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Sutta Pitaka

Dīgha Nikāya – The Long Discourses

DN19: Mahāgovinda Sutta – The Great Steward

A Past Life of Gotama

1Thus have I heard.[n.537] Mention must be made of RD's brilliant introduction to this Sutta, which he analyses in terms of a play, showing its obvious links with the previous Sutta with reference to 'the episode told in Act I, Scenes 1 and 2ʹ, and so on. He stresses the humour and the propagandist technique employed, which consists in accepting and then outflanking the opponents' position rather than direct confrontation. While we may not be convinced that this Sutta goes back to the Buddha personally (but equally — are we sure that it does not, in some form?), this is indeed the method he uses in discussions with a variety of interlocutors. RD also analyses the differences between this Sutta and the version in the Sanskrit Mahāvastu, a product of the Lokuttaravāda school. Once the Lord was staying at Rajagaha, on Vultures' Peak. And when the night was nearly over, Pañcasikha of the gandhabbas,[n.538] Referred to at DN 18.18, where Brahmā disguises himself as Pañcasikha, who now appears in person. He wore his hair in five knots or ringlets as he had done when he had died as a young boy. lighting up the entire Vultures' Peak with a splendid radiance,[n.539] The radiance of the devas is a standard feature: in the Deva Saṁyutta with which SN opens, we are introduced to a succession of devas who 'light up the entire Jeta Grove with their effulgence'. Brahmā's radiance is much greater and in DN 14.1.17 we learn of the even greater radiance which appears at the conception and birth of a Bodhisatta. approached the Lord, saluted him, stood to one side and said: 'Lord, I wish to report to you what I have personally seen and observed when I was in the presence of the Thirty-Three Gods.' 'Tell me then, Pañcasikha', said the Lord.

The Arahat Devasabhā

2'Lord, in earlier days, long ago, on the fast-day of the fifteenth at the end of the Rains,Vassa: the annual three-monthly retreat during the rainy season. in the full-moon night all the Thirty-Three Gods were seated in the Sudhamma Hall'Hall of Good Counsel' (RD). – a great congregation of divine beings, and the Four Great Kings from the four quarters were there. There was the Great King DhataratthaFor a fuller account of him and the other 'Great Kings' (who actually preside over the lowest of the heavens, only just above the human realm), see DN 32. from the east at the head of his followers, facing west; the Great King Virūlhaka from the south… facing north; the Great King Virupakkha from the west … facing east; and the Great King Vessavana from the north … facing south. '"On such occasions that is the order in which they are seated, and after that came our seats.

3And those devas who, having lived the holy life under the Lord, had recently appeared in the Heaven of the Thirty-Three, outshone the other devas in brightness and glory. And for that reason the Thirty-Three Gods were pleased, happy, filled with delight and joy, saying: 'The devas' hosts are growing, the asuras' hosts are declining!'The asuras suffered a decline in India, compared with the Persian ahura. They are at war with the devas, and hence are sometimes termed by Western scholars 'titans'. Since humans can be reborn in either camp (see DN 24.1.7 for an example of one born among the asuras), it is natural that the devas should rejoice at the accession to their ranks through the Buddha’s disciples.


4Then Sakka uttered the verse:


5"The gods of Thirty-Three rejoice, their leader too,
Praising the Tathagata, and Dhamma's truth,

6Seeing new-come devas, fair and glorious
Who've lived the holy life, now well reborn.

7Outshining all the rest in fame and splendour,
The mighty Sage's pupils singled out.

8Seeing this, the Thirty-Three rejoice, their leader too,
Praising the Tathagata, and Dhamma's truth."

9At this, Lord, the Thirty-Three Gods rejoiced still more, saying: "The devas' hosts are growing, the asuras' hosts are declining!"

Eight Truthful Statements

10Pañcasikha continued: 'Then Sakka, seeing their satisfaction, said to the Thirty-Three Gods: "Would you like, gentlemen, to hear eight truthful statements in praise of the Lord?" and on receiving their assent, he declared:

11'"What do you think, my lords of the Thirty-Three? As regards the way in which the Lord has striven for the welfare of the many, for the happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the welfare and happiness of devas and humans — we can find no teacher endowed with such qualities, whether we consider the past or the present, other than the Lord.

