Skill in knowing the eighteen elements[n.1022] These are the six senses (mind as the sixth), their objects and corresponding consciousnesses, e.g. 'eye, sight-object, eye-consciousness', as in MN 115. See BDic under Dhātu. and in paying attention to them (dhātu-kusalatā ca manasikāra-kusala-ta ca).

22(11) 'Skill in knowing the twelve sense-spheres (āyatanak.) and dependent origination.

23(12) 'Skill in knowing what are causes and what are not (ṭhāna-k. ca aṭṭhāna-k.)

24(13) 'Straightforwardness and modesty (ajjavañ ca lajjavañ ca).[n.1023] Note again the play on words: a useful mnemonic device.

25(14) 'Patience and gentleness (khanti ca soraccañ ca).

26(15) 'Gentle speech and politeness (sākhalyañ ca paṭisanthāro ca).

27(16) 'Non-harming and purity (avihi̇ṁsā ca soceyyañ ca).[n.1024] 'Purity of fraternal love' is RD's rather loose paraphrase of DA.

28(17) 'Lack of mindfulness[n.1025] RD's 'absence of mind' may just do for this, but 'want of intelligence' is quite wrong for asampajañña, which is quite simply failure to comply with the injunction at DN 22.4. and of clear awareness (muṭṭhasaccañ ca asampajaññañ ca).

29(18) 'Mindfulness and clear awareness (sati ca sampajaññañ ca).

30(19) 'Unguarded sense-doors and non-restraint in eating (indriyesu aguttadvāratā ca bhojane amattaññutā ca).

31(20) 'Guarded sense-doors and restraint in eating (… guttadvāratā… mattaññutā).

32(21) 'Powers of reflection[n.1026] Bala: 'power' used here in an unusual sense. and mental development (paṭisaṅkhāna-balañ ca bhāvanā-balañ ca).

33(22) 'Powers of mindfulness and concentration (sati-balañ ca samādhi-balañ ca).

34(23) 'Calm and insight samatho ca vipassanā ca.[n.1027] These are the two basic forms from which stems all Buddhist meditation.

35(24) 'The sign of calm and grasping the sign (samatha-nimittañ ca paggaha-nimittañ ca).

36(25) 'Exertion and non-distraction (paggaho ca avikheppo ca).

37(26) 'Attainment of morality and right view (sīla-sampadā ca diṭṭhi-sampadā ca).

38(27) 'Failure of morality and view (sīla-vipatti ca diṭṭhivipatti ca).

39(28) 'Purity of morality and view (sīla-visuddhi ca diṭṭhi-visuddhi ca).

40(29) 'Purity of view and the effort to attain it (diṭṭhi-visuddhi kho pana yathā diṭṭhissa ca padhānaṁ).

41(30) 'Being moved to a sense of urgency[n.1028] Nanamoli′s rendering of this difficult word. by what should move one, and the systematic effort of one so moved (saṁvego ca saṁvejaniyesu ṭhānesu saṁviggassa ca yoniso padhānaṁ).

42(31) 'Not being content with wholesome acts and not shrinking from exertion (asantutthitā ca kusalesu dhammesu appaṭiv ānitā ca padhānasmiṁ).

43(32) 'Knowledge and liberation (vijjā ca vimutti ca).

44(33) 'Knowledge of the destruction of the defilements and of their non-recurrence (khaye ñiṇaṁ anuppāde ñānaṁ).


45'These are the sets of two things that were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…So we should all recite them together …'

Three Things

46'There are sets of three things … Which are they?


47(1) 'Three unwholesome roots: of greed, hatred, delusion (lobho akusala-mūlaṁ, doso akusala-mūlaṁ, moho akusala-mūlaṁ).

48(2) 'Three wholesome roots: of non-greed, non-hatred non-delusion (alobho …).

49(3) 'Three kinds of wrong conduct: in body, speech and thought (kāya-duccaritaṁ, vacī-duccaritaṁ, mano-duccaritaṁ).

50(4) 'Three kinds of right conduct: in body, speech and thought (kāya-sucaritaṁ …).

51(5) 'Three kinds of unwholesome thought (akusala-vitakkā): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty (kāma-vitakko, vyāpādavitakko, vihiṁsa-vitakko).

52(6) 'Three kinds of wholesome thought: of renunciation (nekkhamma-vitakko), of non-enmity, of non-cruelty.


53(7) 'Three kinds of unwholesome motivation (saṅkappa):[n.1029] Or 'thought', as in the second step of the Noble Eightfold Path. through sensuality, enmity, cruelty.

54(8) 'Three kinds of wholesome motivation: through renunciation (nekkhamma), non-enmity, non-cruelty.

55(9) 'Three kinds of unwholesome perception (saññā): of sensuality, of enmity, of cruelty.

56(10) 'Three kinds of wholesome perception: of renunciation, of non-enmity, of non-cruelty.

57(11) 'Three unwholesome elements (dhātuyo): sensuality, enmity, cruelty.


58(12) 'Three wholesome elements: renunciation, non-enmity, non-cruelty.

59(13) 'Three more elements: the element of sense-desire,[n.1030] Here, the World of Sense-Desire (kāma-loka). the element of form, the formless element (kāma-dhātu, rūpadhātu, arūpa-dhātu).


60(14) 'Three more elements: the element of form, the formless element, the element of cessation[n.1031] Note the overlap with the previous three, which represented the 'Three Worlds'. Here we have the two 'higher worlds' and the supramundane (lokuttara), referred to here as 'cessation' (as in the Third Noble Truth). (rūpa-dhūtu, arūpa-dhātu, nirodha-dhātu).

61(15) 'Three more elements: the low element, the middling element, the sublime element (hīnā dhātu, majjhimā dhātu, paṇītā dhātu).

62(16) 'Three kinds of craving: sensual craving, craving for becoming,[n.1032] Craving for continued existence. craving for extinction[n.1033] Craving, not for 'cessation' (n.1031) but for (materialistic) extinction. Only those in whom the Dhamma-eye has opened can dearly see the vital distinction between these, though it can be more or less dimly intuited by reason and/or faith. (kāma-taṇhā, bhavataṇhā, vibhava-taṇhā).


63(17) 'Three more kinds of craving: craving for the World of Sense-Desires, for the World of Form, for the Formless World (kāma-taṇhā, rūpa-taṇhā, arūpa-taṇhā).

64(18) 'Three more kinds of craving: for the World of Form, for the Formless World, for cessation. (rūpa-dhūtu, arūpa-dhātu, nirodha-dhātu)

65(19) 'Three fetters (saṁyojanāni): of personality-belief, of doubt, of attachment to rite and ritual (sakkāya-diṭṭhi, vicikicchā, sīabbata-parāmāso).

66(20) 'Three corruptions āsavā: of sense-desire, of becoming, of ignorance (kāmāsavo, bhavāsavo, avijjāsavo).

67(21) 'Three kinds of becoming: in the World of Sense-Desire, of Form, in the Formless World (kāma-bhavo, rūpa-bhavo, arūpa-bhavo).

68(22) 'Three quests: for sense-desires, for becoming, for the holy life (kāmesanā, bhavesanā, brahmacariyesanā).

69(23) 'Three forms of conceit: "I am better than… ", "I am equal to…", "I am worse than…" ("seyyo 'ham asmīti" vidhā, "sadiso 'ham asmīti" vidhā, "hīno 'ham asmīti" vidhā).

70(24) 'Three times: past, future, present (atīto addhā, anāgato addhā, paccuppanno addhā).

71(25) 'Three "ends" (antd):[n.1034] Lit. 'own body', this is the erroneous self-idea. The destruction of this fetter (with two other associated ones) constitutes the opening of the Dhamma-eye (n.1033) or 'Stream-Entry'. personality, its arising, its cessation (sakkāya anto, sakkāya-samudayo anto, sakkāya-nirodho anto).

72(26) 'Three feelings: pleasant, painful, neither (sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, adukkham-asukhā vedanā).


73(27) 'Three kinds of suffering: as pain, as inherent in formations, as due to change (dukkha-dukkhatā, saṅkhāra-dukkhatā, viparināma-dukkhatā).

74(28) 'Three accumulations: evil with fixed result,[n.1035] Certain crimes (as parricide, cf. DN 2.100) have a fixed result which cannot be avoided. good with fixed result,[n.1036] When the first path-moment (or Stream-Entry, n.1035) has been gained, progress is inevitable, and retrogression to 'states of woe' impossible. indeterminate (micchatta-niyato rāsi, sammatta-niyato rāsi, aniyato-rāsi).


75(29) 'Three obscurations (tamā):[n.1037] RD reads kaṅkhā 'doubts'. One hesitates (kaṅkhati), vacillates (vicikicchati), is undecided (nādhimuccati), is unsettled (na sampasīdati) about the past, the future, the present.


76(30) 'Three things a Tathagata has no need to guard against: A Tathagata is perfectly pure in bodily conduct, in speech and in thought (parisuddha-kāya-, -vacī-, -mano-samācāro). There is no misdeed of body, speech or thought which he must conceal lest anyone should get to hear about it.


77(31) 'Three obstacles:[n.1038] Lit. 'somethings', glossed by DA as 'obstacles'. lust, hatred, delusion (rāgo kiñcanaṁ, dosa kiñcanaṁ, moho kiñcanaṁ).

78(32) 'Three fires: lust, hatred, delusion (rāgaggi, dosaggi, mohaggi).

79(33) 'Three more fires: the fire of those to be revered, of the householder, of those worthy of offerings[n.1039] I.e. religious teachers (cf. DN 31.29). (āhuneyyaggi, gahapataggi, dakkhineyyaggi).

80(34) 'Threefold classification of matter: visible and resisting, invisible and resisting, invisible and unresisting[n.1040] This refers to 'very subtle matter'. (sanidassana-sappaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ, anidassana-sappatighaṁ rūpaṁ, anidassana-appaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ).

81(35) 'Three kinds of karmic formation:[n.1041] 'They compound co-existent states and (their) future fruition-states' (DA). meritorious, demeritorious, imperturbable[n.1042] This refers to rebirth in the Formless World. (puññābhisaṅkhāro, apuññābhisaṅkhāro, āneñjābhisaṅkhāro).

82(36) 'Three persons: the learner, the non-learner, the one who is neither[n.1043] Cf. n.542. (sekho puggalo, asekho puggalo, n'eva sekho nāsekho puggalo).


83(37) 'Three elders: an elder by birth, in Dhamma, by convention[n.1044] The last receives the courtesy title of 'elder' from juniors without being strictly entitled to it. (jāti-thero, dhamma-thero, sammuti-thero).

84(38) 'Three grounds based on merit: that of giving, of morality, of meditation (dānamayaṁ puñña-kiriya-vatthu, sīlamayaṁ puñña-kiriya-vatthu, bhāvanāmaya puñña-kiriya-vatthu).

85(39) 'Three grounds for reproof: based on what has been seen, heard, suspected (diṭṭhena, sutena, parisaṅkāya).


86(40) 'Three kinds of rebirth in the Realm of Sense-Desire (kāmupapattiyo):[n.1045] These are all the realms from the hells up to the heaven of the Paranimmita-vasavatti devas. There are beings who desire what presents itself to them (paccuppaṭṭhita-kāmā), and are in the grip of that desire, such as human beings, some devas, and some in states of woe. There are beings who desire what they have created (nimmita-kāmā),… such as the devas Who Rejoice in Their Own Creation (Nimmānaratī). There are beings who rejoice in the creations of others,…such as the devas Having Power over Others' Creation ((Paranimmita-vasavattī)).

87(41) 'Three happy rebirths (sukhupapattiyo):[n.1046] These are all in the World of Form. There are beings who, having continually produced happiness now dwell in happiness, such as the devas of the Brahma group. There are beings who are overflowing with happiness, drenched with it, full of it, immersed in it, so that they occasionally exclaim: "Oh what bliss!" such as the Radiant devas (Ȧbhassarā). There are beings… immersed in happiness, who, supremely blissful, experience only perfect happiness, such as the Lustrous devas (Subhakiṇṇā).


88(42) 'Three kinds of wisdom: of the learner, of the non-learner, of the one who is neither.

89(43) 'Three more kinds of wisdom: based on thought, on learning hearing, on mental development meditation (cintāmaya pañña, sutamayā paññd, bhāvanāmaya pañña).

90(44) 'Three armaments[n.1047] Ways in which one is 'guarded'. (āvudhāni): what one has learnt, detachment, wisdom (sutāvudhaṁ, pavivekāvudhaṁ, paññāvudhariv).

91(45) 'Three faculties:[n.1048] The higher faculties of the Stream-Winner, etc. of knowing that one will know the unknown, of highest knowledge, of the one who knows (anaññātaṁ-ñassāmîtindriyaṁ, aññindriyaṁ, aññātā-v-indriyaṁ).

92(46) 'Three eyes: the fleshly eye, the divine eye,[n.1049] Cf. n.140. the eye of wisdom[n.1050] That of the Stream-Winner. (maṁsa-cakkhu, dibba-cakkhu, paññā-cakkhu).


93(47) 'Three kinds of training: in higher morality, higher thought, higher wisdom (adhisīla-sikkhā, adhicitta-sikkhā, adhipaññā-sikkhā).

94(48) 'Three kinds of development: of the emotions,[n.1051] Kāya here means not (as RD) 'the psycho-physiological mechanism of sense', but 'mental (i.e. broadly 'emotional') body'. of mind, of wisdom (kāya-bhāvana, citta-bhāvanā, paññā-bhāvanā).

95(49) 'Three "unsurpassables": of vision, of practice, of liberation (dassanānuttariyaṁ, paṭipadānuttariyaṁ, vimuttānuttariyaṁ).

96(50) 'Three kinds of concentration: with thinking and pondering,[n.1052] Different stages of jhāna. The distinction made between the first two seems to reflect the (later) Abhidhammic subdivision of the first jhana into two. with pondering without thinking, with neither (savitakko savicāro samādhi, avitakko vicāra-matto samādhi, avitakko avicāro samādhi).

97(51) 'Three more kinds of concentration: on emptiness, the "signless", desireless (suññato samādhi, animitto samādhi, appanihito samādhi).

98(52) 'Three purities: of body, speech, mind (kāya-socceyyaṁ, vacī-socceyyaṁ, mano-socceyyaṁ).

99(53) 'Three qualities of the sage:[n.1053] Moneyya is derived from muni 'sage' (or 'anchorite', RD). as to body, speech, mind (kāya-moneyyaṁ, vacī-moneyyaṁ, mano-moneyyaṁ).

100(54) 'Three skills: in going forward,[n.1054] Note the play on words here: three derivatives of the root i ′to go′. Āya can also, in more mundane contexts, mean 'money-making' (as absurdly suggested for this passage in PED!). Apaya generally refers to 'states of woe' (evil rebirths), while upāya comes to mean 'skilful device', and as such is much used of the Bodhisattva in the Mahayana tradition. in going down, in means to progress (āya-kosallaṁ, apāya-kosallaṁ, upāya-kosallaṁ).

101(55) 'Three intoxications: with health, with youth, with life (ārogya-mado, yobbana-mado, jīvita-mado).

102(56) 'Three predominant influences: oneself, the world, the Dhamma (attādhipateyyaṁ, lokādhipateyyaṁ, dhammādhipateyyaṁ).


103(57) 'Three topics of discussion: Talk may be of the past: "That's how it used to be"; of the future: "That's how it will be"; of the present: "That's how it is now."


104(58) 'Three knowledges: of one's past lives, of the decease and rebirth of beings, of the destruction of the corruptions (pubbenivāsānussati-ñāṇaṁ vijjā, sattānaṁ cutupapāte ñāṇaṁ vijjā, āsavānaṁ khaye ñāṇaṁ vijjā).

105(59) 'Three abidings: deva-abiding, Brahmā-abiding, the Ariyan abiding[n.1055] The second refers to the Brahmaviharas (DN 13), the third to Arahantship. (dibbo vihāro, Brahmā-vihāro, ariyo vihāro).

106(60) 'Three miracles:[n.1056] Cf. DN 11.3 and nn.231–3. of psychic power, of telepathy, of instruction (iddhi-pāṭihāriyaṁ, ādesanā-pātihāriyaṁ, anusāsanipāṭihāriyaṁ).


107'These are the sets of three things… So we should all recite together…for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.'

Four Things

108'There are sets of four things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…


109(1) 'Four foundations of mindfulness: Here a monk abides contemplating body as body, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world; he abides contemplating feelings as feelings…; he abides contemplating mind as mind…; he abides contemplating mind-objects as mind-objects, ardent, clearly aware and mindful, having put aside hankering and fretting for the world.

110(2) 'Four great efforts (sammappadhānā): Here a monk rouses his will, makes an effort, stirs up energy, exerts his mind and strives to prevent the arising of unarisen evil unwholesome mental states. He rouses his will… and strives to overcome evil unwholesome mental states that have arisen. He rouses his will…and strives to produce unarisen wholesome mental states. He rouses his will…and strives to maintain wholesome mental states that have arisen, not to let them fade away, to bring them to greater growth, to the full perfection of development.

111(3) 'Four roads to power (iddhipādā): Here a monk develops concentration of intention accompanied by effort of will, concentration of energy,… concentration of consciousness, and concentration of investigation accompanied by effort of will.

112(4) 'Four jhānas: Here a monk, detached from all sense-desires, detached from unwholesome mental states, enters and remains in the first jhāna, which is with thinking and pondering, born of detachment, filled with delight and joy. And with the subsiding of thinking and pondering, by gaining inner tranquillity and oneness of mind, he enters and remains in the second jhāna, which is without thinking and pondering, born of concentration, filled with delight and joy. And with the fading away of delight, remaining imperturbable, mindful and clearly aware, he experiences in himself that joy of which the Noble Ones say: "Happy is he who dwells with equanimity and mindfulness", he enters and remains in the third jhāna. And, having given up pleasure and pain, and with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters and remains in the fourth jhāna which is beyond pleasure and pain, and purified by equanimity and mindfulness.

113(5) 'Four concentrative meditations (samādhi-bhāvanā). This meditation, when developed and expanded, leads to happiness here and now (ditthadhamma-sukha), gaining knowledge-and-vision (ñāṇa-dassana-paṭilābha), mindfulness and clear awareness (sati-sampajañña), and the destruction of the corruptions (āsavānaṁ khaya).


114How does this practice lead to happiness here and now? Here, a monk practises the four jhānas.


115How does it lead to the gaining of knowledge-and-vision? Here, a monk attends to the perception of light (ālokasaññaṁ manasikaroti), he fixes his mind to the perception of day, by night as by day, by day as by night. In this way, with a mind clear and unclouded, he develops a state of mind that is full of brightness (sappabhāsam cittaṁ).

116How does it lead to mindfulness and clear awareness? Here, a monk knows feelings as they arise, remain and vanish; he knows perceptions as they arise, remain and vanish; he knows thoughts (vitakkā)[n.1057] This is just the uprising of any thought that occurs. as they arise, remain and vanish.


117How does this practice lead to the destruction of the corruptions? Here, a monk abides in the contemplation of the rise and fall of the five aggregates of grasping (pañc'upādānakkhandesu udayabbayānupassi): "This is material form, this is its arising, this is its ceasing; these are feelings…; this is perception…; these are the mental formations…; this is consciousness, this is its arising, this is its ceasing."

118(6) 'Four boundless states. Here, a monk, with a heart filled with loving-kindness, pervades first one quarter, then the second, the third and the fourth. Thus he stays, spreading the thought of loving-kindness above, below and across, everywhere, always with a heart filled with loving-kindness, abundant, magnified, unbounded, without hatred or ill-will. And likewise with compassion, sympathetic joy, and equanimity.

119(7) 'Four formless jhānas. Here, a monk, by passing entirely beyond bodily sensations, by the disappearance of all sense of resistance and by non-attraction to the perception of diversity, seeing that space is infinite, reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Space. And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Space, seeing that consciousness is infinite, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness. And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, seeing that there is no thing, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of No-Thingness. And by passing entirely beyond the Sphere of No-Thingness, he reaches and remains in the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception.

120(8) 'Four supports[n.1058] 'Bases of Conduct' (RD). (apassenāni): Here a monk judges that one thing is to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed.


121–124(9) 'Four Ariyan lineages (ariya-υaṁsā). Here, a monk is content with any old robe, praises such contentment, and does not try to obtain robes improperly or unsuitably. He does not worry if he does not get a robe, and if he does, he is not full of greedy, blind desire, but makes use of it, aware of such dangers and wisely aware of its true purpose. Nor is he conceited about being thus content with any old robe, and he does not disparage others. And one who is thus skilful, not lax, clearly aware and mindful, is known as a monk who is true to the ancient, original (aggaññe) Ariyan lineage. Again, a monk is content with any alms-food he may get… Again, a monk is content with any old lodging-place … And again, a monk, being fond of abandoning ( pahāna), rejoices in abandoning, and being fond of developing (bhāυanā), rejoices in developing, is not therefore conceited… And one who is thus skilful, not lax, clearly aware and mindful, is known as a monk who is true to the ancient, original Ariyan lineage.