12'"Well-proclaimed, truly, is this Lord's Teaching, visible here and now, timeless, inviting inspection, leading onward, to be realised by the wise each one for himself — and we can find no proclaimer of such an onward-leading doctrine, either in the past or in the present, other than the Lord.

13"'The Lord has well explained what is right and what is wrong, what is blameworthy and what is blameless, what is to be followed and what is not to be followed, what is base and what is noble, what is foul, fair and mixed in quality.[n.540] As at DN 18.25. Cf. the ʹeel-wrigglerʹ mentioned at DN 1.2.24. And we can find none who is a proclaimer of such things… other than the Lord.

14"'Again, the Lord has well explained to his disciples the path leading to Nibbāna,[n.541] The 'path' here is really the practice, paṭipadā. The Noble Eightfold Path is the 'Middle Way' or 'Middle Practice', majjhima-paṭipadā. and they coalesce, Nibbāna and the path, just as the waters of the Ganges and the Yamunā coalesce and flow on together. And we can find no proclaimer of the path leading to Nibbāna … other than the Lord.

15'"And the Lord has gained companions, both learners[n.542] Sekhā: learners who, having gained one of the first three paths, have yet to attain enlightenment. and those who, having lived the life, have abolished the corruptions,[n.543] Arahants. and the Lord dwells together with them, all rejoicing in the one thing. And we can find no such teacher … other than the Lord.

16'"The gifts given to the Lord are well-bestowed, his fame is well established, so much so that, I think, the Khattiyas will continue to be attached to him, yet the Lord takes his food-offering without conceit. And we can find no teacher who does this… other than the Lord.

17"'And the Lord acts as he speaks, and speaks as he acts. And we can find no teacher who does likewise, in every detail of doctrine … other than the Lord.

18"'The Lord has transcended doubt,[n.544] 'Crossed over the sea of doubt' (RD). passed beyond all 'how' and 'why', he has accomplished his aim in regard to his goal and the supreme holy life. And we can find no teacher who has done the like, whether we consider the past or the present, other than the Lord."

19'And when Sakka had thus proclaimed these eight truthful statements in praise of the Lord, the Thirty-Three Gods were even more pleased, overjoyed and filled with delight and happiness at what they had heard in the Lord's praise.

'Then certain gods exclaimed: "Oh, if only four fully-enlightened Buddhas were to arise in the world and teach Dhamma just like the Blessed Lord! That would be for the benefit and happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world, for the benefit and happiness of devas and humans!" And some said: "Never mind four fully-enlightened Buddhas – three would suffice!" and others said: "Never mind three — two would suffice!"


20'At this Sakka said: "It is impossible, gentlemen, it cannot happen that two fully-enlightened Buddhas should arise simultaneously in a single world-system. That cannot be. May this Blessed Lord continue to live long, for many years to come, free from sickness and disease! That would be for the benefit and happiness of the many, out of compassion for the world it would be for the benefit and happiness of devas and humans!"

'Then the Thirty-Three Gods consulted and deliberated together about the matter concerning which they had assembled in the Sudhamma Hall, and the Four Great Kings were advised and admonished on this matter as they stood by their seats unmoving:

21The Kings, instructed, marked the words they spoke,
Standing calm, serene, beside their seats.


22"'And then, a glorious radiance shone forth from the north, and a splendour was seen greater than the sheen of the devas. And Sakka said to the Thirty-Three Gods: 'Gentlemen, when such signs are seen, such light is seen and such radiance shines forth, Brahmā will appear.Cf. DN 11.80. The appearance of such radiance is the first sign of Brahmā's approaching manifestation.'

23When they see these signs, Brahmā will soon appear:
This is Brahmā sign, radiance vast and great.