125(10) 'Four efforts: The effort of restraint (saṁυarapadhānaṁ), abandoning (pahānapadhānaṁ), development (bhāυanāpadhānaṁ), preservation (anurakkhanāpadhānaṁ).

What is the effort of restraint? Here, a monk, on seeing an object with the eye, does not grasp at the whole or its details, striving to restrain what might cause evil, unwholesome states, such as hankering or sorrow, to flood in on him. Thus he watches over the sense of sight and guards it similarly with sounds, smells, tastes, tactile sensations, thoughts.


126What is the effort of abandoning? Here, a monk does not assent to a thought of lust, of hatred, of cruelty that has arisen, but abandons it, dispels it, destroys it, makes it disappear.


127What is the effort of development? Here, a monk develops the enlightenment-factor of mindfulness, based on solitude, detachment, extinction, leading to maturity of surrender (vossagga-parināmiṁ); he develops the enlightenment-factor of investigation of states, … of energy, … of delight, … of tranquillity, … of concentration, … of equanimity, based on solitude, detachment, extinction, leading to maturity of surrender.


128What is the effort of preservation? Here, a monk keeps firmly in his mind a favourable object of concentration which has arisen, such as a skeleton, or a corpse that is full of worms, blue-black, full of holes, bloated.

129(11) 'Four knowledges: knowledge of Dhamma, of what is consonant with it (anvaye ñānaṁ), knowledge of others' minds[n.1059] Telepathy. (paricce ñānaṁ), conventional knowledge[n.1060] Knowledge in terms of conventional truth. Cf. n.224. (sammuti-ñānaṁ).


130(12) 'Four more knowledges: knowledge of suffering, its origin, its cessation, the path.

131(13) 'Four factors of Stream-Attainment (sotāpattiyaṅgāni): association with good people (sappurisa-saṁseva), hearing the true Dhamma, thorough attention (yoniso manasikāra), practice of the Dhamma in its entirety (dhammānudhamma-patipatti).


132(14) 'Four characteristics of a Stream-Winner: Here, the Ariyan disciple is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Buddha, thus: "This Blessed Lord is an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha, endowed with wisdom and conduct, the Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, incomparable Trainer of men to be tamed, Teachers of gods and humans, enlightened and blessed." He is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Dhamma, thus: "Well-proclaimed by the Lord is the Dhamma, visible here and now, timeless, inviting inspection, leading onward, to be comprehended by the wise each one for himself." He is possessed of unwavering confidence in the Saṅgha, thus: "Well-directed is the Saṅgha of the Lord's disciples, of upright conduct, on the right path, on the perfect path; that is to say the four pairs of persons, the eight kinds of men. The Saṅgha of the Lord's disciples is worthy of offerings, worthy of hospitality, worthy of gifts, worthy of veneration, an unsurpassed field of merit in the world." And he is possessed of morality dear to the Noble Ones, unbroken, without defect, unspotted, without inconsistency, liberating, praised by the wise, uncorrupted, and conducive to concentration.

133(15) 'Four fruits of the ascetic life: the fruits of Stream-Entry, of the Once-Returner, of the Non-Returner, of Arahantship.

134(16) 'Four elements: the elements of "earth", "water", "fire", "air" (pathaυī-, āpo-, tejo-, vāyo-dhātu).

135(17) 'Four nutriments āhārā: "material"[n.1061] Usually this means ordinary human food, but see n.1062. (kabalinkāra) food, gross or subtle;[n.1062] This refers to the food of the devas, sometimes also called kabalinkāra (cf. n.74.). See BDic under Āhāra. contact as second; mental volition (manosañcetanā)[n.1063] This volition = kamma. as third; consciousness as fourth.


136(18) 'Four stations of consciousness (viññāna-tthitiyo): Consciousness gains a footing either in relation to materiality, with materiality as object and basis, as a place of enjoyment, or similarly in regard to feelings, perceptions or mental formations, and there it grows, increases and flourishes.


137(19) 'Four ways of going wrong (agata-gamanāni): One goes wrong through desire (chanda),[n.1064] Chanda is the most general word for 'desire, intention': see BDic. hatred, delusion, fear.

138(20) 'Four arousals of craving: Craving arises in a monk because of robes, alms, lodging, being and non-being[n.1065] Cf. DN 1.1.17. DA's gloss here: 'oil, honey, ghee', etc., seems mysterious, and is not supported by the Sub-Commentary. (iti-bhavābhava-hetu).


139(21) 'Four kinds of progress: painful progress with slow comprehension, painful progress with quick comprehension, pleasant progress with slow comprehension, plea sant progress with quick comprehension.[n.1066] See DN 28.10.

140(22) 'Four more kinds of progress: progress with impatience (akkhamā paṭipadā), patient progress (khamā p.), controlled progress (damā p.), calm progress (samā paṭipadā) .[n.1067] By developing samādhi.

141(23) 'Four ways of Dhamma:[n.1068] Dhamma-padāni. Formally this is the plural of Dhammapada, the title of perhaps the most famous Buddhist scripture, but it is glossed as 'divisions of the Dhamma'. without hankering, without enmity, with right mindfulness, with right concentration.


142(24) 'Four ways of undertaking Dhamma: There is the way that is painful in the present and brings painful future results (dukkha-vipākarṁ), painful in the present and brings pleasant future results (sukha-vipākaṁ), pleasant in the present and brings painful future results, and pleasant in the present and brings pleasant future results.


143(25) 'Four divisions of Dhamma: morality, concentration, wisdom, liberation.

144(26) 'Four powers:[n.1069] Omitting 'faith' as the first of this group, normally of five. energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.


145(27) 'Four kinds of resolve (adhiṭṭhānāni): to gain wisdom, truth (sacca),[n.1070] Truth, i.e. realisation of 'things as they really are'. relinquishment (cāga), tranquillity (upasama).[n.1071] Not 'to master self' (RD).

146(28) 'Four ways of answering questions: the question to be answered directly (ekaṁsa-vyākaraṇiyo pañho), requiring an explanation (vibhajja-v. p.), requiring a counter-question (paṭipucchā-v. p.), to be set aside (ṭhāpanīyo pañha).

147(29) 'Four kinds of kamma: There is black kamma with black result (kaṇha-vipākaṁ), bright kamma with bright result (sukka-v.), black-and-bright kamma with black-and-bright result (kaṇha-sukka v.), kamma that is neither black nor bright (akaṇham-asukkaṁ), with neither black nor bright result, leading to the destruction of kamma.[n.1072] Kamma that leads to enlightenment, when no more kamma will be created.


148(30) 'Four things to be realised by seeing (sacchikaraṇīyā dhammā):[n.1073] 'Making present to the eye'. former lives, to be realised by recollection (satiyā),[n.1074] Here sati is perhaps being used in its older, occasional sense of 'memory' rather than mindfulness: see n.629. passing-away and rearising to be realised by the divine eye,[n.1075] See n.140. the eight deliverances, to be realised with the mental body (kāyena),[n.1077] Factors present in the 'mental group' at any given moment. the destruction of the corruptions, to be realised by wisdom.

149(31) 'Four floods (oghā): sensuality, becoming, wrong views, ignorance.

150(32) 'Four yokes (yogā) sensuality, becoming, wrong views, ignorance.


151(33) 'Four "unyokings" (visaṁyogā): from sensuality, becoming, views, ignorance.

152(34) 'Four ties (ganthā):[n.1078] Which tie mind (nāma) and body (rūpa) together. Gantha also means 'book' in the later language (see n.846). the "body-tie"[n.1079] Kāya here means nāma-kāya 'mental body'. (kāya-gantha) of hankering (abhijjhā), ill-will (vyāpāda), attachment to rite and ritual (sīlabbata-parāmāsa), dogmatic fanaticism (idaṁ-saccābhinivesa).

153(35) 'Four clingings (upādānāni): to sensuality, to views (ditthi), to rules and ritual (sīlabbata-pārāmāsa), to ego-belief (attavāda).

154(36) 'Four kinds of generation:[n.1080] Yoniyo: 'wombs'. Further details are given in MN 12. from an egg, from a womb, from moisture,[n.1081] 'As from rotting fish, etc.' (MN 12). spontaneous rebirth (opapātika-yoni).[n.1082] Rebirth in the deva world (also as a Non-Returner).


155(37) 'Four ways of descent into the womb: One descends into the mother's womb unknowing, stays there unknowing, and leaves it unknowing; one enters the womb knowing, stays there unknowing, and leaves it unknowing; one enters the womb knowing, stays there knowing, and leaves it unknowing; one enters the womb knowing, stays there knowing, and leaves it knowing.As Sutta 28, verse 5.


156(38) 'Four ways of getting a new personality attabhāva-paṭilābhā :[n.1083] A new 'self' in another existence. Cf. n.220. There is an acquisition of personality that is brought about by one's own volition, not another's, another's volition, not one's own, both, neither.


157(39) 'Four purifications of offerings (dakkhiṇā-visuddhiyo): there is the offering purified by the giver but not by the recipient, by the recipient but not by the giver, by neither, by both.

158(40) 'Four bases of sympathy (saṁgaha-vatthūni); generosity, pleasing speech, beneficial conduct and impartiality.


159(41) 'Four un-Ariyan modes of speech: lying, slander, abuse, idle gossip.

160(42) 'Four Ariyan modes of speech: refraining from lying, slander, abuse, idle gossip.

161(43) 'Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech: claiming to have seen, heard, sensed (muta),[n.1084] See n.933. known what one has not seen, heard, sensed, known.


162(44) 'Four more Ariyan modes of speech: stating that one has not seen, heard, sensed, known what one has not seen, heard sensed, known.

163(45) 'Four more un-Ariyan modes of speech: claiming not to have seen, heard, sensed, known what one has seen, heard, sensed, known.

164(46) 'Four more Ariyan modes of speech: stating that one has seen, heard, sensed, known what one has seen, heard, sensed, known.


165(47) 'Four persons: Here a certain man torments himself (attan-tapo hoti), is given to self-tormenting, torments others (paran-tapo hoti),… torments himself and others,… torments neither himself nor others … Thereby he dwells in this life without craving, released (nibbuto), cool, enjoying bliss, become as Brahma (brahma-bhūtena).[n.1085] Cf. n.823.


166(48) 'Four more persons: Here a man's life benefits himself but not others, others but not himself,[n.1086] Like Upananda, whose conduct was not good, though he was still able to help others (DA). neither, both.


167(49) 'Four more persons: living in darkness and bound for darkness (tamo tamaparāyanam) living in darkness and bound for the light tamo jotiparāyana, living in the light and bound for darkness, living in the light and bound for the light.


168(50) 'Four more persons: the unshakeable ascetic (samaṇam-acalo), the "blue-lotus" ascetic, the "white-lotus" ascetic, the subtly-perfect ascetic (samana-sukhumālo).[n.1087] These curious designations are supposed to refer to the Stream-Winner, Once-Returner, Non-Returner, and Arahant respectively.

169'These are the sets of four things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord … So we should all recite them together… for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.

End of first recitation-section

Five Things

170'There are sets of five things perfectly proclaimed…


171(1) 'Five aggregates: body, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, consciousness.

172(2) 'Five aggregates of grasping (pancûpādāna-kkhandhā): body, feelings, perceptions, mental formations, consciousness.


173(3) 'Five strands of sense-desire (pañca kāma-guṇā): a sight seen by the eye, a sound heard by the ear, a smell smelt by the nose, a flavour tasted by the tongue, a tangible object felt by the body as being desirable, attractive, nice, charming, associated with lust and arousing passion.

174(4) 'Five post-mortem destinies (gatiyo): hell (nirayo),[n.1088] Cf. n.244. animal-rebirth (tiracchāna-yoni),[n.1089] Cf. n.244. the realm of hungry ghosts (petā), humankind, the deva world.

175(5) 'Five kinds of begrudging (macchariyāni):[n.1090] Faults of begrudging in a monk. as to dwelling-place, families,[n.1091] Begrudging others the support of a particular family. gains, beauty (vaṇṇa), Dhamma.


176(6) 'Five hindrances: sensuality (kāmacchanda), ill-will (vyāpāda), sloth-and-torpor (thīna-middha), worry-and-flurry (uddhacca-kukkucca), sceptical doubt (vicikicchā).

177(7) 'Five lower fetters: personality-belief (sakkāya-diṭṭhi), doubt, attachment to rite and ritual (sīlabbata-parāmāsa), sensuality, ill-will.

178(8) 'Five higher fetters: craving for the world of form (rūparāga), craving for the formless world (arūpa-rāga), conceit (māna), restlessness (uddhacca), ignorance.

179(9) 'Five rules of training (sikkhāpadāni): refraining from taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying speech, strong drink and sloth-producing drugs (surā-merayamajja-pamāddaṭṭhānā).


180(10) 'Five impossible things: An Arahant is incapable of deliberately taking the life of a living being; taking what is not given so as to constitute theft; sexual intercourse; telling a deliberate lie; storing up goods for sensual indulgence as he did formerly in the household life.

181(11) 'Five kinds of loss (vyasanāni): Loss of relatives, wealth, health, morality, right view. No beings fall into an evil state, a hell-state … after death because of loss or relatives, wealth or health; but beings do fall into such states by loss of morality and right view.

182(12) 'Five kinds of gain (sampadā): Gain of relatives, wealth, health, morality, right view. No beings arise in a happy, heavenly state after death because of the gain of relatives, wealth or health; but beings are reborn in such states because of gains in morality and right view.

183(13) 'Five dangers to the immoral through lapsing from morality : In the first place, he suffers great loss of property through neglecting his affairs. In the second place, he gets a bad reputation for immorality and misconduct. In the third place, whatever assembly he approaches, whether of Khattiyas, Brahmins, householders or ascetics, he does so diffidently and shyly. In the fourth place, he dies confused. In the fifth place, after death, at the breaking up of the body, he arises in an evil state, a bad fate, in suffering and hell. These are the five perils to one of bad morality.

184(14) 'Five benefits to the moral through preserving morality: In the first place, through careful attention to his affairs he gains much wealth. In the second place, he gets a good reputation for morality and good conduct. In the third place, whatever assembly he approaches, whether of Khattiyas, Brahmins, householders or ascetics, he does so with confidence and assurance. In the fourth place, he dies unconfused. In the fifth place, after death, at the breaking-up of the body, he arises in a good place, a heavenly world. These are the five advantages to one of good morality, and of success in morality.

185(15) 'Five points to be borne in mind by a monk wishing to rebuke another: I will speak at the proper time, not the wrong time, I will state the truth, not what is false, I will speak gently, not roughly, I will speak for his good, not for his harm, I will speak with love in my heart, not with enmity.


186(16) 'Five factors of endeavour: Here, a monk has faith, trusting in the enlightenment of the Tathāgata: "Thus this Blessed Lord is an Arahant, a fully-enlightened Buddha, perfected in knowledge and conduct, a Well-Farer, Knower of the worlds, unequalled Trainer of men to be tamed, Teacher of gods and humans, a Buddha, a Blessed Lord.",

Is in good health, suffers little distress or sickness, having a good digestion that is neither too cool nor too hot but of a middling temperature suitable for exertion,

Is not fraudulent or deceitful, showing himself as he really is to his teacher or to the wise among his companions in the holy life,

Keeps his energy constantly stirred up for abandoning unwholesome states and arousing wholesome states, and is steadfast, firm in advancing and persisting in wholesome states,

Is a man of wisdom, endowed with wisdom concerning rising and cessation, with the Ariyan penetration that leads to the complete destruction of suffering.

187(17) 'Five Pure Abodes (suddhāvāsā) :[n.1092] Realms inhabited by the Non-Returners, who attain to Nibbāna directly from there. Aviha,[n.1093] The meaning of this name is perhaps 'not falling from prosperity' (see EB). Unworried (Atappā), Clearly Visible (Sudassā), Clear-Sighted (Sudassī), Peerless (Akaniṭṭhā).


188(18) 'Five kinds of Non-Returner (anāgāmī):[n.1094] For these scholastic distinctions see BDic or EB. the "less-than-half-timer", the "more-than-half-timer", the "gainer without exertion", the "gainer with exertion", "he who goes upstream to the highest".

189(19) 'Five mental blockages (ceto-khīlā): Here, a monk has doubts and hesitations about the Teacher, is dissatisfied and cannot settle in his mind. Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort; about the Dhamma … ; about the Saṅgha … ; about the training … ; he is angry and displeased with his fellows in the holy life, he feels depressed and negative towards them. Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort.


190(20) 'Five mental bondages (cetaso vinibandhā):[n.1095] See also MN 12.Here, a monk has not got rid of the passion, desire, love, thirst (pipāsa),[n.1096] This, though here used metaphorically, is the word for 'thirst' in the literal sense. Here it means something less strong than tanhā. fever, craving (taṇhā) for sense-desires (kāme): thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort; for the body (kāye),… for physical objects (rūpe), … or having eaten as much as his belly will hold, he abandons himself to the pleasure of lying down, of contact, of sloth; or he practises the holy life for the sake of becoming a member of some body of devas (deva-nikāya), thinking: "By means of these rites or this discipline, this austerity or this holy life I shall become one of the devas, great or small." Thus his mind is not inclined towards ardour, devotion, persistence and effort.


191(21) 'Five faculties (indriyāni): the faculty of eye, ear, nose, tongue, body.

192(22) 'Five more faculties: pleasant bodily feeling (sukha), pain (dukkha), gladness (somanassa), sadness (domanassa), indifferent feeling (upekhā).

193(23) 'Five more faculties: faith (saddhā), energy, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.


194–198(24) 'Five elements making for deliverance (nissaraṇīyā dhātuyo): Here, when a monk considers sense-desires, his mind does not leap forward and take satisfaction in them, fix on them or make free with them,[n.1097] Vimuccati, apparently meaning 'is liberated', but glossed by DA as adhimuccati, rendered by RD as 'choose'. The same verb is used in the next sentence with regard to renunciation. I have used 'make free' as a makeshift, free rendering, and suspect a textual corruption. but when he considers renunciation it does leap forward, take satisfaction in it, fix on it, and make free with it. And he gets this thought well-set, well-developed, well raised up, well freed and disconnected from sense-desires. And thus he is freed from the corruptions (āsavā), the vexations and fevers that arise from sense-desires, and he does not feel that [sensual] feeling. This is called the deliverance from sense-desires. And the same applies to ill-will, cruelty, forms (rūpa)[n.1098] Rūpa here perhaps means ‘thing seen’., personality (sakkāya).


199–200(25) 'Five bases of deliverance (vimuttāyatanāni): Here, the Teacher or a respected fellow-disciple teaches a monk Dhamma. And as he receives the teaching, he gains a grasp of both the spirit and the letter of the teaching. At this, joy arises in him, and from this joy, delight (pīti); and by this delight his senses are calmed, he feels happiness (sukhaṁ) as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established;[n.1099] 'By the samādhi of the fruit of Arahantship' (DA). In this context, it is perhaps worth noting that in Buddhism, as opposed to some non-Buddhist usage, samādhi by itself never means 'liberation' or 'enlightenment' (see n.225). he has not heard it thus, but in the course of teaching Dhamma to others he has learnt it by heart as he has heard it; or as he is chanting the Dhamma … ; or he feels happiness as a result, and with this happiness his mind is established.


201(26) 'Five perceptions making for maturity of liberation: the perception of impermanence (anicca-sañña), of suffering in impermanence (anicce dukkha-saññā), of impersonality in suffering (dukkhe anatta-saññā), of abandoning (pahāna-saññā), of dispassion (virāga-saññā).


202'These are the sets of five things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…'

Six Things

203'There are sets of six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…


204(1) 'Six internal sense-spheres (ajjhattikāni āyatanāni): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-(kāyāyatanaṁ), mind-sense-sphere (manāyatanaṁ).

205(2) 'Six external sense-spheres (bahirāni āyatanāni): sight-object (rūpāyatanaṁ), sound-, smell-, taste-, tangible object (phoṭṭabbāyatanaṁ), mind-object (dhammāyatanaṁ).

206(3) 'Six groups of consciousness (viññaṇa-kāyā): eye-consciousness, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-consciousness.

207(4) 'Six groups of contact (phassa-kāyā): eye-, ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact (mano-samphasso).


208(5) 'Six groups of feeling (vedanā-kāyā): feeling based on eye-contact (cakkhu-samphassajā vedanā), on ear-, nose-, tongue-, body-, mind-contact.

209(6) 'Six groups of perception (saññā-kāyā): perception of sights (rūpa-saññā), of sounds, of smells, of tastes, of touches, of mind-objects (dhamma-saññā).

210(7) 'Six groups of volition (sañcetanā-kāyā): volition based on sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

211(8) 'Six groups of craving (taṇhā-kāyā): craving for sights, sounds, smells, tastes, touches, mind-objects.

212(9) 'Six kinds of disrespect (agāravā): Here, a monks behaves disrespectfully and discourteously towards the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Saṅgha, the training, in respect of earnestness (appamāde), of hospitality (paṭisanthāre).


213(10) 'Six kinds of respect (gāravā): Here, a monk behaves respectfully and courteously towards the Teacher, the Dhamma, the Saṅgha, the training, in respect of earnestness (appamāde), of hospitality (paṭisanthāre)

214(11) 'Six pleasurable investigations (somanassûpavicārā):[n.1100] 'Investigations linked with pleasure' (DA). When, on seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing…, smelling …, tasting …, touching …, knowing a mind-object with the mind, one investigates a corresponding object productive of pleasure.

215(12) 'Six unpleasurable investigations: When, on seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing…, smelling …, tasting …, touching .., knowing a mind-object with the mind, one investigates a corresponding object productive of displeasure.

216(13) 'Six indifferent investigations: When, on seeing a sight-object with the eye, on hearing…, smelling …, tasting …, touching .., knowing a mind-object with the mind, one investigates a corresponding object productive of indifference (upekhā).


217(14) 'Six things conducive to communal living (sārāṇīyā dhammā):[n.1101] The meaning of sārāniyā dhamma is not quite certain. At DN 16.1.11, RN has 'conditions of welfare', which is a slip for the preceding aparihāniyā dhammā.
As long as monks both in public and in private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of body…


218As long as monks both in public and in private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of speech…

219As long as monks both in public and in private show loving-kindness to their fellows in acts of thought…

220Share with their virtuous fellows whatever they receive as a rightful gift, including the contents of their alms-bowls, which they do not keep to themselves, …

221Keep consistently, unbroken and unaltered those rules of conduct that are spotless, leading to liberation, praised by the wise, unstained and conducive to concentration, and persist therein with their fellows both in public and in private,…

222Continue in that noble view that leads to liberation, to the utter destruction of suffering, remaining in such awareness with their fellows both in public and in private.


223(15) 'Six roots of contention (vivāda-mūlāni): Here, a monk is angry and bears ill-will, he is disrespectful and discourteous to the Teacher, the Dhamma and the Saṅgha, and does not finish his training. He stirs up contention within the Saṅgha, which brings woe and sorrow to many, with evil consequences, misfortune and sorrow for devas and humans. If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention. If you find no such root of contention…, then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future.

224Or a monk is deceitful and malicious (makkhī hoti paḷāsī) …, a monk is envious and mean …, a monk is cunning and deceitful…, a monk is full of evil desires and wrong views…, a monk is opinionated (sandiṭṭhi-parāmāsī), obstinate and tenacious. If, friends, you should discover such a root of contention among yourselves or among others, you should strive to get rid of just that root of contention. If you find no such root of contention…, then you should work to prevent its overcoming you in future.


225(16) 'Six elements: the earth-, water-, fire-, air-, space-element (ākāsa-dhātu), the consciousness-element (viṇṇāṇa-dhātu) .[n.1102] The four primary elements (n.70) with the two additional ones sometimes found with them (as MN 140). For the first five in later Buddhism, cf. Lama Anagarika Govinda, Foundations of Tibetan Mysticism, (London 1959), 183ff.


226(17) 'Six elements making for deliverance (nissaraṇīyā-dhātuyo): Here, a monk might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart (ceto-vimutti) by loving-kindness (mettā), expanded it, made it a vehicle and a base, established, worked well on it, set it well in train. And yet ill-will still grips my heart." He should be told: "No! do not say that! Do not misrepresent the Blessed Lord, it is not right to slander him thus, for he would not have said such a thing! Your words are unfounded and impossible. If you develop the emancipation of the heart through loving-kindness, ill-will has no chance to envelop your heart. This emancipation through loving-kindness is the cure for ill-will."


227Or he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through compassion (karuṇā), and yet cruelty still grips my heart…"

228Or he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through sympathetic joy (muditā), and yet aversion (arati) still grips my heart…"


229Or he might say: "I have developed the emancipation of the heart through equanimity (upekhā), and yet lust (rāgo) grips my heart."

230Or he might say: "I have developed the signless emancipation of the heart (animittā ceto-vimutti),[n.1103] Cf. VM 21.66. and yet my heart still hankers after signs (nimittānusāri hoti) … "

231Or he might say: "The idea 'I am' is repellent to me, I pay no heed to the idea: 'I am this.' Yet doubts, uncertainties and problems still grip my heart…" (Reply to each in similar terms).


232(18) 'Six unsurpassed things (anuttariyāni):[n.1104] A miscellaneous collection of 'unsurpassed' things, the last, for example, being the recollection (not ʹmemoryʹ, RD!) of Buddha, Dhamma and Saṅgha. certain sights, things heard, gains, trainings, forms of service (paricāriyānuttariyaṁ), objects of recollection.

233(19) 'Six subjects of recollection (anussati-ṭṭhānāni): the Buddha, the Dhamma, the Saṅgha, morality, renunciation, the devas.

234(20) 'Six stable states (satata-vihārā):[n.1105] RD quaintly renders this 'chronic states'. On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound…, smelling a smell …, tasting a flavour…, touching a tangible object… or cognising a mental object with the mind, one is neither pleased (sumano) nor displeased (dummano), but remains equable (upekhako), mindful and clearly aware.

235(21) 'Six "species" (ābhijātiyo): Here, one born in dark conditions lives a dark life, one born in dark conditions lives a bright life, one born in dark conditions attains Nibbāna, which is neither dark nor bright, one bom in bright conditions lives a dark life, one born in bright conditions leads a bright life, one born in bright conditions attains Nibbāna which is neither dark nor bright.


236(22) 'Six perceptions conducive to penetration (nibbedha-bhāgiya-saññā): the perception of impermanence, of suffering in impermanence, of impersonality in suffering, of abandoning, of dispassion (as Sutta 33, verse 2.1 (26)) and the perception of cessation (nirodha-saññā).


237'These are the sets of six things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…'

Seven Things

238'There are sets of seven things which have been perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…


239(1) 'Seven Ariyan treasures (ariya-dhanāni): faith, morality, moral shame (hiri), moral dread (ottappa), learning (suta), renunciation (cāga), wisdom.

240(2) 'Seven factors of enlightenment (sambojjhaṅgā): mindfulness, investigation of phenomena, energy, delight (pīti), tranquillity, concentration, equanimity.


241(3) 'Seven requisites of concentration:[n.1106] As if the entire Eightfold Path simply led up to Right Concentration! (cf. n.1099). See DN 18.27. right view, thought, speech, action, livelihood, effort, mindfulness.

242(4) 'Seven wrong practices (asaddhammā): Here, a monk lacks faith, lacks moral shame, lacks moral dread, has little learning, is slack (kusḇīto), is unmindful (mutthassati), lacks wisdom.

243(5) 'Seven right practices (saddhammā): Here, a monk has faith, moral shame and moral dread, has much learning, has aroused vigour (āraddha-viriyo), has established mindfulness (upaṭṭhita-sati hoti), possesses wisdom.

244(6) 'Seven qualities of the true man (sappurisa-dhammā):[n.1107] The ideal man (Buddha or Arahant). Here, a monk is a knower of the Dhamma, of meanings (atthaññū), of self (attaññū),[n.1108] Naturally in the relative sense: there would be no justification for reading any notion of a 'Great Self' into this (basically pronominal) usage! Note the characteristic play on words: attha, attā, mattā. of moderation (mattaññū), of the right time, of groups (parisaññū), of persons.


245(7) 'Seven grounds for commendation (niddasa-vatthūni),[n.1109] Reading niddasa. RD's 'bases of Arahantship' is pretty free. Here, a monk is keenly anxious to undertake the training, and wants to persist in this, to make a close study of the Dhamma, to get rid of desires, to find solitude, to arouse energy, to develop mindfulness and discrimination (sati-nepakke), to develop penetrative insight.[n.1110] Ditthi-pativedhe. RD's 'intuition of the truth' does not quite hit this off.


246(8) 'Seven perceptions: perception of impermanence, of not-self, of foulness (asubhasaññā), of danger, of abandonment, of dispassion, of cessation.

247(9) 'Seven powers (balāni): of faith, energy, moral shame, moral dread, mindfulness, concentration, wisdom.


248(10) 'Seven stations of consciousness: "There are beings who are diverse in body and diverse in perception, such as human beings, some gods, and some beings in the lower realms. This is the first station for consciousness.

249"There are beings who are diverse in body but identical in perception, such as the gods of the Brahma-order who are generated through the first (jhāna). This is the second station for consciousness.

250"There are beings who are identical in body but diverse in perception, such as the gods of streaming radiance. This is the third station for consciousness.

251"There are beings who are identical in body and identical in perception, such as the gods of refulgent beauty. This is the fourth station for consciousness.

252"There are beings who, through the complete surmounting of perceptions of material form, the passing away of perceptions of impingement, and non-attention to perceptions of diversity, (contemplating) 'Space is infinite,' arrive at the base of the infinity of space. This is the fifth station for consciousness.

253"There are beings who, having completely surmounted the base of the infinity of space, (contemplating) 'Consciousness is infinite,' arrive at the base of the infinity of consciousness. This is the sixth station for consciousness.

254"There are beings who, having completely surmounted the base of the infinity of consciousness, (contemplating) 'There is nothing,' arrive at the base of nothingness. This is the seventh station for consciousness.


255(11) 'Seven persons worthy of offerings: The Both-Ways-Liberated, the Wisdom-Liberated, the Body-Witness, the Vision-Attainer, the Faith-Liberated, the Dhamma-Devotee, the Faith-Devotee as Sutta 28, verse 8.


256(12) 'Seven latent proclivities (anusayā): sensuous greed (kāma-rāga), resentment (paṭigha), views, doubt, conceit, craving for becoming (bhava-rāga), ignorance.

257(13) 'Seven fetters (saṁyojanāni): complaisance (anunaya),[n.1111] Lit. 'going along with'. resentment (then as (12)).

258(14) 'Seven rules for the pacification and settlement of disputed questions that have been raised:[n.1112] These form the final part (rules 221–227) of the Pāṭimokkha or code of discipline. proceedings face-to-face, recollection (sati), mental derangement, confession, majority verdict, habitual bad character, "covering over with grass".


259'These are the sets of seven things which were perfectly proclaimed by the Lord … So we should all recite them together… for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.'

End of second recitation-section

Eight Things

260'There are sets of eight things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…


261(1) 'Eight wrong factors (micchattā): wrong view, wrong thought, wrong speech, wrong action, wrong livelihood, wrong effort, wrong mindfulness, wrong concentration.

262(2) 'Eight right factors (sammattā): right view, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.

263(3) 'Eight persons worthy of offerings:[n.1113] As n.1039. the Stream-Winner and one who has practised to gain the fruit of Stream-Entry, the Once-Retumer…, the Non-Returner…, the Arahant and one who has worked to gain the fruit of Arahantship.


264(4) 'Eight occasions of indolence (kusīta-vatthūni): Here, a monk has a job to do. He thinks: "I've got this job to do, but it will make me tired. I'll have a rest." So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.


265Or he has done some work, and thinks: "I've done this work, now I'm tired. I'll have a rest." So he lies down …

266Or he has to go on a journey, and thinks: "I have to go on this journey. It will make me tired …


267"Or he has been on a journey…


268Or he goes on the alms-round in a village or town and does not get his fill of food, whether coarse or fine, and he thinks: "I've gone for alms… … my body is tired and useless …

269Or he goes on the alms-round … and gets his fill … He thinks: "I've gone for alms … and my body is heavy and useless as if I were pregnant … "[n.1114] RD has 'like a load of soaked beans', following DA, but the sense of 'pregnant' seems well established. Perhaps a case of prudishness on Buddhaghosa's part, echoed by Mrs Rhys Davids.


270Or he has developed some slight indisposition, and he thinks: "I'd better have a rest…"

271Or he is recuperating, having not long recovered from an illness, and he thinks: "My body is weak and useless. I'll have a rest." So he lies down and does not stir up enough energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.


272(5) 'Eight occasions for making an effort (ārabbha-vatthūni): Here, a monk has a job to do. He thinks: "I've got this job to do, but in doing it I won't find it easy to pay attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised."

273Or he has done some work, and thinks: "Well, I did the job, but because of it I wasn't able to pay sufficient attention to the teaching of the Buddhas. So I will stir up sufficient energy…"


274Or he has to go on a journey…


275Or he has been on a journey. He thinks: "I've been on this journey, but because of it I wasn't able to pay sufficient attention …"

276Or he goes for alms … without getting his fill … And he thinks: "So my body is light and fit. I'll stir up energy…"

277Or he goes for alms… and gets his fill … And he thinks: "So my body is strong and fit. I'll stir up energy…"


278Or he has some slight indisposition… and he thinks: "This indisposition might get worse, so I'll stir up energy…

279Or he is recuperating… and he thinks: "…it might be that the illness will recur. So I'll stir up energy…" Thus he stirs up sufficient energy to complete the uncompleted, to accomplish the unaccomplished, to realise the unrealised.

280(6) 'Eight bases for giving: One gives as occasion offers (āsajja), from fear, thinking: "He gave me something", thinking: "He will give me something", thinking: "It is good to give", thinking: "I am cooking something, they are not. It would not be right not to give something to those who are not cooking", thinking: "If I make this gift I shall acquire a good reputation", in order to adorn and prepare one's heart.[n.1115] In practising (not 'studying': RD) for calm and insight. Giving (RD has 'forgiving' — a misprint for 'for giving'!) softens the heart in both donor and recipient. DA quotes the verse also found at VM 9.39:
   A gift for taming the untamed,
   A gift for every kind of good;
   Through giving gifts they do unbend
   And condescend to kindly speech. (Nānamoliʹs translation).


281(7) 'Eight kinds of rebirth due to generosity: Here, someone gives an ascetic or Brahmin food, drink, clothes, transport (yānaṁ), garlands, perfumes and ointments, sleeping accommodation, a dwelling, or lights, and he hopes to receive a return for his gifts. He sees a rich Khattiya or Brahmin or householder living in full enjoyment of the pleasures of the five senses, and he thinks: "If only when I die I may be reborn as one of these rich people!" He sets his heart on this thought, fixes it and develops it (bhāveti).[n.1116] 'Expands' (RD). But this is the usual verb for 'developing' in meditation. And this thought, being launched (vimuttaṁ) at such a low level (hīne), and not developed to a higher level (uttarin abhāvitaṁ), leads to rebirth right there. But I say this of a moral person, not of an immoral one. The mental aspiration of a moral person is effective through its purity.[n.1117] 'I.e. its being unmixed, single-minded' (RD). DA has no comment, but the idea of the power of such a 'pure-minded' aspiration is very similar to that regarding the efficacy of a 'declaration of truth'.

282Or he gives such gifts and, having heard that the devas in the realm of the Four Great Kings live long, are good-looking and lead a happy life, he thinks: "If only I could be reborn there!"


283Or he similarly aspires to rebirth in the heavens of the Thirty-Three Gods, …the Yama devas, …the Tusita devas, …the Nimmanarati devas, …the Paranimmita-vasavatti devas. And this thought leads to rebirth right there … The mental aspiration of a moral person is effective through its purity.

284Or he similarly aspires to rebirth in the world of Brahmā … But I say this of a moral person, not an immoral one, one freed from passion (vītarāgassa), not one still swayed by passion.[n.1118] Brahma to the Buddha is not immortal and is not a creator-god. His wisdom, though considerable, is limited, and he can be boastful (see DN 11!), but he is free from sensual passions, and so must those be who are reborn in his realm (though the passions may have only been suppressed by jhāna — which is cetovimutti 'liberation of the heart' — and not necessarily by insight, which is paññāvimutti 'liberation by wisdom': cf. nn.355, 868). But those who are reborn there have not, says the Sub-Commentary, got rid of the desire for continued existence (bhavatanhā: n.1032). The mental aspiration of such a moral person is effective through liberation from passion.


285(8) 'Eight assemblies: the assembly of Khattiyas, Brahmins, householders, ascetics, devas of the Realm of the Four Great Kings, of the Thirty-Three Gods, of maras, of Brahmas.


286(9) 'Eight worldly conditions (loka-dhammā): gain and loss, fame and shame (yaso ca ayaso ca), blame and praise, happiness and misery.


287(10) 'Eight stages of mastery: 'Perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited and beautiful or ugly, and in mastering these, one is aware that one knows and sees them. That is the first stage.

288'Perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, unlimited and beautiful or ugly…. That is the second stage.

289'Not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, limited and beautiful or ugly… That is the third stage.


290'Not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms, unlimited and beautiful or ugly, and in mastering these, one is aware that one knows and sees them. That is the fourth stage.

291'Not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms that are blue, of blue colour, of blue lustre. Just as a flax flower which is blue, of blue colour, of blue lustre, or a Benares cloth smoothed on both sides that is blue,… so one perceives external forms that are blue,… and in mastering these, one is aware that one knows and sees them. That is the fifth stage.

292'Not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms that are yellow … just as a kannikara flower which is yellow,… or a Benares cloth that is yellow, so one perceives external forms that are yellow …That is the sixth stage.

293'Not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms that are red … Just as a hibiscus flower which is red,… or a Benares cloth which is red,… so one perceives external forms that are red … That is the seventh stage.

294'Not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms that are white, of white colour, of white lustre, just as the morning-star Osadhi is white,… or a Benares cloth smoothed on both sides that is white,… so not perceiving forms internally, one sees external forms that are white,… and in mastering these, one is aware that one knows and sees them. That is the eighth stage of mastery. These are the eight stages of mastery.


295(11) 'Eight liberations: "One possessing material form sees material forms. This is the first emancipation.

296"One not perceiving material forms internally sees material forms externally. This is the second emancipation.

297"One is released upon the idea of the beautiful. This is the third emancipation.

298"Through the complete surmounting of perceptions of material form, the passing away of perceptions of impingement, and non-attention to perceptions of diversity, (contemplating) 'Space is infinite,' one enters and dwells in the base of the infinity of space. This is the fourth emancipation.

299"Having completely surmounted the base of the infinity of space, (contemplating) 'Consciousness is infinite,' one enters and dwells in the base of the infinity of consciousness. This is the fifth emancipation.

300"Having completely surmounted the base of the infinity of consciousness, (contemplating) 'There is nothing,' one enters and dwells in the base of nothingness. This is the sixth emancipation.

301"Having completely surmounted the base of nothingness, one enters and dwells in the base of neither perception nor non-perception. This is the seventh emancipation.

302"Having completely surmounted the base of neither perception nor non-perception, one enters and dwells in the cessation of perception and feeling. This is the eighth emancipation.


303"These are the sets of eight things…'

Nine Things

304'There are sets of nine things…


305(1) 'Nine causes of malice (āghāta-vatthūni): Malice is stirred up by the thought: "He has done me an injury", "He is doing me an injury", "He will do me an injury", – "He has done, is doing, will do an injury to someone who is dear and pleasant to me", — "he has done, is doing, will do a favour to someone who is hateful and unpleasant to me."

306(2) 'Nine ways of overcoming malice (āghāta-paṭivinayā): Malice is overcome by the thought: — "He has done me an injury…" (as (1)). "What good would it do to harbour malice?"


307(3) 'Nine abodes of beings. There are beings who are diverse in body and diverse in perception, such as human beings, some gods, and some beings in the lower realms. This is the first station for consciousness.

308"There are beings who are diverse in body but identical in perception, such as the gods of the Brahma-order who are generated through the first (jhāna). This is the second station for consciousness.

309"There are beings who are identical in body but diverse in perception, such as the gods of streaming radiance. This is the third station for consciousness.

310"There are beings who are identical in body and identical in perception, such as the gods of refulgent beauty. This is the fourth station for consciousness.

311"There are beings who, through the complete surmounting of perceptions of material form, the passing away of perceptions of impingement, and non-attention to perceptions of diversity, (contemplating) 'Space is infinite,' arrive at the base of the infinity of space. This is the fifth station for consciousness.


312"There are beings who, having completely surmounted the base of the infinity of space, (contemplating) 'Consciousness is infinite,' arrive at the base of the infinity of consciousness. This is the sixth station for consciousness.

313"There are beings who, having completely surmounted the base of the infinity of consciousness, (contemplating) 'There is nothing,' arrive at the base of nothingness. This is the seventh station for consciousness.