Brahmā Sanankumāra

24'"Then the Thirty-Three Gods sat down each in his proper place, saying: 'Let us find out what comesVipāka: not here, as usually, in the technical sense of 'result of kamma', but (a rare usage) 'outcome in general'. of this radiance, and having found the truth of it, we will go towards it.' The Four Great Kings, sitting down in their places, said the same. Thus they were all agreed. '"Then the Thirty-Three Gods sat down each in his proper place, saying: 'Let us find out what comes of this radiance, and having found the truth of it, we will go towards it.'

25"'Lord, whenever Brahmā Sanankumāra'Ever virgin' (or 'ever young'). One of the five sons of Brahma according to legend. appears to the Thirty-Three Gods, he appears having assumed a grosser form, because his natural appearance is not such as to be perceptible to their eyes.An indirect way of exalting the Buddha: Brahma is so vastly superior to the Thirty-Three Gods, and yet he is inferior to the Buddha, and knows it. When he appears to the Thirty-Three Gods, he outshines other devas in radiance and glory, just as a figure made of gold outshines the human figure.

And, Lord, when Brahmā Sanankumāra appears to the Thirty-Three Gods, not one of them salutes him, or rises, or offers him a seat. They all sit silently with palms together,The añjali gesture of veneration or greeting, still used in India and Buddhist countries — frequently mistaken by Westerners for a gesture of prayer(which, for Theravāda Buddhism at least, is inappropriate). cross-legged,pallaṅkena: instrumental case of pallaṅka 'in a cross-legged position'. thinking he will sit down on the couchPallanka is also the couch on which one sits cross-legged. Cf. n.32. of that god from whom he wants something.


And the one on whose couch he sits down is as thrilled and delighted as a duly-anointed Khattiya king on assuming his royal office.


'Then Brahmā Sanankumāra, having descended from his heaven, and seeing their pleasure, uttered these verses:

26"The gods of Thirty-Three rejoice, their leader too,
Praising the Tathagata, and Dhamma's truth,

27Seeing new-come devas, fair and glorious
Who've lived the holy life, now well reborn.

28Outshining all the rest in fame and splendour,
The mighty Sage's pupils singled out.

29Seeing this, the Thirty-Three rejoice, their leader too,
Praising the Tathagata, and Dhamma's truth."


30"'Now to the matter of Brahmā Sanankumāra's speech, and as for the manner of his speech, his voice had eight qualities: it was distinct, intelligible, pleasant, attractive, compact, concise, deep and resonant. And when he spoke in that voice to the assembly, its sound did not carry outside. Whoever has such a voice as that is said to have the voice of Brahmā.'

'Then the Thirty-Three Gods said to Brahmā Sanankumāra: "It is well, Brahmā! We rejoice at what we have heard. Sakka, lord of the devas, has also declared eight truthful statements to us about the Lord, at which we also rejoice."

Eight Truthful Statements (2)

31Then Brahmā said to Sakka: "It is well, Lord of the devas. And we too would like to hear those eight truthful statements about the Lord." "Very well, Great Brahmā", said Sakka, and he repeated those eight statements:


32–39"'What do you think, Lord Brahmā…?" as verses above. And Brahmā Sanankumāra was pleased, overjoyed and filled with delight and happiness at what he had heard in the Lord's praise.


40'Brahmā Sanankumāra assumed a grosser form and appeared in the shape of PañcasikhaCf. DN 21.2 (and DN 19.1). DA says Brahma adopted this form because all the devas loved Pañcasikha.[n.545] This repeated passage even includes the reference to Brahmaʹs adopting the form of Pañcasikha, even though it is Pañcasikha himself who is telling the tale. Rising up in the air, he appeared floating cross-legged, just as a strong man might sit down on a properly-spread couch or on the ground. And seeing the delight of the Thirty-Three Gods, he said to the Thirty-Three Gods:

The Steward

41"For how long has the Blessed Lord been one of mighty wisdom?