314"There are beings who, having completely surmounted the base of nothingness arrive at the base of nothingness. This is the eighth station for consciousness.

315"There are beings who, having completely surmounted the base of non-percipient beings arrive at the base of neither perception nor non-perception. This is the ninth station for consciousness.


316–324(4) 'Nine unfortunate, inopportune times for leading the holy life (akkhaṇā asamayā brahmacariya-vāsāya): (a) A Tathāgata has been born in the world, Arahant, fully-enlightened Buddha, and the Dhamma is taught which leads to calm and perfect Nibbāna, which leads to enlightenment as taught by the Well-Farer, and this person is born in a hell-state (nirayam),[n.1119] As n.244. … among the animals, … among the petas, … among the asuras, … in a long-lived group of devas,[n.1120] I.e. rebirth among those devas whose lives are so long that they miss the chance of human rebirth at a propitious time. Cf. n.888. or (f) he is born in the border regions among foolish barbarians where there is no access for monks and nuns, or male and female lay-followers, or (g) he is born in the Middle Country,[n.1121] The central, ‘civilised’ area of India (including the Gangetic basin) as opposed to other less favoured regions: cf. n.722. but he has wrong views and distorted vision, thinking: “There is no giving, offering or sacrificing, there is no fruit or result of good or bad deeds; there is not this world and the next world; there are no parents and there is no spontaneous rebirth; there are no ascetics and Brahmins in the world who, having attained to the highest and realised for themselves the highest knowledge about this world and the next, proclaim it";[n.1122] The words of Ajita Kesakambali (DN 2.23). or … he is born in the Middle Country but lacks wisdom and is stupid, or is deaf and dumb and cannot tell whether something has been well said or ill said; or else … no Tathāgata has arisen … and this person is born in the Middle Country and is intelligent, not stupid, and not deaf or dumb, and well able to tell whether something has been well said or ill said.


325(5) 'Nine successive abidings: the jhānas and Spheres of Infinite Space, Infinite Consciousness, No-Thingness, Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, and Cessation of Perception and Feeling.


326(6) 'Nine successive cessations (anupubba-nirodhā): By the attainment of the first jhāna, perceptions of sensuality (kāmasaññā) cease; by the attainment of the second jhāna, thinking and pondering cease; by the attainment of the third jhāna, delight (pīti) ceases; by the attainment of the fourth jhāna, in-and out-breathing ceases;[n.1123] I.e. becomes so subtle as to be imperceptible. by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Space, the perception of materiality ceases, by the attainment of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Space ceases; by the attainment of the Sphere of No-Thingness, the perception of the Sphere of Infinite Consciousness ceases; by the attainment of the Sphere of Neither-Perception-Nor-Non-Perception, the perception of the Sphere of No-Thingness ceases; by the attainment of the Cessation-of-Perception-and-Feeling, perception and feeling cease.


327'These are the sets of nine things…'

Ten Things

328'There are sets of ten things perfectly proclaimed by the Lord…


329–338(1) 'Ten things that give protection (nātha-karana-dhammā):[n.1124] Dhammā here clearly means 'things, factors', not 'doctrines' (RD). Here a monk is moral, he lives restrained according to the restraint of the discipline, persisting in right behaviour, seeing danger in the slightest fault, he keeps to the rules of training; he has learnt much, and bears in mind and retains what he has learnt. In these teachings, beautiful in the beginning, the middle and the ending, which in spirit and in letter proclaim the absolutely perfected and purified holy life, he is deeply learned, he remembers them, recites them, recites them, reflects on them and penetrates them with vision; he is a friend, associate and intimate of good people; he is affable, endowed with gentleness and patience, quick to grasp instruction; whatever various jobs there are to be done for his fellow-monks, he is skilful, not lax, using foresight in carrying them out, and is good at doing and planning; he loves the Dhamma and delights in hearing it, he is especially fond of the advanced doctrine and discipline (abhidhamme abhivinaye);[n.1125] DA is doubtful whether abhidhamma here means ‘the seven Pakaranas’, i.e. the Abhidhamma Pitaka as we know it, or not. The short answer is that if this text goes back to the Buddha’s time (which is possible but far from certain), the word 94abhidhamma can only have the more general sense of ‘higher teaching’ or the like. Similar considerations apply to abhivinaya. he is content with any kind of requisites: robes, alms-food, lodging, medicines in case of illness; he ever strives to arouse energy, to get rid of unwholesome states, to establish wholesome states, untiringly and energetically striving to keep such good states and never shaking off the burden; he is mindful, with a great capacity for clearly recalling things done and said long ago;[n.1126] Cf. n.1074. he is wise, with wise perception of arising and passing away, that Ariyan perception that leads to the complete destruction of suffering.


339(2) 'Ten objects for the attainment of absorption (kasiṇāyatanāni):[n.1127] Not 'objects for self-hypnosis' (RD). The jhānas differ from hypnotic trance in that one has full control and is not suggestible. I am indebted to Dr Nick Ribush for this valuable clarification. He perceives the Earth-Kasina, the Water-Kasina, the Fire-Kasina, the Wind-Kasina, the Blue Kasina, the Yellow Kasina, the Red Kasina, the White Kasina, the Space-Kasina, the Consciousness Kasina,[n.1128] There is some confusion about the last two members of this list. Elsewhere we find āloka 'light' instead of consciousness (the latter is difficult to envisage as a kasina). See VM 5.26 and note 5 there. above, below, on all sides, undivided, unbounded.

340(3) 'Ten unwholesome courses of action (akusala-kammapathā): taking life, taking what is not given, sexual misconduct, lying speech, slander, rude speech, idle chatter, greed, malevolence, wrong view.

341(4) 'Ten wholesome courses of action: avoidance of taking life… (and so on, as 3) above.


342(5) 'Ten Ariyan dispositions (ariya-vāsā): Here a monk has got rid of five factors, possesses six factors, has established one guard, observes the four supports, has got rid of individual beliefs,[n.1129] Or 'sectarian opinions' (RD). Private aberrations of view. has quite abandoned quest, is pure of motive, has tranquillised his emotions,[n.1130] Passaddha-kāya-saṅkhāro, where kāya means the mental body. is well liberated in heart, and by wisdom.


343–352How has he got rid of five factors? Here, he has got rid of sensuality, ill-will, sloth-and-torpor, worry-and-flurry, and doubt; what six factors does he possess? On seeing an object with the eye, hearing a sound…, smelling a smell…, tasting a flavour…, touching a tangible object…, or cognising a mental object with the mind, he is neither pleased nor displeased, but remains equable, mindful and clearly aware; how has he established the one guard? By guarding his mind with mindfulness; what are the four supports? He judges that one thing is to be pursued, one thing endured, one thing avoided, one thing suppressed (as in verse 120); how has he got rid of individual beliefs (panunna-pacceka-sacco?) Whatever individual beliefs are held by the majority of ascetics and Brahmins he has dismissed, abandoned, rejected, let go; how is he one who has quite abandoned quests? He has abandoned the quest for sense-desires, for rebirth, for the holy life;[n.1131] Getting involved in problems about 'self', etc. how is he pure of motive? He has abandoned thoughts of sensuality, ill-will, cruelty; how is he one who has tranquillised his emotions (passaddha-kaya-saṅkhāro hoti)? Because, having given up pleasure and pain with the disappearance of former gladness and sadness, he enters into a state beyond pleasure and pain which is purified by equanimity, and this is the fourth jhāna; how is he well emancipated in heart? He is liberated from the thought of greed, hatred and delusion; how is he well liberated by wisdom? He understands: "For me greed, hatred and delusion are abandoned, cut off at the root, like a palm-tree stump, destroyed and incapable of growing again."


353(6) 'Ten qualities of the non-learner (asekha):[n.1132] See also n.542. The non-learner's right view, right thought; right speech, right action, right livelihood; right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration; right knowledge (sammā –n͂āṇam), right liberation (sammā –vimutti).


354'These are the sets of ten things which have been perfectly set forth by the Lord who knows and sees, the fully-enlightened Buddha. So we should all recite them together without disagreement, so that this holy life may be long-lasting and established for a long time to come, thus to be for the welfare and happiness of the multitude, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit, welfare and happiness of devas and humans.'

355And when the Lord had stood up, he said to the Venerable Sāriputta: 'Good, good, Sāriputta! Well indeed have you proclaimed the way of chanting together for the monks!'

356These things were said by the Venerable Sāriputta, and the Teacher confirmed them. The monks were delighted and rejoiced at the Venerable Sāriputta's words.

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā mallesu cārikaṁ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṅghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi yena pāvā nāma mallānaṁ nagaraṁ tadavasari. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā pāvāyaṁ viharati cundassa kammāraputtassa ambavane.

2Tena kho pana samayena pāveyyakānaṁ mallānaṁ ubbhatakaṁ nāma navaṁ sandhāgāraṁ acirakāritaṁ hoti anajjhāvuṭṭhaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā kenaci vā manussabhūtena. Assosuṁ kho pāveyyakā mallā: "Bhagavā kira mallesu cārikaṁ caramāno mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ pañcamattehi bhikkhusatehi pāvaṁ anuppatto pāvāyaṁ viharati cundassa kammāraputtassa ambavane"ti. Atha kho pāveyyakā mallā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho pāveyyakā mallā bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: "idha, bhante, pāveyyakānaṁ mallānaṁ ubbhatakaṁ nāma navaṁ sandhāgāraṁ acirakāritaṁ hoti anajjhāvuṭṭhaṁ samaṇena vā brāhmaṇena vā kenaci vā manussabhūtena. Tañca kho, bhante, bhagavā paṭhamaṁ paribhuñjatu, bhagavatā paṭhamaṁ paribhuttaṁ pacchā pāveyyakā mallā paribhuñjissanti. Tadassa pāveyyakānaṁ mallānaṁ dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāyā"ti. Adhivāsesi kho bhagavā tuṇhībhāvena.

3Atha kho pāveyyakā mallā bhagavato adhivāsanaṁ viditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā yena sandhāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvāsabbasanthariṁ sandhāgāraṁ santharitvā bhagavato āsanāni paññāpetvā udakamaṇikaṁ patiṭṭhapetvā telapadīpaṁ āropetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhaṁsu. Ekamantaṁ ṭhitā kho te pāveyyakā mallā bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: " sabbasantharisanthataṁ, bhante, sandhāgāraṁ, bhagavato āsanāni paññattāni, udakamaṇiko patiṭṭhāpito, telapadīpo āropito. Yassadāni, bhante, bhagavā kālaṁ maññatī"ti.

4Atha kho bhagavā nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya saddhiṁ bhikkhusaṅghena yena sandhāgāraṁ tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā pāde pakkhāletvā sandhāgāraṁ pavisitvā majjhimaṁ thambhaṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi. Bhikkhusaṅghopi kho pāde pakkhāletvā sandhāgāraṁ pavisitvā pacchimaṁ bhittiṁ nissāya puratthābhimukho nisīdi bhagavantaṁyeva purakkhatvā. Pāveyyakāpi kho mallā pāde pakkhāletvā sandhāgāraṁ pavisitvā puratthimaṁ bhittiṁ nissāya pacchimābhimukhā nisīdiṁsu bhagavantaṁyeva purakkhatvā. Atha kho bhagavā pāveyyake malle bahudeva rattiṁ dhammiyā kathāya sandassetvā samādapetvā samuttejetvā sampahaṁsetvā uyyojesi: "abhikkantā kho, vāseṭṭhā, ratti. Yassadāni tumhe kālaṁ maññathā"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho pāveyyakā mallā bhagavato paṭissutvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkamiṁsu.

5Atha kho bhagavā acirapakkantesu pāveyyakesu mallesu tuṇhībhūtaṁ tuṇhībhūtaṁ bhikkhusaṁghaṁ anuviloketvā āyasmantaṁ sāriputtaṁ āmantesi: " vigatathinamiddho kho, sāriputta, bhikkhusaṁgho. Paṭibhātu taṁ, sāriputta, bhikkhūnaṁ dhammīkathā. Piṭṭhi me āgilāyati. Tamahaṁ āyamissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho āyasmā sāriputto bhagavato paccassosi.

6Atha kho bhagavā catugguṇaṁ saṅghāṭiṁ paññāpetvā dakkhiṇena passena sīhaseyyaṁ kappesi pāde pādaṁ accādhāya, sato sampajāno uṭṭhānasaññaṁ manasi karitvā.


7Tena kho pana samayena nigaṇṭho nāṭaputto pāvāyaṁ adhunākālaṅkato hoti. Tassa kālaṁkiriyāya bhinnā nigaṇṭhā dvedhikajātā bhaṇḍanajātā kalahajātā vivādāpannā aññamaññaṁ mukhasattīhi vitudantā viharanti: "na tvaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānāsi, ahaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānāmi, kiṁ tvaṁ imaṁ dhammavinayaṁ ājānissasi. Micchāpaṭipanno tvamasi, ahamasmi sammāpaṭipanno. Sahitaṁ me, asahitaṁ te. Purevacanīyaṁ pacchā avaca, pacchāvacanīyaṁ pure avaca. Adhiciṇṇaṁ te viparāvattaṁ, āropito te vādo, niggahito tvamasi, cara vādappamokkhāya, nibbeṭhehi vā sace pahosī"ti. Vadhoyeva kho maññe nigaṇṭhesu nāṭaputtiyesu vattati. Yepi nigaṇṭhassa nāṭaputtassa sāvakā gihī odātavasanā, tepi nigaṇṭhesu nāṭaputtiyesu nibbinnarūpā virattarūpā paṭivānarūpā, yathā taṁ durakkhāte dhammavinaye duppavedite aniyyānike anupasamasaṁvattanike asammāsambuddhappavedite bhinnathūpe appaṭisaraṇe.

8Atha kho āyasmā sāriputto bhikkhū āmantesi: "nigaṇṭho, āvuso, nāṭaputto pāvāyaṁ adhunākālaṅkato, tassa kālaṁkiriyāya bhinnā nigaṇṭhā dvedhikajātā … pe … bhinnathūpe appaṭisaraṇe. Evañhetaṁ, āvuso, hoti durakkhāte dhammavinaye duppavedite aniyyānike anupasamasaṁvattanike asammāsambuddhappavedite. Ayaṁ kho panāvuso, amhākaṁ bhagavatā dhammo svākkhāto suppavedito niyyāniko upasamasaṁvattaniko sammāsambuddhappavedito. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ, na vivaditabbaṁ, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.


9Katamo cāvuso, amhākaṁ bhagavatā dhammo svākkhāto suppavedito niyyāniko upasamasaṁvattaniko sammāsambuddhappavedito; yattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ, na vivaditabbaṁ, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ?

1. Ekaka

10Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena eko dhammo sammadakkhāto. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ, na vivaditabbaṁ, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.


Katamo eko dhammo?

Sabbe sattā āhāraṭṭhitikā.


Sabbe sattā saṅkhāraṭṭhitikā. Ayaṁ kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena eko dhammo sammadakkhāto. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ, na vivaditabbaṁ, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

2. Duka

11Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dve dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ, na vivaditabbaṁ, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katamedve?


12Nāmañca rūpañca. (1)

13Avijjā ca bhavataṇhā ca. (2)

14Bhavadiṭṭhi ca vibhavadiṭṭhi ca. (3)

15Ahirikañca anottappañca. (4)

16Hirī ca ottappañca. (5)

17Dovacassatā ca pāpamittatā ca. (6)

18Sovacassatā ca kalyāṇamittatā ca. (7)

19Āpattikusalatā ca āpattivuṭṭhānakusalatā ca. (8)

20Samāpattikusalatā ca samāpattivuṭṭhānakusalatā ca. (9)

21Dhātukusalatā ca manasikārakusalatā ca. (10)

22Āyatanakusalatā ca paṭiccasamuppādakusalatā ca. (11)

23Ṭhānakusalatā ca aṭṭhānakusalatā ca. (12)

24Ajjavañca lajjavañca. (13)

25Khanti ca soraccañca. (14)

26Sākhalyañca paṭisanthāro ca. (15)

27Avihiṁsā ca soceyyañca. (16)

28Muṭṭhassaccañca asampajaññañca. (17)

29Sati ca sampajaññañca. (18)

30Indriyesu aguttadvāratā ca bhojane amattaññutā ca. (19)

31Indriyesu guttadvāratā ca bhojane mattaññutā ca. (20)

32Paṭisaṅkhānabalañca bhāvanābalañca. (21)

33Satibalañca samādhibalañca. (22)

34Samatho ca vipassanā ca. (23)

35Samathanimittañca paggahanimittañca. (24)

36Paggaho ca avikkhepo ca. (25)

37Sīlavipatti ca diṭṭhivipatti ca. (26)

38Sīlasampadā ca diṭṭhisampadā ca. (27)

39Sīlavisuddhi ca diṭṭhivisuddhi ca. (28)

40Diṭṭhivisuddhi kho pana yathā diṭṭhissa ca padhānaṁ. (29)

41Saṁvego ca saṁvejanīyesu ṭhānesu saṁviggassa ca yoniso padhānaṁ. (30)

42Asantuṭṭhitā ca kusalesu dhammesu appaṭivānitā ca padhānasmiṁ. (31)

43Vijjā ca vimutti ca. (32)

44Khayeñāṇaṁ anuppādeñāṇaṁ. (33)


45Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dve dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ, na vivaditabbaṁ, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

3. Tika

46Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tayo dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame tayo?


47Tīṇi akusalamūlāni—lobho akusalamūlaṁ, doso akusalamūlaṁ, moho akusalamūlaṁ. (1)

48Tīṇi kusalamūlāni—alobho kusalamūlaṁ, adoso kusalamūlaṁ, amoho kusalamūlaṁ. (2)

49Tīṇi duccaritāni—kāyaduccaritaṁ, vacīduccaritaṁ, manoduccaritaṁ. (3)

50Tīṇi sucaritāni—kāyasucaritaṁ, vacīsucaritaṁ, manosucaritaṁ. (4)

51Tayo akusalavitakkā—kāmavitakko, byāpādavitakko, vihiṁsāvitakko. (5)

52Tayo kusalavitakkā—nekkhammavitakko, abyāpādavitakko, avihiṁsāvitakko. (6)


53Tayo akusalasaṅkappā—kāmasaṅkappo, byāpādasaṅkappo, vihiṁsāsaṅkappo. (7)

54Tayo kusalasaṅkappā—nekkhammasaṅkappo, abyāpādasaṅkappo, avihiṁsāsaṅkappo. (8)

55Tisso akusalasaññā—kāmasaññā, byāpādasaññā, vihiṁsāsaññā. (9)

56Tisso kusalasaññā—nekkhammasaññā, abyāpādasaññā, avihiṁsāsaññā. (10)

57Tisso akusaladhātuyo—kāmadhātu, byāpādadhātu, vihiṁsādhātu. (11)


58Tisso kusaladhātuyo—nekkhammadhātu, abyāpādadhātu, avihiṁsādhātu. (12)

59Aparāpi tisso dhātuyo—kāmadhātu, rūpadhātu, arūpadhātu. (13)


60Aparāpi tisso dhātuyo—rūpadhātu, arūpadhātu, nirodhadhātu. (14)

61Aparāpi tisso dhātuyo—hīnadhātu, majjhimadhātu, paṇītadhātu. (15)

62Tisso taṇhā—kāmataṇhā, bhavataṇhā, vibhavataṇhā. (16)


63Aparāpi tisso taṇhā—kāmataṇhā, rūpataṇhā, arūpataṇhā. (17)

64Aparāpi tisso taṇhā—rūpataṇhā, arūpataṇhā, nirodhataṇhā. (18)

65Tīṇi saṁyojanāni—sakkāyadiṭṭhi, vicikicchā, sīlabbataparāmāso. (19)

66Tayo āsavā—kāmāsavo, bhavāsavo, avijjāsavo. (20)

67Tayo bhavā—kāmabhavo, rūpabhavo, arūpabhavo. (21)

68Tisso esanā—kāmesanā, bhavesanā, brahmacariyesanā. (22)

69Tisso vidhā—seyyohamasmīti vidhā, sadisohamasmīti vidhā, hīnohamasmīti vidhā. (23)

70Tayo addhā—atīto addhā, anāgato addhā, paccuppanno addhā. (24)

71Tayo antā—sakkāyo anto, sakkāyasamudayo anto, sakkāyanirodho anto. (25)

72Tisso vedanā—sukhā vedanā, dukkhā vedanā, adukkhamasukhā vedanā. (26)


73Tisso dukkhatā—dukkhadukkhatā, saṅkhāradukkhatā, vipariṇāmadukkhatā. (27)