42"'Once upon a time there was a king called Disampati. His chaplain[n.546] Purohita: cf. n.173. was a Brahmin called the Steward.[n.547] Govinda. RD notes: 'It is evident…that Govinda, literally "Lord of the Herds", was a title, not a name, and means Treasurer or Steward.' But people were often known by some designation other than their proper names, probably for taboo reasons. We may note how in Scotland the royal house of Stuart derived their name from the Steward who was originally the ʹsty-wardʹ! Cf. n.365. The King's son was a youth called Renu, and the Steward's son was called Jotipāla. Prince Renu and Jotipāla, together with six other Khattiyas, formed a band of eight friends. In the course of time the Steward died, and King Disampati mourned him, saying: 'Alas, at the very moment when we had entrusted all our responsibilities to the Steward, and were abandoning ourselves to the pleasures of the five senses, the Steward has passed away!'

"'Hearing this, Prince Renu said: 'Sire, do not mourn the Steward's death overmuch! His son Jotipāla[n.548] The name means 'Guardian of the Light'. is cleverer than his father was and has a better eye for what is advantageous. You should let Jotipāla manage all the business you entrusted to his father.' 'Is that so, my boy?' 'Yes, Sire.'

The Steward (2)

43"'Then the King called a man and said: 'Come here, my good man, go to the youth Jotipāla and say: "May the Reverend Jotipāla be well! King Disampati sends for you, he would like to see you."' 'Very good, Your Majesty', said the man, and delivered the message. On receiving the message, Jotipāla said: 'Very good, sir', and went to see the King. On entering the royal presence, he exchanged courtesies with the King, then sat down to one side. The King said: 'We wish the Reverend Jotipāla to manage our affairs. Do not refuse. I will install you in your father's place and consecrate[n.549] As RD remarks, the expression 'anoint' is noteworthy, suggesting that the office is of royal rank. you as Steward.' 'Very good, Lord', replied Jotipāla.

"'So King Disampati appointed Jotipāla as steward in his father's place. And once installed, Jotipāla carried out the business his father had carried out, not doing any business his father had not done. He accomplished all the tasks his father had accomplished, and no others. And people said: 'This Brahmin is truly a steward! Indeed he is a great steward!' And that is how the young Brahmin Jotipāla came to be known as the Great Steward.

Dividing the Gold

44"'And one day the Great Steward went to the group of six nobles and said: 'King Disampati is aged, decrepit, stricken with age. His life is near its end and he cannot last much longer. Who can tell how long people will live? When King Disampati dies, the king-makers[n.550] There is no note of any value in DA on this. Presumably the assembled nobles (Khattiyas). are bound to anoint Prince Renu as King. You should go, gentlemen, to Prince Renu and say: "We are the beloved, dear and favoured friends of the Lord Renu, sharing his joys and his sorrows. Our Lord King Disampati is aged… When he dies, the king-makers are bound to anoint the Lord Renu as King. If the Lord Renu should gain the kingship, let him share it with us."'

'"'Very good, sir', said the six nobles, and they went to Prince Renu and spoke to him as the Great Steward had proposed. 'Well, gentlemen, who, apart from myself, ought to prosper but you? If, gentlemen, I gain the kingship, I will share it with you.'

45'"In due course King Disampati died, and the king-makers anointed Prince Renu King in his place. And having been made King, Renu abandoned himself to the pleasures of the five senses. Then the Great Steward went to the six nobles and said: 'Gentlemen, now King Disampati is dead the Lord Renu, who has been anointed in his place, has abandoned himself to the pleasures of the five senses. Who knows what will come of this? The sense-pleasures are intoxicating. You should go to him and say: "King Disampati is dead and the Lord Renu has been anointed King. Do you remember your word, Lord?"'


46'"They did so, and the King said: 'Gentlemen, I remember my word. Who is there who can divide this mighty realm of earth, so broad in the north and so narrow like the front of a cart[n.551] Sakaṭamukha. This expression, which puzzled RD, has been explained as the (narrow) front of a cart, in reference to the tapering shape of India. in the south, into seven equal parts?' 'Who indeed, Lord, if not the Great Steward?'