74Tayo rāsī—micchattaniyato rāsi, sammattaniyato rāsi, aniyato rāsi. (28)


75Tayo tamā —atītaṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati, anāgataṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati, etarahi vā paccuppannaṁ addhānaṁ ārabbha kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati. (29)


76Tīṇi tathāgatassa arakkheyyāni—parisuddhakāyasamācāro āvuso tathāgato, natthi tathāgatassa kāyaduccaritaṁ, yaṁ tathāgato rakkheyya: 'mā me idaṁ paro aññāsī'ti. Parisuddhavacīsamācāro āvuso, tathāgato, natthi tathāgatassa vacīduccaritaṁ, yaṁ tathāgato rakkheyya: 'mā me idaṁ paro aññāsī'ti. Parisuddhamanosamācāro, āvuso, tathāgato, natthi tathāgatassa manoduccaritaṁ yaṁ tathāgato rakkheyya: 'mā me idaṁ paro aññāsī'ti. (30)


77Tayo kiñcanā—rāgo kiñcanaṁ, doso kiñcanaṁ, moho kiñcanaṁ. (31)

78Tayo aggī—rāgaggi, dosaggi, mohaggi. (32)

79Aparepi tayo aggī—āhuneyyaggi, gahapataggi, dakkhiṇeyyaggi. (33)

80Tividhena rūpasaṅgaho—sanidassanasappaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ, anidassanasappaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ, anidassanaappaṭighaṁ rūpaṁ. (34)

81Tayo saṅkhārā—puññābhisaṅkhāro, apuññābhisaṅkhāro, āneñjābhisaṅkhāro. (35)

82Tayo puggalā—sekkho puggalo, asekkho puggalo, nevasekkho nāsekkho puggalo. (36)


83Tayo therā—jātithero, dhammathero, sammutithero. (37)

84Tīṇi puññakiriyavatthūni—dānamayaṁ puññakiriyavatthu, sīlamayaṁ puññakiriyavatthu, bhāvanāmayaṁ puññakiriyavatthu. (38)

85Tīṇi codanāvatthūni—diṭṭhena, sutena, parisaṅkāya. (39)


86Tisso kāmūpapattiyo —santāvuso sattā paccupaṭṭhitakāmā, te paccupaṭṭhitesu kāmesu vasaṁ vattenti, seyyathāpi manussā ekacce ca devā ekacce ca vinipātikā. Ayaṁ paṭhamā kāmūpapatti. Santāvuso, sattā nimmitakāmā, te nimminitvā nimminitvā kāmesu vasaṁ vattenti, seyyathāpi devā nimmānaratī. Ayaṁ dutiyā kāmūpapatti. Santāvuso sattā paranimmitakāmā, te paranimmitesu kāmesu vasaṁ vattenti, seyyathāpi devā paranimmitavasavattī. Ayaṁ tatiyā kāmūpapatti. (40)

87Tisso sukhūpapattiyo —santāvuso sattā uppādetvā uppādetvā sukhaṁ viharanti, seyyathāpi devā brahmakāyikā. Ayaṁ paṭhamā sukhūpapatti. Santāvuso, sattā sukhena abhisannā parisannā paripūrā paripphuṭā. Te kadāci karahaci udānaṁ udānenti: 'aho sukhaṁ, aho sukhan'ti, seyyathāpi devā ābhassarā. Ayaṁ dutiyā sukhūpapatti. Santāvuso, sattā sukhena abhisannā parisannā paripūrā paripphuṭā. Te santaṁyeva tusitā sukhaṁ paṭisaṁvedenti, seyyathāpi devā subhakiṇhā. Ayaṁ tatiyā sukhūpapatti. (41)


88Tisso paññā—sekkhā paññā, asekkhā paññā, nevasekkhānāsekkhā paññā. (42)

89Aparāpi tisso paññā—cintāmayā paññā, sutamayā paññā, bhāvanāmayā paññā. (43)

90Tīṇāvudhāni—sutāvudhaṁ, pavivekāvudhaṁ, paññāvudhaṁ. (44)

91Tīṇindriyāni—anaññātaññassāmītindriyaṁ, aññindriyaṁ, aññātāvindriyaṁ. (45)

92Tīṇi cakkhūni—maṁsacakkhu, dibbacakkhu, paññācakkhu. (46)


93Tisso sikkhā—adhisīlasikkhā, adhicittasikkhā, adhipaññāsikkhā. (47)

94Tisso bhāvanā—kāyabhāvanā, cittabhāvanā, paññābhāvanā. (48)

95Tīṇi anuttariyāni—dassanānuttariyaṁ, paṭipadānuttariyaṁ, vimuttānuttariyaṁ. (49)

96Tayo samādhī—savitakkasavicāro samādhi, avitakkavicāramatto samādhi, avitakkaavicāro samādhi. (50)

97Aparepi tayo samādhī—suññato samādhi, animitto samādhi, appaṇihito samādhi. (51)

98Tīṇi soceyyāni—kāyasoceyyaṁ, vacīsoceyyaṁ, manosoceyyaṁ. (52)

99Tīṇi moneyyāni—kāyamoneyyaṁ, vacīmoneyyaṁ, manomoneyyaṁ. (53)

100Tīṇi kosallāni—āyakosallaṁ, apāyakosallaṁ, upāyakosallaṁ. (54)

101Tayo madā—ārogyamado, yobbanamado, jīvitamado. (55)

102Tīṇi ādhipateyyāni—attādhipateyyaṁ, lokādhipateyyaṁ, dhammādhipateyyaṁ. (56)


103Tīṇi kathāvatthūni—atītaṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kathaṁ katheyya: 'evaṁ ahosi atītamaddhānan'ti; anāgataṁ vā addhānaṁ ārabbha kathaṁ katheyya: 'evaṁ bhavissati anāgatamaddhānan'ti; etarahi vā paccuppannaṁ addhānaṁ ārabbha kathaṁ katheyya: 'evaṁ hoti etarahi paccuppannaṁ addhānan'ti. (57)


104Tisso vijjā—pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇaṁ vijjā, sattānaṁ cutūpapāteñāṇaṁ vijjā, āsavānaṁ khayeñāṇaṁ vijjā. (58)

105Tayo vihārā—dibbo vihāro, brahmā vihāro, ariyo vihāro. (59)

106Tīṇi pāṭihāriyāni—iddhipāṭihāriyaṁ, ādesanāpāṭihāriyaṁ, anusāsanīpāṭihāriyaṁ. (60)


107Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tayo dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

4. Catukka

108Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ, na vivaditabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame cattāro?


109Cattāro satipaṭṭhānā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu kāye kāyānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā, vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. Vedanāsu vedanānupassī … pe … citte cittānupassī … pe … dhammesu dhammānupassī viharati ātāpī sampajāno satimā vineyya loke abhijjhādomanassaṁ. (1)

110Cattāro sammappadhānā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu anuppannānaṁ pāpakānaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ anuppādāya chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati. Uppannānaṁ pāpakānaṁ akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati. Anuppannānaṁ kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ uppādāya chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati. Uppannānaṁ kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ ṭhitiyā asammosāya bhiyyobhāvāya vepullāya bhāvanāya pāripūriyā chandaṁ janeti vāyamati vīriyaṁ ārabhati cittaṁ paggaṇhāti padahati. (2)

111Cattāro iddhipādā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu chandasamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ bhāveti. Cittasamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ bhāveti. Vīriyasamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ bhāveti. Vīmaṁsāsamādhipadhānasaṅkhārasamannāgataṁ iddhipādaṁ bhāveti. (3)

112Cattāri jhānāni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati sato ca sampajāno, sukhañca kāyena paṭisaṁvedeti, yaṁ taṁ ariyā ācikkhanti: 'upekkhako satimā sukhavihārī'ti tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā, pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā, adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁcatutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. (4)

113Catasso samādhibhāvanā. Atthāvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārāya saṁvattati. Atthāvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā ñāṇadassanapaṭilābhāya saṁvattati. Atthāvuso samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satisampajaññāya saṁvattati. Atthāvuso samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā āsavānaṁ khayāya saṁvattati.


114Katamā cāvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārāya saṁvattati? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ … pe … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ, āvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārāya saṁvattati. (5.1)


115Katamā cāvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā ñāṇadassanapaṭilābhāya saṁvattati? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu ālokasaññaṁ manasi karoti, divāsaññaṁ adhiṭṭhāti yathā divā tathā rattiṁ, yathā rattiṁ tathā divā. Iti vivaṭena cetasā apariyonaddhena sappabhāsaṁ cittaṁ bhāveti. Ayaṁ, āvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā ñāṇadassanapaṭilābhāya saṁvattati. (5.2)

116Katamā cāvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satisampajaññāya saṁvattati? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno viditā vedanā uppajjanti, viditā upaṭṭhahanti, viditā abbhatthaṁ gacchanti. Viditā saññā uppajjanti, viditā upaṭṭhahanti, viditā abbhatthaṁ gacchanti. Viditā vitakkā uppajjanti, viditā upaṭṭhahanti, viditā abbhatthaṁ gacchanti. Ayaṁ, āvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā satisampajaññāya saṁvattati. (5.3)


117Katamā cāvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā āsavānaṁ khayāya saṁvattati? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassī viharati. Iti rūpaṁ, iti rūpassa samudayo, iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo. Iti vedanā … pe … iti saññā … iti saṅkhārā … iti viññāṇaṁ, iti viññāṇassa samudayo, iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo. Ayaṁ, āvuso, samādhibhāvanā bhāvitā bahulīkatā āsavānaṁ khayāya saṁvattati. (5.4)

118Catasso appamaññā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati. Tathā dutiyaṁ. Tathā tatiyaṁ. Tathā catutthaṁ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjena pharitvā viharati. Karuṇāsahagatena cetasā … pe … muditāsahagatena cetasā … pe … upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati. Tathā dutiyaṁ. Tathā tatiyaṁ. Tathā catutthaṁ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjena pharitvā viharati. (6)

119Cattāro āruppā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā 'ananto ākāso'ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'anantaṁ viññāṇan'ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'natthi kiñcī'ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. (7)

120Cattāri apassenāni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu saṅkhāyekaṁ paṭisevati, saṅkhāyekaṁ adhivāseti, saṅkhāyekaṁ parivajjeti, saṅkhāyekaṁ vinodeti. (8)


121Cattāro ariyavaṁsā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti itarītarena cīvarena, itarītaracīvarasantuṭṭhiyā ca vaṇṇavādī, na ca cīvarahetu anesanaṁ appatirūpaṁ āpajjati; aladdhā ca cīvaraṁ na paritassati, laddhā ca cīvaraṁagadhito amucchito anajjhāpanno ādīnavadassāvī nissaraṇapañño paribhuñjati; tāya ca pana itarītaracīvarasantuṭṭhiyā nevattānukkaṁseti na paraṁ vambheti. Yo hi tattha dakkho analaso sampajāno paṭissato, ayaṁ vuccatāvuso: 'bhikkhu porāṇe aggaññe ariyavaṁse ṭhito'. (9.1)

122Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti itarītarena piṇḍapātena, itarītarapiṇḍapātasantuṭṭhiyā ca vaṇṇavādī, na ca piṇḍapātahetu anesanaṁ appatirūpaṁ āpajjati; aladdhā ca piṇḍapātaṁ na paritassati, laddhā ca piṇḍapātaṁ agadhito amucchito anajjhāpanno ādīnavadassāvī nissaraṇapañño paribhuñjati; tāya ca pana itarītarapiṇḍapātasantuṭṭhiyā nevattānukkaṁseti na paraṁ vambheti. Yo hi tattha dakkho analaso sampajāno paṭissato, ayaṁ vuccatāvuso: 'bhikkhu porāṇe aggaññe ariyavaṁse ṭhito'. (9.2)

123Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti itarītarena senāsanena, itarītarasenāsanasantuṭṭhiyā ca vaṇṇavādī, na ca senāsanahetu anesanaṁ appatirūpaṁ āpajjati; aladdhā ca senāsanaṁ na paritassati, laddhā ca senāsanaṁ agadhito amucchito anajjhāpanno ādīnavadassāvī nissaraṇapañño paribhuñjati; tāya ca pana itarītarasenāsanasantuṭṭhiyā nevattānukkaṁseti na paraṁ vambheti. Yo hi tattha dakkho analaso sampajāno paṭissato, ayaṁ vuccatāvuso: 'bhikkhu porāṇe aggaññe ariyavaṁse ṭhito'. (9.3)

124Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu pahānārāmo hoti pahānarato, bhāvanārāmo hoti bhāvanārato; tāya ca pana pahānārāmatāya pahānaratiyā bhāvanārāmatāya bhāvanāratiyā nevattānukkaṁseti na paraṁ vambheti. Yo hi tattha dakkho analaso sampajāno paṭissato ayaṁ vuccatāvuso: 'bhikkhu porāṇe aggaññe ariyavaṁse ṭhito'. (9.4)


125Cattāri padhānāni. Saṁvarapadhānaṁ pahānapadhānaṁ bhāvanāpadhānaṁ anurakkhaṇāpadhānaṁ. Katamañcāvuso, saṁvarapadhānaṁ?

Idhāvuso, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ cakkhundriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ, tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati cakkhundriyaṁ, cakkhundriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya na nimittaggāhī hoti nānubyañjanaggāhī. Yatvādhikaraṇamenaṁ manindriyaṁ asaṁvutaṁ viharantaṁ abhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṁ, tassa saṁvarāya paṭipajjati, rakkhati manindriyaṁ, manindriye saṁvaraṁ āpajjati. Idaṁ vuccatāvuso, saṁvarapadhānaṁ. (10.1)


126Katamañcāvuso, pahānapadhānaṁ? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu uppannaṁ kāmavitakkaṁ nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantiṁ karoti anabhāvaṁ gameti. Uppannaṁ byāpādavitakkaṁ … pe … uppannaṁ vihiṁsāvitakkaṁ … uppannuppanne pāpake akusale dhamme nādhivāseti pajahati vinodeti byantiṁ karoti anabhāvaṁ gameti. Idaṁ vuccatāvuso, pahānapadhānaṁ. (10.2)


127Katamañcāvuso, bhāvanāpadhānaṁ? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu satisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ. Dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti … vīriyasambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti … pītisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti … passaddhisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti … samādhisambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti … upekkhāsambojjhaṅgaṁ bhāveti vivekanissitaṁ virāganissitaṁ nirodhanissitaṁ vossaggapariṇāmiṁ. Idaṁ vuccatāvuso, bhāvanāpadhānaṁ. (10.3)


128Katamañcāvuso, anurakkhaṇāpadhānaṁ? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu uppannaṁ bhadrakaṁ samādhinimittaṁ anurakkhati—aṭṭhikasaññaṁ, puḷuvakasaññaṁ, vinīlakasaññaṁ, vicchiddakasaññaṁ, uddhumātakasaññaṁ. Idaṁ vuccatāvuso, anurakkhaṇāpadhānaṁ. (10.4)

129Cattāri ñāṇāni—dhamme ñāṇaṁ, anvaye ñāṇaṁ, pariye ñāṇaṁ, sammutiyā ñāṇaṁ. (11)


130Aparānipi cattāri ñāṇāni—dukkhe ñāṇaṁ, dukkhasamudaye ñāṇaṁ, dukkhanirodhe ñāṇaṁ, dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāya ñāṇaṁ. (12)

131Cattāri sotāpattiyaṅgāni—sappurisasaṁsevo, saddhammassavanaṁ, yonisomanasikāro, dhammānudhammappaṭipatti. (13)


132Cattāri sotāpannassa angāni. Idhāvuso, ariyasāvako buddhe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti: 'itipi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho, bhagavā'ti. Dhamme aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti: 'svākkhāto bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhī'ti. Saṁghe aveccappasādena samannāgato hoti: 'suppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṁgho ujuppaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṁgho ñāyappaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṁgho sāmīcippaṭipanno bhagavato sāvakasaṁgho yadidaṁ cattāri purisayugāni aṭṭha purisapuggalā, esa bhagavato sāvakasaṁgho āhuneyyo pāhuneyyo dakkhiṇeyyo añjalikaraṇīyo anuttaraṁ puññakkhettaṁ lokassā'ti. Ariyakantehi sīlehi samannāgato hoti akhaṇḍehi acchiddehi asabalehi akammāsehi bhujissehi viññuppasatthehi aparāmaṭṭhehi samādhisaṁvattanikehi. (14)

133Cattāri sāmaññaphalāni—sotāpattiphalaṁ, sakadāgāmiphalaṁ, anāgāmiphalaṁ, arahattaphalaṁ. (15)

134Catasso dhātuyo—pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu, tejodhātu, vāyodhātu. (16)

135Cattāro āhārā—kabaḷīkāro āhāro oḷāriko vā sukhumo vā, phasso dutiyo, manosañcetanā tatiyā, viññāṇaṁ catutthaṁ. (17)


136Catasso viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo. Rūpūpāyaṁ vā, āvuso, viññāṇaṁ tiṭṭhamānaṁ tiṭṭhatirūpārammaṇaṁ rūpappatiṭṭhaṁ nandūpasecanaṁ vuddhiṁ virūḷhiṁ vepullaṁ āpajjati; vedanūpāyaṁ vā āvuso … saññūpāyaṁ vā, āvuso … pe … saṅkhārūpāyaṁ vā, āvuso, viññāṇaṁ tiṭṭhamānaṁ tiṭṭhati saṅkhārārammaṇaṁ saṅkhārappatiṭṭhaṁ nandūpasecanaṁ vuddhiṁ virūḷhiṁ vepullaṁ āpajjati. (18)


137Cattāri agatigamanāni—chandāgatiṁ gacchati, dosāgatiṁ gacchati, mohāgatiṁ gacchati, bhayāgatiṁ gacchati. (19)

138Cattāro taṇhuppādā—cīvarahetu vā, āvuso, bhikkhuno taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati; piṇḍapātahetu vā, āvuso, bhikkhuno taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati; senāsanahetu vā, āvuso, bhikkhuno taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati; itibhavābhavahetu vā, āvuso, bhikkhuno taṇhā uppajjamānā uppajjati. (20)


139Catasso paṭipadā—dukkhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā, dukkhā paṭipadā khippābhiññā, sukhā paṭipadā dandhābhiññā, sukhā paṭipadā khippābhiññā. (21)

140Aparāpi catasso paṭipadā—akkhamā paṭipadā, khamā paṭipadā, damā paṭipadā, samā paṭipadā. (22)

141Cattāri dhammapadāni—anabhijjhā dhammapadaṁ, abyāpādo dhammapadaṁ, sammāsati dhammapadaṁ, sammāsamādhi dhammapadaṁ. (23)


142Cattāri dhammasamādānāni—atthāvuso, dhammasamādānaṁ paccuppannadukkhañceva āyatiñca dukkhavipākaṁ. Atthāvuso, dhammasamādānaṁ paccuppannadukkhaṁ āyatiṁ sukhavipākaṁ. Atthāvuso, dhammasamādānaṁ paccuppannasukhaṁ āyatiṁ dukkhavipākaṁ. Atthāvuso, dhammasamādānaṁ paccuppannasukhañceva āyatiñca sukhavipākaṁ. (24)


143Cattāro dhammakkhandhā—sīlakkhandho, samādhikkhandho, paññākkhandho, vimuttikkhandho. (25)

144Cattāri balāni—vīriyabalaṁ, satibalaṁ, samādhibalaṁ, paññābalaṁ. (26)


145Cattāri adhiṭṭhānāni—paññādhiṭṭhānaṁ, saccādhiṭṭhānaṁ, cāgādhiṭṭhānaṁ, upasamādhiṭṭhānaṁ. (27)

146Cattāri pañhabyākaraṇāni —ekaṁsabyākaraṇīyo pañho, paṭipucchābyākaraṇīyo pañho, vibhajjabyākaraṇīyo pañho, ṭhapanīyo pañho. (28)

147Cattāri kammāni—atthāvuso, kammaṁ kaṇhaṁ kaṇhavipākaṁ. Atthāvuso, kammaṁ sukkaṁ sukkavipākaṁ. Atthāvuso, kammaṁ kaṇhasukkaṁ kaṇhasukkavipākaṁ. Atthāvuso, kammaṁ akaṇhaasukkaṁ akaṇhaasukkavipākaṁ kammakkhayāya saṁvattati. (29)


148Cattāro sacchikaraṇīyā dhammā—pubbenivāso satiyā sacchikaraṇīyo; sattānaṁ cutūpapāto cakkhunā sacchikaraṇīyo; aṭṭha vimokkhā kāyena sacchikaraṇīyā; āsavānaṁ khayo paññāya sacchikaraṇīyo. (30)