"'So King Renu sent a man to the Great Steward to say: 'My lord, the King sends for you.' The man went, and the Great Steward came to the King, exchanged courtesies with him, and sat down to one side. Then the King said: 'My Lord Steward, go and divide this mighty realm of earth, so broad in the north and so narrow like the front of a cart in the south, into seven equal parts.' 'Very good, Sire', said the Great Steward, and he did so.


'"And King Renu's country was in the centre:

47Dantapura to the Kalingas, Potaka to the Assakas,
Mahissati to the Avantis, Roruka to the Soviras.

48Mithila to the Videhas, Campa to the Angas goes,
Benares to the Kāsī, thus did the Steward dispose.


49The six nobles were delighted with their respective gains and at the success of the plan: 'What we wanted, desired, aimed at and strove for, we have got!'

50Sattabhū, Brahmadatta, Vessabhū and Bharata,
Renu and two Dhataratthas, these are the seven
Bhārat kings."'[n.552] RD draws up a table showing the relationships and geographical distribution, which however, as he says, does not fit the story very well.

End of first recitation-section

The Steward's Reputation

51"'Then the six nobles came to the Great Steward and said: 'Reverend Steward, just as you were a beloved, dear and faithful friend to King Renu, so you have been to us. Please manage our affairs for us! We trust you will not refuse.' So he administered the realms of seven anointed kings,[n.553] Not ʹinstructed…in government' (RD). The expression used is the same as that previously rendered ʹadministerʹ. and he also taught the mantras to seven distinguished Brahmins and seven hundred advanced pupils.[n.554] Nahātaka: lit. 'having bathed' (i.e. graduated).


52"'In course of time good reports were spread about concerning the Great Steward: 'The Great Steward can see Brahmā with his own eyes, talks with him face to face and consults with him!'[n.555] Cf., per contra, DN 13.12ff. And he thought: 'Now this good report is being spread about concerning me, that I can see Brahmā with my own eyes,… but it is not true. However, I have heard it said by aged and respectable Brahmins, the teachers of teachers, that anyone who withdraws into meditation for the four months of the Rains, developing the absorption on compassion, can see Brahmā with his own eyes, talk with him face to face and consult with him. Suppose I were to do this!'[n.556] This is also the way recommended by the Buddha in DN 13.


53"'So the Great Steward went to King Renu and told him of the report, and of his wish to go into retreat and develop the absorption on compassion. 'And nobody is to come near me except to bring me food.' 'Reverend Steward, do as you think fit.'


54"'The six nobles likewise replied: 'Reverend Steward, do as you think fit.'


55'"He went to the seven Brahmins and the seven hundred pupils and told them of his intentions, adding: 'So, gentlemen, you carry on with reciting the mantras you have heard and learnt, and teach them to each other.' 'Reverend Steward, do as you think fit', they replied.


56"'Then he went to his forty equal-ranking wives, and they said: 'Reverend Steward, do as you think fit.'


57So the Great Steward erected a new lodging to the east of the city and withdrew there for the four months of the Rains, developing the absorption on compassion, and nobody came near him except to bring him food. But at the end of four months he felt nothing but dissatisfaction and weariness as he thought: 'I heard it said… that anyone who withdraws into meditation for the four months of the Rains, developing the absorption on compassion, can see Brahmā with his own eyes…But I cannot see Brahmā with my own eyes, and cannot talk, discuss or consult with him!'

Discussion with Brahmā Sanankumāra

58"'Now Brahmā Sanankumāra read his thoughts and, as swiftly as a strong man might stretch out his flexed arm or flex it again, he disappeared from the Brahmā world and appeared before the Great Steward. And the Great Steward felt fear and trembling, and his hair stood on end at such a sight as he had never seen before. And thus fearful, trembling, with hair standing on end, he addressed Brahmā Sanankumāra in these verses:


59'O splendid vision, glorious and divine,
Who are you, Lord? I fain would know your name.'

60'In highest heaven I am known by all:
Brahmā Sanankumāra — know me thus.'

61'A seat, and water for the feet, and cakes
Are fitting for a Brahmā. Let the Lord
Decide what hospitality he would.'[n.557] As RD indicates, he feels he must offer Brahmā something, but does not know what is right.

62'We accept the gift that's offered: now declare
What it is you wish from us — a boon
Of profit in this very life, or in the next.
Say, Lord Steward, what it is you'd have.'


63'"Then the Great Steward thought: 'Brahmā Sanankumara offers me a boon. What shall I choose — benefits in this life, or in that to come?' Then he thought: 'I am an expert in matters of advantage in this life, and others consult me about this. Suppose I were to ask Brahmā Sanankumāra for something of benefit in the life to come?' And he addressed Brahmā in these verses:


64'I ask Brahmā Sanankumāra this,
Doubting, him who has no doubts I ask
For others too I ask: By doing what
Can mortals reach the deathless Brahmā world?'

65'That man who spurns all possessive thoughts,
Alone, intent, compassion-filled,
Aloof from stench, free from lust —
Established thus, and training thus,
Can mortals reach the deathless Brahmā world.'[n.558] To the Buddhist, of course, Brahmāʹs realm is not really deathless. But in a pre-Buddhist age it was the highest goal one could aspire to.


66""I understand "Spurning possessive thoughts". This means that one renounces one's possessions, small or great, leaves one's relatives, few or many, and, shaving off hair and beard, goes forth from the household life into homelessness. This is how I understand "Spurning possessive thoughts".

67I understand "Alone, intent". That means that one goes off on one's own and chooses a lodging in the forest, at the foot of a tree, in a mountain glen, in a rocky cave, a charnel-ground, in the jungle or on a heap of grass in the open…

68I understand "Compassion-filled". That means that one dwells suffusing one quarter with a mind filled with compassion, then a second, then a third and a fourth quarter. Thus one abides suffusing the whole world, up, down and across, everywhere, all around, with a mind filled with compassion, expanded, immeasurable, free from hatred and ill-will. That is how I understand "Compassion-filled". But the Lord's words about "Aloof from stench" I do not understand:


69What do you mean, Brahma, by "stench" among men?
Pray lighten my ignorance, O wise one, on this.
What hindrance causes man to stink and fester,
Heading for hell, from Brahmā-realm cut off?'

70'Anger, lying, fraud and cheating,
Avarice, pride and jealousy,
Coveting, doubt and harming others,
Greed and hate, stupor and delusion:
The loathsome stench that these give off
Heads man for hell, from Brahmā-realm cut off.'


71'As I understand the Lord's words about the stench, these things are not easy to overcome if one lives the household life. I will therefore go forth from the household life into the homeless state.' 'Reverend Steward, do as you think fit.'

The Steward's Response

72"'So the Great Steward went to King Renu and said: 'My Lord, please appoint another minister[n.559] Purohita: as at n.546. I have ventured to play on the two meanings of 'minister' in English: 'minister of religion' and 'government minister'. The Pali word approximates to a combination of the two. to manage your affairs. I wish to go forth from the household life into homelessness. After what Brahmā has told me about the stench of the world, which cannot easily be overcome by one living the household life, I am going forth into homelessness:


73King Renu, lord of this realm,
I declare,
You yourself must rule,
I'll counsel you no more!'

74'If anything you lack,
I'll make it good, If any hurt you,
my royal arms shall guard you.
You my father, I your son,
Steward, stay!'

75'I lack nothing,
none there is who harms me;
No human voice I heard —
at home I cannot stay.'

76"'Non-human" –
what's he like who calls, that you
At once abandon home
and all of us?'

77'Before I went on this retreat
I thought of sacrifice,
Lighting the sacred fire, strewing kusa-grass.

78But now — eternal Brahmā[n.560] Cf. n.558.
from Brahmā-realm's appeared.
I asked, he answered:
I now can stay no more.'

79'Reverend Steward, in your words I trust. Such words
Once heard,
you had no other course.

80We will follow: Steward, be our Master.
Like a beryl-gem,
clear, of finest water,
So purified,
we'll follow in your wake.