149Cattāro oghā—kāmogho, bhavogho, diṭṭhogho, avijjogho. (31)

150Cattāro yogā—kāmayogo, bhavayogo, diṭṭhiyogo, avijjāyogo. (32)


151Cattāro visaññogā —kāmayogavisaññogo, bhavayogavisaññogo, diṭṭhiyogavisaññogo, avijjāyogavisaññogo. (33)

152Cattāro ganthā—abhijjhā kāyagantho, byāpādo kāyagantho, sīlabbataparāmāso kāyagantho, idaṁsaccābhiniveso kāyagantho. (34)

153Cattāri upādānāni—kāmupādānaṁ, diṭṭhupādānaṁ, sīlabbatupādānaṁ, attavādupādānaṁ. (35)

154Catasso yoniyo—aṇḍajayoni, jalābujayoni, saṁsedajayoni, opapātikayoni. (36)


155Catasso gabbhāvakkantiyo. Idhāvuso, ekacco asampajāno mātukucchiṁ okkamati, asampajāno mātukucchismiṁ ṭhāti, asampajāno mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, ayaṁ paṭhamā gabbhāvakkanti. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, idhekacco sampajāno mātukucchiṁ okkamati, asampajāno mātukucchismiṁ ṭhāti, asampajāno mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, ayaṁ dutiyā gabbhāvakkanti. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, idhekacco sampajāno mātukucchiṁ okkamati, sampajāno mātukucchismiṁ ṭhāti, asampajāno mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, ayaṁ tatiyā gabbhāvakkanti. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, idhekacco sampajāno mātukucchiṁ okkamati, sampajāno mātukucchismiṁ ṭhāti, sampajāno mātukucchimhā nikkhamati, ayaṁ catutthā gabbhāvakkanti. (37)


156Cattāro attabhāvapaṭilābhā. Atthāvuso, attabhāvapaṭilābho, yasmiṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhe attasañcetanāyeva kamati, no parasañcetanā. Atthāvuso, attabhāvapaṭilābho, yasmiṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhe parasañcetanāyeva kamati, no attasañcetanā. Atthāvuso, attabhāvapaṭilābho, yasmiṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhe attasañcetanā ceva kamati parasañcetanā ca. Atthāvuso, attabhāvapaṭilābho, yasmiṁ attabhāvapaṭilābhe neva attasañcetanā kamati, no parasañcetanā. (38)


157Catasso dakkhiṇāvisuddhiyo. Atthāvuso, dakkhiṇā dāyakato visujjhati no paṭiggāhakato. Atthāvuso, dakkhiṇā paṭiggāhakato visujjhati no dāyakato. Atthāvuso, dakkhiṇā neva dāyakato visujjhati no paṭiggāhakato. Atthāvuso, dakkhiṇā dāyakato ceva visujjhati paṭiggāhakato ca. (39)

158Cattāri saṅgahavatthūni—dānaṁ, peyyavajjaṁ, atthacariyā, samānattatā. (40)


159Cattāro anariyavohārā—musāvādo, pisuṇāvācā, pharusāvācā, samphappalāpo. (41)

160Cattāro ariyavohārā—musāvādā veramaṇī, pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī. (42)

161Aparepi cattāro anariyavohārā—adiṭṭhe diṭṭhavāditā, assute sutavāditā, amute mutavāditā, aviññāte viññātavāditā. (43)


162Aparepi cattāro ariyavohārā—adiṭṭhe adiṭṭhavāditā, assute assutavāditā, amute amutavāditā, aviññāte aviññātavāditā. (44)

163Aparepi cattāro anariyavohārā—diṭṭhe adiṭṭhavāditā, sute assutavāditā, mute amutavāditā, viññāte aviññātavāditā. (45)

164Aparepi cattāro ariyavohārā—diṭṭhe diṭṭhavāditā, sute sutavāditā, mute mutavāditā, viññāte viññātavāditā. (46)


165Cattāro puggalā. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo attantapo hoti attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo parantapo hoti paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo attantapo ca hoti attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto, parantapo ca paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo neva attantapo hoti na attaparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto na parantapo na paraparitāpanānuyogamanuyutto. So anattantapo aparantapo diṭṭheva dhamme nicchāto nibbuto sītībhūto sukhappaṭisaṁvedī brahmabhūtena attanā viharati. (47)


166Aparepi cattāro puggalā. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo attahitāya paṭipanno hoti no parahitāya. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo parahitāya paṭipanno hoti no attahitāya. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo neva attahitāya paṭipanno hoti no parahitāya. Idhāvuso, ekacco puggalo attahitāya ceva paṭipanno hoti parahitāya ca. (48)


167Aparepi cattāro puggalā—tamo tamaparāyano, tamo jotiparāyano, joti tamaparāyano, joti jotiparāyano. (49)


168Aparepi cattāro puggalā—samaṇamacalo, samaṇapadumo, samaṇapuṇḍarīko, samaṇesu samaṇasukhumālo. (50)

169Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

Paṭhamabhāṇavāro niṭṭhito.

5. Pañcaka

170Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena pañca dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame pañca?


171Pañcakkhandhā. Rūpakkhandho vedanākkhandho saññākkhandho saṅkhārakkhandho viññāṇakkhandho. (1)

172Pañcupādānakkhandhā. Rūpupādānakkhandho vedanupādānakkhandho saññupādānakkhandho saṅkhārupādānakkhandho viññāṇupādānakkhandho. (2)


173Pañca kāmaguṇā. Cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasañhitā rajanīyā, sotaviññeyyā saddā … ghānaviññeyyā gandhā … jivhāviññeyyā rasā … kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasañhitā rajanīyā. (3)

174Pañca gatiyo—nirayo, tiracchānayoni, pettivisayo, manussā, devā. (4)

175Pañca macchariyāni—āvāsamacchariyaṁ, kulamacchariyaṁ, lābhamacchariyaṁ, vaṇṇamacchariyaṁ, dhammamacchariyaṁ. (5)


176Pañca nīvaraṇāni—kāmacchandanīvaraṇaṁ, byāpādanīvaraṇaṁ, thinamiddhanīvaraṇaṁ, uddhaccakukkuccanīvaraṇaṁ, vicikicchānīvaraṇaṁ. (6)

177Pañca orambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni—sakkāyadiṭṭhi, vicikicchā, sīlabbataparāmāso, kāmacchando, byāpādo. (7)

178Pañca uddhambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni—rūparāgo, arūparāgo, māno, uddhaccaṁ, avijjā. (8)

179Pañca sikkhāpadāni—pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī, musāvādā veramaṇī, surāmerayamajjappamādaṭṭhānā veramaṇī. (9)


180Pañca abhabbaṭṭhānāni. Abhabbo, āvuso, khīṇāsavo bhikkhu sañcicca pāṇaṁ jīvitā voropetuṁ. Abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu adinnaṁ theyyasaṅkhātaṁ ādiyituṁ. Abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu methunaṁ dhammaṁ paṭisevituṁ. Abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu sampajānamusā bhāsituṁ. Abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu sannidhikārakaṁ kāme paribhuñjituṁ, seyyathāpi pubbe āgārikabhūto. (10)

181Pañca byasanāni—ñātibyasanaṁ, bhogabyasanaṁ, rogabyasanaṁ, sīlabyasanaṁ, diṭṭhibyasanaṁ. Nāvuso, sattā ñātibyasanahetu vā bhogabyasanahetu vā rogabyasanahetu vā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjanti. Sīlabyasanahetu vā, āvuso, sattā diṭṭhibyasanahetu vā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjanti. (11)

182Pañca sampadā—ñātisampadā, bhogasampadā, ārogyasampadā, sīlasampadā, diṭṭhisampadā. Nāvuso, sattā ñātisampadāhetu vā bhogasampadāhetu vā ārogyasampadāhetu vā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti. Sīlasampadāhetu vā, āvuso, sattā diṭṭhisampadāhetu vā kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjanti. (12)

183Pañca ādīnavā dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Idhāvuso, dussīlo sīlavipanno pamādādhikaraṇaṁ mahatiṁ bhogajāniṁ nigacchati, ayaṁ paṭhamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, dussīlassa sīlavipannassa pāpako kittisaddo abbhuggacchati, ayaṁ dutiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, dussīlo sīlavipanno yaññadeva parisaṁ upasaṅkamati yadi khattiyaparisaṁ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṁ yadi gahapatiparisaṁ yadi samaṇaparisaṁ, avisārado upasaṅkamati maṅkubhūto, ayaṁ tatiyo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, dussīlo sīlavipanno sammūḷho kālaṁ karoti, ayaṁ catuttho ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, dussīlo sīlavipanno kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā apāyaṁ duggatiṁ vinipātaṁ nirayaṁ upapajjati, ayaṁ pañcamo ādīnavo dussīlassa sīlavipattiyā. (13)

184Pañca ānisaṁsā sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Idhāvuso, sīlavā sīlasampanno appamādādhikaraṇaṁ mahantaṁ bhogakkhandhaṁ adhigacchati, ayaṁ paṭhamo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, sīlavato sīlasampannassa kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchati, ayaṁ dutiyo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, sīlavā sīlasampanno yaññadeva parisaṁ upasaṅkamati yadi khattiyaparisaṁ yadi brāhmaṇaparisaṁ yadi gahapatiparisaṁ yadi samaṇaparisaṁ, visārado upasaṅkamati amaṅkubhūto, ayaṁ tatiyo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, sīlavā sīlasampanno asammūḷho kālaṁ karoti, ayaṁ catuttho ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, sīlavā sīlasampanno kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ saggaṁ lokaṁ upapajjati, ayaṁ pañcamo ānisaṁso sīlavato sīlasampadāya. (14)

185Codakena, āvuso, bhikkhunā paraṁ codetukāmena pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ upaṭṭhapetvā paro codetabbo. Kālena vakkhāmi no akālena, bhūtena vakkhāmi no abhūtena, saṇhena vakkhāmi no pharusena, atthasaṁhitena vakkhāmi no anatthasaṁhitena, mettacittena vakkhāmi no dosantarenāti. Codakena, āvuso, bhikkhunā paraṁ codetukāmena ime pañca dhamme ajjhattaṁ upaṭṭhapetvā paro codetabbo. (15)


186Pañca padhāniyaṅgāni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu saddho hoti, saddahati tathāgatassa bodhiṁ: 'itipi so bhagavā arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato, lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā'ti.

Appābādho hoti appātaṅko, samavepākiniyā gahaṇiyā samannāgato nātisītāya nāccuṇhāya majjhimāya padhānakkhamāya.

Asaṭho hoti amāyāvī, yathābhūtaṁ attānaṁ āvikattā satthari vā viññūsu vā sabrahmacārīsu.

Āraddhavīriyo viharati akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadāya thāmavā daḷhaparakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu.

Paññavā hoti udayatthagāminiyā paññāya samannāgato ariyāya nibbedhikāya sammādukkhakkhayagāminiyā. (16)

187Pañca suddhāvāsā—avihā, atappā, sudassā, sudassī, akaniṭṭhā. (17)


188Pañca anāgāmino—antarāparinibbāyī, upahaccaparinibbāyī, asaṅkhāraparinibbāyī, sasaṅkhāraparinibbāyī, uddhaṁsotoakaniṭṭhagāmī. (18)

189Pañca cetokhilā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu satthari kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati. Yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu satthari kaṅkhati vicikicchati nādhimuccati na sampasīdati, tassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya, yassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya, ayaṁ paṭhamo cetokhilo. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu dhamme kaṅkhati vicikicchati … pe … saṁghe kaṅkhati vicikicchati … sikkhāya kaṅkhati vicikicchati … sabrahmacārīsu kupito hoti anattamano āhatacitto khilajāto. Yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu sabrahmacārīsu kupito hoti anattamano āhatacitto khilajāto, tassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya, yassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya, ayaṁ pañcamo cetokhilo. (19)


190Pañca cetasovinibandhā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu kāmesu avītarāgo hoti avigatacchando avigatapemo avigatapipāso avigatapariḷāho avigatataṇho. Yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu kāmesu avītarāgo hoti avigatacchando avigatapemo avigatapipāso avigatapariḷāho avigatataṇho, tassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya. Yassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya. Ayaṁ paṭhamo cetaso vinibandho. Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu kāye avītarāgo hoti … pe … rūpe avītarāgo hoti … pe … puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu yāvadatthaṁ udarāvadehakaṁ bhuñjitvā seyyasukhaṁ passasukhaṁ middhasukhaṁ anuyutto viharati … pe … puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu aññataraṁ devanikāyaṁ paṇidhāya brahmacariyaṁ carati: 'imināhaṁ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā devo vā bhavissāmi devaññataro vā'ti. Yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu aññataraṁ devanikāyaṁ paṇidhāya brahmacariyaṁ carati: 'imināhaṁ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā devo vā bhavissāmi devaññataro vā'ti, tassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya. Yassa cittaṁ na namati ātappāya anuyogāya sātaccāya padhānāya. Ayaṁ pañcamo cetaso vinibandho. (20)


191Pañcindriyāni—cakkhundriyaṁ, sotindriyaṁ, ghānindriyaṁ, jivhindriyaṁ, kāyindriyaṁ. (21)

192Aparānipi pañcindriyāni—sukhindriyaṁ, dukkhindriyaṁ, somanassindriyaṁ, domanassindriyaṁ, upekkhindriyaṁ. (22)

193Aparānipi pañcindriyāni—saddhindriyaṁ, vīriyindriyaṁ, satindriyaṁ, samādhindriyaṁ, paññindriyaṁ. (23)


194Pañca nissaraṇiyā dhātuyo. Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno kāme manasikaroto kāmesu cittaṁ na pakkhandati na pasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Nekkhammaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto nekkhamme cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Tassa taṁ cittaṁ sugataṁ subhāvitaṁ suvuṭṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ visaṁyuttaṁ kāmehi. Ye ca kāmapaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātā pariḷāhā, mutto so tehi, na so taṁ vedanaṁ vedeti. Idamakkhātaṁ kāmānaṁ nissaraṇaṁ. (24.1)

195Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno byāpādaṁ manasikaroto byāpāde cittaṁ na pakkhandati na pasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Abyāpādaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto abyāpāde cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Tassa taṁ cittaṁ sugataṁ subhāvitaṁ suvuṭṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ visaṁyuttaṁ byāpādena. Ye ca byāpādapaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātā pariḷāhā, mutto so tehi, na so taṁ vedanaṁ vedeti. Idamakkhātaṁ byāpādassa nissaraṇaṁ. (24.2)

196Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno vihesaṁ manasikaroto vihesāya cittaṁ na pakkhandati na pasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Avihesaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto avihesāya cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Tassa taṁ cittaṁ sugataṁ subhāvitaṁ suvuṭṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ visaṁyuttaṁ vihesāya. Ye ca vihesāpaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātā pariḷāhā, mutto so tehi, na so taṁ vedanaṁ vedeti. Idamakkhātaṁ vihesāya nissaraṇaṁ. (24.3)

197Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno rūpe manasikaroto rūpesu cittaṁ na pakkhandati na pasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Arūpaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto arūpe cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Tassa taṁ cittaṁ sugataṁ subhāvitaṁ suvuṭṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ visaṁyuttaṁ rūpehi. Ye ca rūpapaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātā pariḷāhā, mutto so tehi, na so taṁ vedanaṁ vedeti. Idamakkhātaṁ rūpānaṁ nissaraṇaṁ. (24.4)

198Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno sakkāyaṁ manasikaroto sakkāye cittaṁ na pakkhandati na pasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Sakkāyanirodhaṁ kho panassa manasikaroto sakkāyanirodhe cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Tassa taṁ cittaṁ sugataṁ subhāvitaṁ suvuṭṭhitaṁ suvimuttaṁ visaṁyuttaṁ sakkāyena. Ye ca sakkāyapaccayā uppajjanti āsavā vighātā pariḷāhā, mutto so tehi, na so taṁ vedanaṁ vedeti. Idamakkhātaṁ sakkāyassa nissaraṇaṁ. (24.5)


199Pañca vimuttāyatanāni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno satthā dhammaṁ deseti aññataro vā garuṭṭhāniyo sabrahmacārī. Yathā yathā, āvuso, bhikkhuno satthā dhammaṁ deseti aññataro vā garuṭṭhāniyo sabrahmacārī tathā tathā so tasmiṁ dhamme atthapaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti dhammapaṭisaṁvedī ca. Tassa atthapaṭisaṁvedino dhammapaṭisaṁvedino pāmojjaṁ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vedeti, sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati. Idaṁ paṭhamaṁ vimuttāyatanaṁ. (25.1)

200Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno na heva kho satthā dhammaṁ deseti aññataro vā garuṭṭhāniyo sabrahmacārī, api ca kho yathāsutaṁ yathāpariyattaṁ dhammaṁ vitthārena paresaṁ deseti … pe … api ca kho yathāsutaṁ yathāpariyattaṁ dhammaṁ vitthārena sajjhāyaṁ karoti … pe … api ca kho yathāsutaṁ yathāpariyattaṁ dhammaṁ cetasā anuvitakketi anuvicāreti manasānupekkhati … pe … api ca khvassa aññataraṁ samādhinimittaṁ suggahitaṁ hoti sumanasikataṁ sūpadhāritaṁ suppaṭividdhaṁ paññāya. Yathā yathā, āvuso, bhikkhuno aññataraṁ samādhinimittaṁ suggahitaṁ hoti sumanasikataṁ sūpadhāritaṁ suppaṭividdhaṁ paññāya tathā tathā so tasmiṁ dhamme atthapaṭisaṁvedī ca hoti dhammapaṭisaṁvedī ca. Tassa atthapaṭisaṁvedino dhammapaṭisaṁvedino pāmojjaṁ jāyati, pamuditassa pīti jāyati, pītimanassa kāyo passambhati, passaddhakāyo sukhaṁ vedeti, sukhino cittaṁ samādhiyati. Idaṁ pañcamaṁ vimuttāyatanaṁ. (25.2–5.)


201Pañca vimuttiparipācanīyā saññā—aniccasaññā, anicce dukkhasaññā, dukkhe anattasaññā, pahānasaññā, virāgasaññā. (26)


202Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena pañca dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāyasukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

6. Chakka

203Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cha dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame cha?