81If the Reverend Steward goes forth from the household life into homelessness, I will do the same. Wherever you go, we will follow.'

The Steward Addresses the Six Nobles

82"'Then the Great Steward went to the six nobles and said to them: 'My lords, please appoint another minister to manage your affairs. I wish to go forth from the household life into homelessness…' And the six nobles went aside and consulted together: 'These Brahmins are greedy for money. Perhaps we can win the Great Steward round with money.' So they came back to him and said: 'Sir, there is plenty of wealth in these seven kingdoms. Take as much as you like.' 'Enough, gentlemen, I have received plenty of wealth from my lords already. That is the very thing that I am renouncing in order to go forth from the household life into homelessness, as I have explained.'

'"Then the six nobles went aside again and consulted together: 'These Brahmins are greedy for women. Perhaps we can win the Great Steward round with women.' So they came to him and said: 'Sir, there are plenty of women in these seven kingdoms. Take your pick!' 'Enough, gentlemen, I already have forty equal wives, and I am leaving them in order to go forth from the household life into homelessness, as I have explained.'

83""If the Reverend Steward goes forth from the household life into homelessness, we will do likewise. Wherever you go, we will follow:


84"If you renounce those lusts
that bind most men,[n.561] Puthujjanas: or 'worldlings'. See n.16.
Exert yourselves,
be strong and patiently endure!

85This is the path that's straight,
the peerless path,
The path of truth, guarded by the good,
to Brahma's realm."


86"'And so, Lord Steward, just wait seven years, and then we too will go forth into homelessness. Wherever you go, we will follow.'

87"Gentlemen, seven years is far too long, I cannot wait for seven years! Who can tell how long people will live? We have to go on into the next world, we must learn by means of wisdom,[n.562] Mantāya: apparently 'by mantra', but glossed in DA as 'wisdom'. we must do what is right and live the holy life, for nothing that is born is immortal. Now I am going forth as I have explained.'

"'Well, Reverend Steward, just wait six years,… five year,… four years,… three years,… two years,… one year, and then we too will go forth into homelessness. Wherever you go, we will follow.'


88'"'gentlemen, one year is far too long…' 'Then wait seven months…'


89'"'Gentlemen, seven months is far too long…'


90..'Then wait six months,… five months,… four months,… three months,… two months,… one month,… half a month…'


91'"'Gentlemen, half a month is far too long…' 'Then, Reverend Steward, just wait seven days while we make over our kingdoms to our sons and brothers. At the end of seven days we will go forth into homelessness. Wherever you go, we will follow.' 'Seven is not long, gentlemen. I agree, my lords, to seven days.'

Announcement to the Followers

92"'Then the Great Steward went to the seven Brahmins and their seven hundred advanced pupils, and said to them: 'Now, Your Reverences, you must seek another teacher to teach you the mantras. I mean to go forth from the household life into homelessness. After what Brahma has told me about the stench of the world, which cannot be easily overcome by one living the household life, I am going forth into homelessness.' 'Reverend Steward, do not do so! There is little power and profit in the homeless life, and much power and profit in the life of a Brahmin!'[n.563] The delicious irony of this should not be missed. The suspicions of the six nobles, expressed in verses 48–49, were not without foundation so far as ordinary Brahmins were concerned. And cf., e.g. DN 4.26! 'Do not say such things, gentlemen! Besides, who has greater power and profit than I have? I have been like a king to kings, like Brahma to the Brahmins, like a deity to householders, and I am giving all this up in order to go forth from the household life into homelessness, as I have explained.' 'If the Reverend Steward goes forth from the household life into homelessness, we will do likewise. Wherever you go, we will follow.'

Announcement to the Wife

93'"Then the Great Steward went to his forty equal wives and said: 'Whichever of you ladies wishes to may go back to her own family and seek another husband. I mean to go forth into homelessness…' 'You alone are the kinsman we could wish for, the only husband we want. If the Reverend Steward goes forth into homelessness, we will do likewise. Wherever you go, we will follow.'