204Cha ajjhattikāni āyatanāni—cakkhāyatanaṁ, sotāyatanaṁ, ghānāyatanaṁ, jivhāyatanaṁ, kāyāyatanaṁ, manāyatanaṁ. (1)

205Cha bāhirāni āyatanāni—rūpāyatanaṁ, saddāyatanaṁ, gandhāyatanaṁ, rasāyatanaṁ, phoṭṭhabbāyatanaṁ, dhammāyatanaṁ. (2)

206Cha viññāṇakāyā—cakkhuviññāṇaṁ, sotaviññāṇaṁ, ghānaviññāṇaṁ, jivhāviññāṇaṁ, kāyaviññāṇaṁ, manoviññāṇaṁ. (3)

207Cha phassakāyā—cakkhusamphasso, sotasamphasso, ghānasamphasso, jivhāsamphasso, kāyasamphasso, manosamphasso. (4)


208Cha vedanākāyā—cakkhusamphassajā vedanā, sotasamphassajā vedanā, ghānasamphassajā vedanā, jivhāsamphassajā vedanā, kāyasamphassajā vedanā, manosamphassajā vedanā. (5)

209Cha saññākāyā—rūpasaññā, saddasaññā, gandhasaññā, rasasaññā, phoṭṭhabbasaññā, dhammasaññā. (6)

210Cha sañcetanākāyā—rūpasañcetanā, saddasañcetanā, gandhasañcetanā, rasasañcetanā, phoṭṭhabbasañcetanā, dhammasañcetanā. (7)

211Cha taṇhākāyā—rūpataṇhā, saddataṇhā, gandhataṇhā, rasataṇhā, phoṭṭhabbataṇhā, dhammataṇhā. (8)

212Cha agāravā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu satthari agāravo viharati appatisso; dhamme agāravo viharati appatisso; saṁghe agāravo viharati appatisso; sikkhāya agāravo viharati appatisso; appamāde agāravo viharati appatisso; paṭisanthāre agāravo viharati appatisso. (9)


213Cha gāravā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu satthari sagāravo viharati sappatisso; dhamme sagāravo viharati sappatisso; saṅghe sagāravo viharati sappatisso; sikkhāya sagāravo viharati sappatisso; appamāde sagāravo viharati sappatisso; paṭisanthāre sagāravo viharati sappatisso. (10)

214Cha somanassūpavicārā. Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati; sotena saddaṁ sutvā … ghānena gandhaṁ ghāyitvā … jivhāya rasaṁ sāyitvā … kāyena phoṭṭhabbaṁ phusitvā. Manasā dhammaṁ viññāya somanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati. (11)

215Cha domanassūpavicārā. Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya domanassaṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati. (12)

216Cha upekkhūpavicārā. Cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā upekkhāṭṭhāniyaṁ rūpaṁ upavicarati … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya upekkhāṭṭhāniyaṁ dhammaṁ upavicarati. (13)


217Cha sāraṇīyā dhammā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno mettaṁ kāyakammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sabrahmacārīsu āvi ceva raho ca. Ayampi dhammo sāraṇīyo piyakaraṇo garukaraṇo saṅgahāya avivādāya sāmaggiyā ekībhāvāya saṁvattati. (14.1)


218Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno mettaṁ vacīkammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sabrahmacārīsu āvi ceva raho ca. Ayampi dhammo sāraṇīyo … pe … ekībhāvāya saṁvattati. (14.2)

219Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno mettaṁ manokammaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ hoti sabrahmacārīsu āvi ceva raho ca. Ayampi dhammo sāraṇīyo … pe … ekībhāvāya saṁvattati. (14.3)

220Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu ye te lābhā dhammikā dhammaladdhā antamaso pattapariyāpannamattampi, tathārūpehi lābhehi appaṭivibhattabhogī hoti sīlavantehi sabrahmacārīhi sādhāraṇabhogī. Ayampi dhammo sāraṇīyo … pe … ekībhāvāya saṁvattati. (14.4)

221Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu yāni tāni sīlāni akhaṇḍāni acchiddāni asabalāni akammāsāni bhujissāni viññuppasatthāni aparāmaṭṭhāni samādhisaṁvattanikāni, tathārūpesu sīlesu sīlasāmaññagato viharati sabrahmacārīhi āvi ceva raho ca. Ayampi dhammo sāraṇīyo … pe … ekībhāvāya saṁvattati. (14.5)

222Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu yāyaṁ diṭṭhi ariyā niyyānikā niyyāti takkarassa sammā dukkhakkhayāya, tathārūpāya diṭṭhiyā diṭṭhisāmaññagato viharati sabrahmacārīhi āvi ceva raho ca. Ayampi dhammo sāraṇīyo piyakaraṇo garukaraṇo saṅgahāya avivādāya sāmaggiyā ekībhāvāya saṁvattati. (14.6)


223Cha vivādamūlāni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu kodhano hoti upanāhī. Yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu kodhano hoti upanāhī, so sattharipi agāravo viharati appatisso, dhammepi agāravo viharati appatisso, saṁghepi agāravo viharati appatisso, sikkhāyapi naparipūrakārī hoti. Yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu satthari agāravo viharati appatisso, dhamme agāravo viharati appatisso, saṁghe agāravo viharati appatisso, sikkhāya na paripūrakārī, so saṁghe vivādaṁ janeti. Yo hoti vivādo bahujanāhitāya bahujanāsukhāya anatthāya ahitāya dukkhāya devamanussānaṁ. Evarūpañce tumhe, āvuso, vivādamūlaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā samanupasseyyātha. Tatra tumhe, āvuso, tasseva pāpakassa vivādamūlassa pahānāya vāyameyyātha. Evarūpañce tumhe, āvuso, vivādamūlaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā na samanupasseyyātha. Tatra tumhe, āvuso, tasseva pāpakassa vivādamūlassa āyatiṁ anavassavāya paṭipajjeyyātha. Evametassa pāpakassa vivādamūlassa pahānaṁ hoti. Evametassa pāpakassa vivādamūlassa āyatiṁ anavassavo hoti.

224Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu makkhī hoti paḷāsī … pe … issukī hoti maccharī … pe … saṭho hoti māyāvī … pāpiccho hoti micchādiṭṭhī … sandiṭṭhiparāmāsī hoti ādhānaggāhī duppaṭinissaggī … pe … yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu sandiṭṭhiparāmāsī hoti ādhānaggāhī duppaṭinissaggī, so sattharipi agāravo viharati appatisso, dhammepi agāravo viharati appatisso, saṅghepi agāravo viharati appatisso, sikkhāyapi na paripūrakārī hoti. Yo so, āvuso, bhikkhu satthari agāravo viharati appatisso, dhamme agāravo viharati appatisso, saṅghe agāravo viharati appatisso, sikkhāya na paripūrakārī, so saṅghe vivādaṁ janeti. Yo hoti vivādo bahujanāhitāya bahujanāsukhāya anatthāya ahitāya dukkhāya devamanussānaṁ. Evarūpañce tumhe, āvuso, vivādamūlaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā samanupasseyyātha. Tatra tumhe, āvuso, tasseva pāpakassa vivādamūlassa pahānāya vāyameyyātha. Evarūpañce tumhe, āvuso, vivādamūlaṁ ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā na samanupasseyyātha. Tatra tumhe, āvuso, tasseva pāpakassa vivādamūlassa āyatiṁ anavassavāya paṭipajjeyyātha. Evametassa pāpakassa vivādamūlassa pahānaṁ hoti. Evametassa pāpakassa vivādamūlassa āyatiṁ anavassavo hoti. (15)


225Cha dhātuyo—pathavīdhātu, āpodhātu, tejodhātu, vāyodhātu, ākāsadhātu, viññāṇadhātu. (16)


226Cha nissaraṇiyā dhātuyo. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'mettā hi kho me cetovimutti bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā, atha ca pana me byāpādo cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhatī'ti. So 'mā hevan'tissa vacanīyo, 'māyasmā evaṁ avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Aṭṭhānametaṁ, āvuso, anavakāso, yaṁ mettāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya. Atha ca panassa byāpādo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassati, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ, āvuso, byāpādassa, yadidaṁ mettā cetovimuttī'ti. (17.1)


227Idha panāvuso, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'karuṇā hi kho me cetovimutti bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā. Atha ca pana me vihesā cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhatī'ti, so 'mā hevan'tissa vacanīyo 'māyasmā evaṁ avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Aṭṭhānametaṁ, āvuso, anavakāso, yaṁ karuṇāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya, atha ca panassa vihesā cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassati, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ, āvuso, vihesāya, yadidaṁ karuṇā cetovimuttī'ti. (17.2)

228Idha panāvuso, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'muditā hi kho me cetovimutti bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā. Atha ca pana me arati cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhatī'ti, so 'mā hevan'tissa vacanīyo 'māyasmā evaṁ avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Aṭṭhānametaṁ, āvuso, anavakāso, yaṁ muditāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya, atha ca panassa arati cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassati, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ, āvuso, aratiyā, yadidaṁ muditā cetovimuttī'ti. (17.3)


229Idha panāvuso, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'upekkhā hi kho me cetovimutti bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā. Atha ca pana me rāgo cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhatī'ti. So 'mā hevan'tissa vacanīyo 'māyasmā evaṁ avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Aṭṭhānametaṁ, āvuso, anavakāso, yaṁ upekkhāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya, atha ca panassa rāgo cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassati netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ, āvuso, rāgassa, yadidaṁ upekkhā cetovimuttī'ti. (17.4)

230Idha panāvuso, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'animittā hi kho me cetovimutti bhāvitā bahulīkatā yānīkatā vatthukatā anuṭṭhitā paricitā susamāraddhā. Atha ca pana me nimittānusāri viññāṇaṁ hotī'ti. So 'mā hevan'tissa vacanīyo 'māyasmā evaṁ avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Aṭṭhānametaṁ, āvuso, anavakāso, yaṁ animittāya cetovimuttiyā bhāvitāya bahulīkatāya yānīkatāya vatthukatāya anuṭṭhitāya paricitāya susamāraddhāya, atha ca panassa nimittānusāri viññāṇaṁ bhavissati, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ, āvuso, sabbanimittānaṁ, yadidaṁ animittā cetovimuttī'ti. (17.5)

231Idha panāvuso, bhikkhu evaṁ vadeyya: 'asmīti kho me vigataṁ, ayamahamasmīti na samanupassāmi, atha ca pana me vicikicchākathaṁkathāsallaṁ cittaṁ pariyādāya tiṭṭhatī'ti. So 'mā hevan'tissa vacanīyo 'māyasmā evaṁ avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi, na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Aṭṭhānametaṁ, āvuso, anavakāso, yaṁ asmīti vigate ayamahamasmīti asamanupassato, atha ca panassa vicikicchākathaṁkathāsallaṁ cittaṁ pariyādāya ṭhassati, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Nissaraṇaṁ hetaṁ, āvuso, vicikicchākathaṁkathāsallassa, yadidaṁ asmimānasamugghāto'ti. (17.6)


232Cha anuttariyāni—dassanānuttariyaṁ, savanānuttariyaṁ, lābhānuttariyaṁ, sikkhānuttariyaṁ, pāricariyānuttariyaṁ, anussatānuttariyaṁ. (18)

233Cha anussatiṭṭhānāni—buddhānussati, dhammānussati, saṁghānussati, sīlānussati, cāgānussati, devatānussati. (19)

234Cha satatavihārā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā neva sumano hoti na dummano, upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno. Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya neva sumano hoti na dummano, upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno. (20)

235Chaḷābhijātiyo. Idhāvuso, ekacco kaṇhābhijātiko samāno kaṇhaṁ dhammaṁ abhijāyati. Idha panāvuso, ekacco kaṇhābhijātiko samāno sukkaṁ dhammaṁ abhijāyati. Idha panāvuso, ekacco kaṇhābhijātiko samāno akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ nibbānaṁ abhijāyati. Idha panāvuso, ekacco sukkābhijātiko samāno sukkaṁ dhammaṁ abhijāyati. Idha panāvuso, ekacco sukkābhijātiko samāno kaṇhaṁ dhammaṁ abhijāyati. Idha panāvuso, ekacco sukkābhijātiko samāno akaṇhaṁ asukkaṁ nibbānaṁ abhijāyati. (21)


236Cha nibbedhabhāgiyā saññā —aniccasaññā anicce, dukkhasaññā dukkhe, anattasaññā, pahānasaññā, virāgasaññā, nirodhasaññā. (22)


237Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cha dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

7. Sattaka

238Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena satta dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame satta?


239Satta ariyadhanāni—saddhādhanaṁ, sīladhanaṁ, hiridhanaṁ, ottappadhanaṁ, sutadhanaṁ, cāgadhanaṁ, paññādhanaṁ. (1)

240Satta bojjhaṅgā—satisambojjhaṅgo, dhammavicayasambojjhaṅgo, vīriyasambojjhaṅgo, pītisambojjhaṅgo, passaddhisambojjhaṅgo, samādhisambojjhaṅgo, upekkhāsambojjhaṅgo. (2)


241Satta samādhiparikkhārā—sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammāājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati. (3)

242Satta asaddhammā—idhāvuso, bhikkhu assaddho hoti, ahiriko hoti, anottappī hoti, appassuto hoti, kusīto hoti, muṭṭhassati hoti, duppañño hoti. (4)

243Satta saddhammā—idhāvuso, bhikkhu saddho hoti, hirimā hoti, ottappī hoti, bahussuto hoti, āraddhavīriyo hoti, upaṭṭhitassati hoti, paññavā hoti. (5)

244Satta sappurisadhammā—idhāvuso, bhikkhu dhammaññū ca hoti atthaññū ca attaññū ca mattaññū ca kālaññū ca parisaññū ca puggalaññū ca. (6)


245Satta niddasavatthūni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sikkhāsamādāne tibbacchando hoti, āyatiñca sikkhāsamādāne avigatapemo. Dhammanisantiyā tibbacchando hoti, āyatiñca dhammanisantiyā avigatapemo. Icchāvinaye tibbacchando hoti, āyatiñca icchāvinaye avigatapemo. Paṭisallāne tibbacchando hoti, āyatiñca paṭisallāne avigatapemo. Vīriyārambhe tibbacchando hoti, āyatiñca vīriyārambhe avigatapemo. Satinepakke tibbacchando hoti, āyatiñca satinepakke avigatapemo. Diṭṭhipaṭivedhe tibbacchando hoti, āyatiñca diṭṭhipaṭivedhe avigatapemo. (7)


246Satta saññā—aniccasaññā, anattasaññā, asubhasaññā, ādīnavasaññā, pahānasaññā, virāgasaññā, nirodhasaññā. (8)

247Satta balāni—saddhābalaṁ, vīriyabalaṁ, hiribalaṁ, ottappabalaṁ, satibalaṁ, samādhibalaṁ, paññābalaṁ. (9)


248Satta viññāṇaṭṭhitiyo. Santāvuso, sattā nānattakāyā nānattasaññino, seyyathāpi manussā ekacce ca devā ekacce ca vinipātikā. Ayaṁ paṭhamā viññāṇaṭṭhiti.

249Santāvuso, sattā nānattakāyā ekattasaññino seyyathāpi devā brahmakāyikā paṭhamābhinibbattā. Ayaṁ dutiyā viññāṇaṭṭhiti.

250Santāvuso, sattā ekattakāyā nānattasaññino seyyathāpi devā ābhassarā. Ayaṁ tatiyā viññāṇaṭṭhiti.

251Santāvuso, sattā ekattakāyā ekattasaññino seyyathāpi devā subhakiṇhā. Ayaṁ catutthī viññāṇaṭṭhiti.

252Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā 'ananto ākāso'ti ākāsānañcāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ pañcamī viññāṇaṭṭhiti.

253Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'anantaṁ viññāṇan'ti viññāṇañcāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ chaṭṭhī viññāṇaṭṭhiti.

254Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'natthi kiñcī'ti ākiñcaññāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ sattamī viññāṇaṭṭhiti. (10)


255Satta puggalā dakkhiṇeyyā—ubhatobhāgavimutto, paññāvimutto, kāyasakkhi, diṭṭhippatto, saddhāvimutto, dhammānusārī, saddhānusārī. (11)


256Satta anusayā—kāmarāgānusayo, paṭighānusayo, diṭṭhānusayo, vicikicchānusayo, mānānusayo, bhavarāgānusayo, avijjānusayo. (12)

257Satta saṁyojanāni—anunayasaṁyojanaṁ, paṭighasaṁyojanaṁ, diṭṭhisaṁyojanaṁ, vicikicchāsaṁyojanaṁ, mānasaṁyojanaṁ, bhavarāgasaṁyojanaṁ, avijjāsaṁyojanaṁ. (13)

258Satta adhikaraṇasamathā—uppannuppannānaṁ adhikaraṇānaṁ samathāya vūpasamāya sammukhāvinayo dātabbo, sativinayo dātabbo, amūḷhavinayo dātabbo, paṭiññāya kāretabbaṁ, yebhuyyasikā, tassapāpiyasikā, tiṇavatthārako. (14)


259Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena satta dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

Dutiyabhāṇavāro niṭṭhito.

8. Aṭṭhaka

260Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena aṭṭha dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame aṭṭha?


261Aṭṭha micchattā—micchādiṭṭhi, micchāsaṅkappo, micchāvācā, micchākammanto, micchāājīvo, micchāvāyāmo micchāsati, micchāsamādhi. (1)

262Aṭṭha sammattā—sammādiṭṭhi, sammāsaṅkappo, sammāvācā, sammākammanto, sammāājīvo, sammāvāyāmo, sammāsati, sammāsamādhi. (2)

263Aṭṭha puggalā dakkhiṇeyyā—sotāpanno, sotāpattiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno; sakadāgāmī, sakadāgāmiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno; anāgāmī, anāgāmiphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno; arahā, arahattaphalasacchikiriyāya paṭipanno. (3)


264Aṭṭha kusītavatthūni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhunā kammaṁ kātabbaṁ hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'kammaṁ kho me kātabbaṁ bhavissati, kammaṁ kho pana me karontassa kāyo kilamissati, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati appattassa pattiyā anadhigatassa adhigamāya asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya. Idaṁ paṭhamaṁ kusītavatthu.


265Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhunā kammaṁ kataṁ hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho kammaṁ akāsiṁ, kammaṁ kho pana me karontassa kāyo kilanto, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati … pe … idaṁ dutiyaṁ kusītavatthu.

266Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhunā maggo gantabbo hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'maggo kho me gantabbo bhavissati, maggaṁ kho pana me gacchantassa kāyo kilamissati, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ tatiyaṁ kusītavatthu.


267Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhunā maggo gato hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho maggaṁ agamāsiṁ, maggaṁ kho pana me gacchantassa kāyo kilanto, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ catutthaṁ kusītavatthu.


268Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto na labhati lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto nālatthaṁ lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ, tassa me kāyo kilanto akammañño, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ pañcamaṁ kusītavatthu.

269Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto labhati lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto alatthaṁ lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ, tassa me kāyo garuko akammañño, māsācitaṁ maññe, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ kusītavatthu.


270Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno uppanno hoti appamattako ābādho. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'uppanno kho me ayaṁ appamattako ābādho; atthi kappo nipajjituṁ, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ sattamaṁ kusītavatthu.

271Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu gilānā vuṭṭhito hoti aciravuṭṭhito gelaññā. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho gilānā vuṭṭhito aciravuṭṭhito gelaññā, tassa me kāyo dubbalo akammañño, handāhaṁ nipajjāmī'ti. So nipajjati na vīriyaṁ ārabhati appattassa pattiyā anadhigatassa adhigamāya asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya. Idaṁ aṭṭhamaṁ kusītavatthu. (4)


272Aṭṭha ārambhavatthūni. Idhāvuso, bhikkhunā kammaṁ kātabbaṁ hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'kammaṁ kho me kātabbaṁ bhavissati, kammaṁ kho pana me karontena na sukaraṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ manasi kātuṁ, handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi appattassa pattiyā anadhigatassa adhigamāya, asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāyā'ti. So vīriyaṁ ārabhati appattassa pattiyā, anadhigatassa adhigamāya asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya. Idaṁ paṭhamaṁ ārambhavatthu.

273Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhunā kammaṁ kataṁ hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho kammaṁ akāsiṁ, kammaṁ kho panāhaṁ karonto nāsakkhiṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ manasi kātuṁ, handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi … pe … so vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ dutiyaṁ ārambhavatthu.


274Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhunā maggo gantabbo hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'maggo kho me gantabbo bhavissati, maggaṁ kho pana me gacchantena na sukaraṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ manasi kātuṁ. Handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi … pe … so vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ tatiyaṁ ārambhavatthu.


275Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhunā maggo gato hoti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho maggaṁ agamāsiṁ, maggaṁ kho panāhaṁ gacchanto nāsakkhiṁ buddhānaṁ sāsanaṁ manasi kātuṁ, handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi … pe … so vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ catutthaṁ ārambhavatthu.

276Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto na labhati lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto nālatthaṁ lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ, tassa me kāyo lahuko kammañño, handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi … pe … so vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ pañcamaṁ ārambhavatthu.

277Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto labhati lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā piṇḍāya caranto alatthaṁ lūkhassa vā paṇītassa vā bhojanassa yāvadatthaṁ pāripūriṁ, tassa me kāyo balavā kammañño, handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi … pe … so vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ ārambhavatthu.


278Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhuno uppanno hoti appamattako ābādho. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'uppanno kho me ayaṁ appamattako ābādho, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me ābādho pavaḍḍheyya, handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi … pe … so vīriyaṁ ārabhati … idaṁ sattamaṁ ārambhavatthu.

279Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu gilānā vuṭṭhito hoti aciravuṭṭhito gelaññā. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'ahaṁ kho gilānā vuṭṭhito aciravuṭṭhito gelaññā, ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati yaṁ me ābādho paccudāvatteyya, handāhaṁ vīriyaṁ ārabhāmi appattassa pattiyā anadhigatassa adhigamāya asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāyā'ti. So vīriyaṁ ārabhati appattassa pattiyā anadhigatassa adhigamāya asacchikatassa sacchikiriyāya. Idaṁ aṭṭhamaṁ ārambhavatthu. (5)

280Aṭṭha dānavatthūni. Āsajja dānaṁ deti, bhayā dānaṁ deti, 'adāsi me'ti dānaṁ deti, 'dassati me'ti dānaṁ deti, 'sāhu dānan'ti dānaṁ deti, 'ahaṁ pacāmi, ime na pacanti, nārahāmi pacanto apacantānaṁ dānaṁ na dātun'ti dānaṁ deti, 'idaṁ me dānaṁ dadato kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchatī'ti dānaṁ deti. Cittālankāracittaparikkhāratthaṁ dānaṁ deti. (6)


281Aṭṭha dānūpapattiyo. Idhāvuso, ekacco dānaṁ deti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṁ pānaṁ vatthaṁ yānaṁ mālāgandhavilepanaṁ seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṁ. So yaṁ deti taṁ paccāsīsati. So passati khattiyamahāsālaṁ vā brāhmaṇamahāsālaṁ vā gahapatimahāsālaṁ vā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitaṁ samaṅgībhūtaṁ paricārayamānaṁ. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'aho vatāhaṁ kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā khattiyamahāsālānaṁ vā brāhmaṇamahāsālānaṁ vā gahapatimahāsālānaṁ vā sahabyataṁ upapajjeyyan'ti. So taṁ cittaṁ dahati, taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti, taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti, tassa taṁ cittaṁ hīne vimuttaṁ uttari abhāvitaṁ tatrūpapattiyā saṁvattati. Tañca kho sīlavato vadāmi no dussīlassa. Ijjhatāvuso, sīlavato cetopaṇidhi visuddhattā. (7.1)

282Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, idhekacco dānaṁ deti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṁ pānaṁ … pe … seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṁ. So yaṁ deti taṁ paccāsīsati. Tassa sutaṁ hoti: 'cātumahārājikā devā dīghāyukā vaṇṇavanto sukhabahulā'ti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'aho vatāhaṁ kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā cātumahārājikānaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjeyyan'ti. So taṁ cittaṁ dahati, taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti, taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti, tassa taṁ cittaṁ hīne vimuttaṁ uttari abhāvitaṁ tatrūpapattiyā saṁvattati. Tañca kho sīlavato vadāmi no dussīlassa. Ijjhatāvuso, sīlavato cetopaṇidhi visuddhattā. (7.2)


283Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, idhekacco dānaṁ deti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṁ pānaṁ … pe … seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṁ. So yaṁ deti taṁ paccāsīsati. Tassa sutaṁ hoti: 'tāvatiṁsā devā … pe … yāmā devā … pe … tusitā devā … pe … nimmānaratī devā … pe … paranimmitavasavattī devā dīghāyukā vaṇṇavanto sukhabahulā'ti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'aho vatāhaṁ kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā paranimmitavasavattīnaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjeyyan'ti. So taṁ cittaṁ dahati, taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti, taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti, tassa taṁ cittaṁ hīne vimuttaṁ uttari abhāvitaṁ tatrūpapattiyā saṁvattati. Tañca kho sīlavato vadāmi no dussīlassa. Ijjhatāvuso, sīlavato cetopaṇidhi visuddhattā. (7.3–7.)

284Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, idhekacco dānaṁ deti samaṇassa vā brāhmaṇassa vā annaṁ pānaṁ vatthaṁ yānaṁ mālāgandhavilepanaṁ seyyāvasathapadīpeyyaṁ. So yaṁ deti taṁ paccāsīsati. Tassa sutaṁ hoti: 'brahmakāyikā devā dīghāyukā vaṇṇavanto sukhabahulā'ti. Tassa evaṁ hoti: 'aho vatāhaṁ kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā brahmakāyikānaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjeyyan'ti. So taṁ cittaṁ dahati, taṁ cittaṁ adhiṭṭhāti, taṁ cittaṁ bhāveti, tassa taṁ cittaṁ hīne vimuttaṁ uttari abhāvitaṁ tatrūpapattiyā saṁvattati. Tañca kho sīlavato vadāmi no dussīlassa; vītarāgassa no sarāgassa. Ijjhatāvuso, sīlavato cetopaṇidhi vītarāgattā. (7.8)


285Aṭṭha parisā—khattiyaparisā, brāhmaṇaparisā, gahapatiparisā, samaṇaparisā, cātumahārājikaparisā, tāvatiṁsaparisā, māraparisā, brahmaparisā. (8)


286Aṭṭha lokadhammā—lābho ca, alābho ca, yaso ca, ayaso ca, nindā ca, pasaṁsā ca, sukhañca, dukkhañca. (9)


287Aṭṭha abhibhāyatanāni. Ajjhattaṁ rūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ paṭhamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ.

288Ajjhattaṁ rūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti—evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ dutiyaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ.

289Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati parittāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ tatiyaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ.


290Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati appamāṇāni suvaṇṇadubbaṇṇāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ catutthaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ.

291Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati nīlāni nīlavaṇṇāni nīlanidassanāni nīlanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma umāpupphaṁ nīlaṁ nīlavaṇṇaṁ nīlanidassanaṁ nīlanibhāsaṁ, seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ nīlaṁ nīlavaṇṇaṁ nīlanidassanaṁ nīlanibhāsaṁ; evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati nīlāni nīlavaṇṇāni nīlanidassanāni nīlanibhāsāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ pañcamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ.

292Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati pītāni pītavaṇṇāni pītanidassanāni pītanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma kaṇikārapupphaṁ pītaṁ pītavaṇṇaṁ pītanidassanaṁ pītanibhāsaṁ, seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ pītaṁ pītavaṇṇaṁ pītanidassanaṁ pītanibhāsaṁ; evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati pītāni pītavaṇṇāni pītanidassanāni pītanibhāsāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ.

293Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati lohitakāni lohitakavaṇṇāni lohitakanidassanāni lohitakanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma bandhujīvakapupphaṁ lohitakaṁ lohitakavaṇṇaṁ lohitakanidassanaṁ lohitakanibhāsaṁ, seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ lohitakaṁ lohitakavaṇṇaṁ lohitakanidassanaṁ lohitakanibhāsaṁ; evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati lohitakāni lohitakavaṇṇāni lohitakanidassanāni lohitakanibhāsāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ sattamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ.

294Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati odātāni odātavaṇṇāni odātanidassanāni odātanibhāsāni. Seyyathāpi nāma osadhitārakā odātā odātavaṇṇā odātanidassanā odātanibhāsā, seyyathā vā pana taṁ vatthaṁ bārāṇaseyyakaṁ ubhatobhāgavimaṭṭhaṁ odātaṁ odātavaṇṇaṁ odātanidassanaṁ odātanibhāsaṁ; evameva ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī eko bahiddhā rūpāni passati odātāni odātavaṇṇāni odātanidassanāni odātanibhāsāni, 'tāni abhibhuyya jānāmi passāmī'ti evaṁsaññī hoti. Idaṁ aṭṭhamaṁ abhibhāyatanaṁ. (10)


295Aṭṭha vimokkhā. Rūpī rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ paṭhamo vimokkho.

296Ajjhattaṁ arūpasaññī bahiddhā rūpāni passati. Ayaṁ dutiyo vimokkho.

297Subhanteva adhimutto hoti. Ayaṁ tatiyo vimokkho.

298Sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā 'ananto ākāso'ti ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ catuttho vimokkho.

299Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'anantaṁ viññāṇan'ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ pañcamo vimokkho.

300Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'natthi kiñcī'ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ chaṭṭho vimokkho.

301Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ sattamo vimokkho.

302Sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayaṁ aṭṭhamo vimokkho. (11)


303Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena aṭṭha dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

9. Navaka

304Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena nava dhammā sammadakkhātā; tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame nava?


305Nava āghātavatthūni. 'Anatthaṁ me acarī'ti āghātaṁ bandhati; 'anatthaṁ me caratī'ti āghātaṁ bandhati; 'anatthaṁ me carissatī'ti āghātaṁ bandhati; 'piyassa me manāpassa anatthaṁ acarī'ti āghātaṁ bandhati … pe … anatthaṁ caratīti āghātaṁ bandhati … pe … anatthaṁ carissatīti āghātaṁ bandhati; 'appiyassa me amanāpassa atthaṁ acarī'ti āghātaṁ bandhati … pe … atthaṁ caratīti āghātaṁ bandhati … pe … atthaṁ carissatīti āghātaṁ bandhati. (1)

306Nava āghātapaṭivinayā. 'Anatthaṁ me acari, taṁ kutettha labbhā'ti āghātaṁ paṭivineti; 'anatthaṁ me carati, taṁ kutettha labbhā'ti āghātaṁ paṭivineti; 'anatthaṁ me carissati, taṁ kutettha labbhā'ti āghātaṁ paṭivineti; 'piyassa me manāpassa anatthaṁ acari … pe … anatthaṁ carati … pe … anatthaṁ carissati, taṁ kutettha labbhā'ti āghātaṁ paṭivineti; 'appiyassa me amanāpassa atthaṁ acari … pe … atthaṁ carati … pe … atthaṁ carissati, taṁ kutettha labbhā'ti āghātaṁ paṭivineti. (2)


307Nava sattāvāsā. Santāvuso, sattā nānattakāyā nānattasaññino, seyyathāpi manussā ekacce ca devā ekacce ca vinipātikā. Ayaṁ paṭhamo sattāvāso.

308Santāvuso, sattā nānattakāyā ekattasaññino, seyyathāpi devā brahmakāyikā paṭhamābhinibbattā. Ayaṁ dutiyo sattāvāso.

309Santāvuso, sattā ekattakāyā nānattasaññino, seyyathāpi devā ābhassarā. Ayaṁ tatiyo sattāvāso.

310Santāvuso, sattā ekattakāyā ekattasaññino, seyyathāpi devā subhakiṇhā. Ayaṁ catuttho sattāvāso.

311Santāvuso, sattā asaññino appaṭisaṁvedino, seyyathāpi devā asaññasattā. Ayaṁ pañcamo sattāvāso.


312Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā paṭighasaññānaṁ atthaṅgamā nānattasaññānaṁ amanasikārā 'ananto ākāso'ti ākāsānañcāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ chaṭṭho sattāvāso.

313Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'anantaṁ viññāṇan'ti viññāṇañcāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ sattamo sattāvāso.

314Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'natthi kiñcī'ti ākiñcaññāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ aṭṭhamo sattāvāso.

315Santāvuso, sattā sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanūpagā. Ayaṁ navamo sattāvāso. (3)


316Nava akkhaṇā asamayā brahmacariyavāsāya. Idhāvuso, tathāgato ca loke uppanno hoti arahaṁ sammāsambuddho, dhammo ca desiyati opasamiko parinibbāniko sambodhagāmī sugatappavedito. Ayañca puggalo nirayaṁ upapanno hoti. Ayaṁ paṭhamo akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

317Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, tathāgato ca loke uppanno hoti arahaṁ sammāsambuddho, dhammo ca desiyati opasamiko parinibbāniko sambodhagāmī sugatappavedito. Ayañca puggalo tiracchānayoniṁ upapanno hoti. Ayaṁ dutiyo akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

318Puna caparaṁ … pe … pettivisayaṁ upapanno hoti. Ayaṁ tatiyo akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

319Puna caparaṁ … pe … asurakāyaṁ upapanno hoti. Ayaṁ catuttho akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

320Puna caparaṁ … pe … aññataraṁ dīghāyukaṁ devanikāyaṁ upapanno hoti. Ayaṁ pañcamo akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

321Puna caparaṁ … pe … paccantimesu janapadesu paccājāto hoti milakkhesu aviññātāresu, yattha natthi gati bhikkhūnaṁ bhikkhunīnaṁ upāsakānaṁ upāsikānaṁ. Ayaṁ chaṭṭho akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

322Puna caparaṁ … pe … majjhimesu janapadesu paccājāto hoti. So ca hoti micchādiṭṭhiko viparītadassano: 'natthi dinnaṁ, natthi yiṭṭhaṁ, natthi hutaṁ, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, natthi ayaṁ loko, natthi paro loko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedentī'ti. Ayaṁ sattamo akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

323Puna caparaṁ … pe … majjhimesu janapadesu paccājāto hoti. So ca hoti duppañño jaḷo eḷamūgo, nappaṭibalo subhāsitadubbhāsitānamatthamaññātuṁ. Ayaṁ aṭṭhamo akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya.

324Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, tathāgato ca loke na uppanno hoti arahaṁ sammāsambuddho, dhammo ca na desiyati opasamiko parinibbāniko sambodhagāmī sugatappavedito. Ayañca puggalo majjhimesu janapadesu paccājāto hoti, so ca hoti paññavā ajaḷo aneḷamūgo, paṭibalo subhāsitadubbhāsitānamatthamaññātuṁ. Ayaṁ navamo akkhaṇo asamayo brahmacariyavāsāya. (4)


325Nava anupubbavihārā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā … pe … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Pītiyā ca virāgā … pe … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sukhassa ca pahānā … pe … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso rūpasaññānaṁ samatikkamā … pe … ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'anantaṁ viññāṇan'ti viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samatikkamma 'natthi kiñcī'ti ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ upasampajja viharati. Sabbaso nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samatikkamma saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ upasampajja viharati. (5)


326Nava anupubbanirodhā. Paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa kāmasaññā niruddhā hoti. Dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa vitakkavicārā niruddhā honti. Tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa pīti niruddhā hoti. Catutthaṁ jhānaṁ samāpannassa assāsapassāssā niruddhā honti. Ākāsānañcāyatanaṁ samāpannassa rūpasaññā niruddhā hoti. Viññāṇañcāyatanaṁ samāpannassa ākāsānañcāyatanasaññā niruddhā hoti. Ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ samāpannassa viññāṇañcāyatanasaññā niruddhā hoti. Nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ samāpannassa ākiñcaññāyatanasaññā niruddhā hoti. Saññāvedayitanirodhaṁ samāpannassa saññā ca vedanā ca niruddhā honti. (6)


327Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena nava dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ.

10. Dasaka

328Atthi kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dasa dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ … pe … atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Katame dasa?


329Dasa nāthakaraṇā dhammā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sīlavā hoti. Pāṭimokkhasaṁvarasaṁvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno, aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu sīlavā hoti, pātimokkhasaṁvarasaṁvuto viharati, ācāragocarasampanno, aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.1)

330Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu bahussuto hoti sutadharo sutasannicayo. Ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā majjhekalyāṇā pariyosānakalyāṇā sātthā sabyañjanā kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ abhivadanti, tathārūpāssa dhammā bahussutā honti dhātā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu bahussuto hoti … pe … diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.2)

331Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu kalyāṇamitto hoti kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu kalyāṇamitto hoti kalyāṇasahāyo kalyāṇasampavaṅko. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.3)

332Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu suvaco hoti sovacassakaraṇehi dhammehi samannāgato khamo padakkhiṇaggāhī anusāsaniṁ. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu suvaco hoti … pe … padakkhiṇaggāhī anusāsaniṁ. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.4)

333Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu yāni tāni sabrahmacārīnaṁ uccāvacāni kiṅkaraṇīyāni, tattha dakkho hoti analaso tatrupāyāya vīmaṁsāya samannāgato, alaṁ kātuṁ alaṁ saṁvidhātuṁ. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu yāni tāni sabrahmacārīnaṁ … pe … alaṁ saṁvidhātuṁ. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.5)

334Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu dhammakāmo hoti piyasamudāhāro, abhidhamme abhivinaye uḷārapāmojjo. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu dhammakāmo hoti … pe … uḷārapāmojjo. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.6)

335Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti itarītarehi cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti … pe … parikkhārehi. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.7)

336Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu āraddhavīriyo viharati akusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ pahānāya kusalānaṁ dhammānaṁ upasampadāya, thāmavā daḷhaparakkamo anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu āraddhavīriyo viharati … pe … anikkhittadhuro kusalesu dhammesu. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.8)

337Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu satimā hoti paramena satinepakkena samannāgato cirakatampi cirabhāsitampi saritā anussaritā. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu satimā hoti … pe … saritā anussaritā. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.9)

338Puna caparaṁ, āvuso, bhikkhu paññavā hoti, udayatthagāminiyā paññāya samannāgato ariyāya nibbedhikāya sammādukkhakkhayagāminiyā. Yaṁpāvuso, bhikkhu paññavā hoti … pe … sammādukkhakkhayagāminiyā. Ayampi dhammo nāthakaraṇo. (1.10)


339Dasa kasiṇāyatanāni. Pathavīkasiṇameko sañjānāti, uddhaṁ adho tiriyaṁ advayaṁ appamāṇaṁ. Āpokasiṇameko sañjānāti … pe … tejokasiṇameko sañjānāti … vāyokasiṇameko sañjānāti … nīlakasiṇameko sañjānāti … pītakasiṇameko sañjānāti … lohitakasiṇameko sañjānāti … odātakasiṇameko sañjānāti … ākāsakasiṇameko sañjānāti … viññāṇakasiṇameko sañjānāti, uddhaṁ adho tiriyaṁ advayaṁ appamāṇaṁ. (2)

340Dasa akusalakammapathā—pāṇātipāto, adinnādānaṁ, kāmesumicchācāro, musāvādo, pisuṇā vācā, pharusā vācā, samphappalāpo, abhijjhā, byāpādo, micchādiṭṭhi. (3)

341Dasa kusalakammapathā—pāṇātipātā veramaṇī, adinnādānā veramaṇī, kāmesumicchācārā veramaṇī, musāvādā veramaṇī, pisuṇāya vācāya veramaṇī, pharusāya vācāya veramaṇī, samphappalāpā veramaṇī, anabhijjhā, abyāpādo, sammādiṭṭhi. (4)


342Dasa ariyavāsā. Idhāvuso, bhikkhu pañcaṅgavippahīno hoti, chaḷaṅgasamannāgato, ekārakkho, caturāpasseno, paṇunnapaccekasacco, samavayasaṭṭhesano, anāvilasaṅkappo, passaddhakāyasaṅkhāro, suvimuttacitto, suvimuttapañño.


343Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu pañcaṅgavippahīno hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno kāmacchando pahīno hoti, byāpādo pahīno hoti, thinamiddhaṁ pahīnaṁ hoti, uddhaccakukkuccaṁ pahīnaṁ hoti, vicikicchā pahīnā hoti. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu pañcaṅgavippahīno hoti. (5.1)

344Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu chaḷaṅgasamannāgato hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu cakkhunā rūpaṁ disvā neva sumano hoti na dummano, upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno. Sotena saddaṁ sutvā … pe … manasā dhammaṁ viññāya neva sumano hoti na dummano, upekkhako viharati sato sampajāno. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu chaḷaṅgasamannāgato hoti. (5.2)

345Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu ekārakkho hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu satārakkhena cetasā samannāgato hoti. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu ekārakkho hoti. (5.3)

346Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu caturāpasseno hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu saṅkhāyekaṁ paṭisevati, saṅkhāyekaṁ adhivāseti, saṅkhāyekaṁ parivajjeti, saṅkhāyekaṁ vinodeti. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu caturāpasseno hoti. (5.4)

347Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu paṇunnapaccekasacco hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno yāni tāni puthusamaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ puthupaccekasaccāni, sabbāni tāni nunnāni honti paṇunnāni cattāni vantāni muttāni pahīnāni paṭinissaṭṭhāni. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu paṇunnapaccekasacco hoti. (5.5)

348Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu samavayasaṭṭhesano hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno kāmesanā pahīnā hoti, bhavesanā pahīnā hoti, brahmacariyesanā paṭippassaddhā. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu samavayasaṭṭhesano hoti. (5.6)

349Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu anāvilasaṅkappo hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno kāmasaṅkappo pahīno hoti, byāpādasaṅkappo pahīno hoti, vihiṁsāsaṅkappo pahīno hoti. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu anāvilasaṅkappo hoti. (5.7)

350Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu passaddhakāyasaṅkhāro hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā dukkhassa ca pahānā pubbeva somanassadomanassānaṁ atthaṅgamā adukkhamasukhaṁ upekkhāsatipārisuddhiṁ catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu passaddhakāyasaṅkhāro hoti. (5.8)

351Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu suvimuttacitto hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhuno rāgā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti, dosā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti, mohā cittaṁ vimuttaṁ hoti. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu suvimuttacitto hoti. (5.9)

352Kathañcāvuso, bhikkhu suvimuttapañño hoti? Idhāvuso, bhikkhu 'rāgo me pahīno ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo'ti pajānāti. 'Doso me pahīno ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo'ti pajānāti. 'Moho me pahīno ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo'ti pajānāti. Evaṁ kho, āvuso, bhikkhu suvimuttapañño hoti. (5.10)


353Dasa asekkhā dhammā—asekkhā sammādiṭṭhi, asekkho sammāsaṅkappo, asekkhā sammāvācā, asekkho sammākammanto, asekkho sammāājīvo, asekkho sammāvāyāmo, asekkhā sammāsati, asekkho sammāsamādhi, asekkhaṁ sammāñāṇaṁ, asekkhā sammāvimutti. (6)


354Ime kho, āvuso, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dasa dhammā sammadakkhātā. Tattha sabbeheva saṅgāyitabbaṁ na vivaditabbaṁ, yathayidaṁ brahmacariyaṁ addhaniyaṁ assa ciraṭṭhitikaṁ, tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan"ti.

355Atha kho bhagavā uṭṭhahitvā āyasmantaṁ sāriputtaṁ āmantesi: "sādhu sādhu, sāriputta, sādhu kho tvaṁ, sāriputta, bhikkhūnaṁ saṅgītipariyāyaṁ abhāsī"ti.

356Idamavocāyasmā sāriputto, samanuñño satthā ahosi. Attamanā te bhikkhū āyasmato sāriputtassa bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

Sangītisuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dasamaṁ.