The Steward Goes Forth

94'"And so the Great Steward, at the end of the seven days, shaved off his hair and beard, donned yellow robes and went forth from the household life into homelessness. And with him went the seven anointed Khattiya kings, the seven wealthy and distinguished Brahmins with their seven hundred advanced pupils, his forty equal wives, several thousand Khattiyas, several thousand Brahmins, several thousand householders, even some harem-women.

""And so, followed by this company, the Great Steward wandered through villages, towns and royal cities. And whenever he came to a village or town, he was like a king to kings, like Brahma to the Brahmins, like a deity to householders. And in those days, whenever anyone sneezed or stumbled, they used to say: 'Praise be to the Great Steward! Praise be to the Minister of Seven!'

95'"And the Great Steward dwelt suffusing one quarter with a mind filled with loving-kindness, then a second, then a third and a fourth quarter. He dwelt suffusing the whole world, up, down and across, everywhere, all around, with a mind filled with compassion,… with a mind filled with sympathetic joy,… with a mind filled with equanimity,… free from hatred and ill-will. And thus he taught his disciples the way to union with the Brahmā-world.

96'"And all those who had at that time been the Great Steward's pupils and had fully mastered his teaching, were after death at the breaking-up of the body reborn in a happy sphere, in the Brahmā-world. And those who had not fully mastered his teaching were reborn either among the Paranimmita-Vasavatti devas, among the Nimmanarati devas, among the Tusita devas, among the Yama devas, among the devas of the Thirty-Three Gods, or among the devas of the Four Great Kings. And the very lowest realm that any of them attained was that of the gandhabbas. Thus the going-forth of all those people was not fruitless or barren, but productive of fruit and profit."

97'Do you remember this, Lord?' 'I do, Pañcasikha. At that time I was the Brahmin, the Great Steward, and I taught those disciples the path to union with the Brahmā-world.

98'However, Pañcasikha, that holy life does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to super-knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna, but only to birth in the Brahmā-world, whereas my holy life leads unfailingly to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to super-knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna. That is the Noble Eightfold Path, namely Right View, Right Thought, Right Speech, Right Action, Right Livelihood, Right Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Concentration.

99'And, Pañcasikha, those of my disciples who have fully mastered my teaching have by their own super-knowledge realised, by the destruction of the corruptions in this very life, the uncorrupted freedom of heart and mind. And of those who have not fully mastered it, some by the destruction of the five lower fetters will be reborn spontaneously, attaining thence to Nibbāna without returning to this world; some by the destruction of three fetters and the reduction of greed, hatred and delusion will become Once-Returners, who will return once more to this world before making an end of suffering; and some by the destruction of three fetters will become Stream-Winners, incapable of falling into states of woe, assured of enlightenment. Thus the going-forth of all these people was not fruitless or barren, but productive of fruit and profit.'

100Thus the Lord spoke, and Pañcasikha of the gandhabbas was delighted and rejoiced at the Lord's words. And, having saluted him, he passed him by on the right and vanished from the spot.

 

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ—​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā rājagahe viharati gijjhakūṭe pabbate. Atha kho pañcasikho gandhabbaputto abhikkantāya rattiyā abhikkantavaṇṇo kevalakappaṁ gijjhakūṭaṁ pabbataṁ obhāsetvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ aṭṭhāsi. Ekamantaṁ ṭhito kho pañcasikho gandhabbaputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "yaṁ kho me, bhante, devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ sammukhā sutaṁ sammukhā paṭiggahitaṁ, ārocemi taṁ bhagavato"ti. "Ārocehi me tvaṁ, pañcasikhā"ti bhagavā avoca.

1. Devasabhā

2"Purimāni, bhante, divasāni purimatarāni tadahuposathe pannarase pavāraṇāya puṇṇāya puṇṇamāya rattiyā kevalakappā ca devā tāvatiṁsā sudhammāyaṁ sabhāyaṁ sannisinnā honti sannipatitā; mahatī ca dibbaparisā samantato nisinnā honti, cattāro ca mahārājāno catuddisā nisinnā honti; puratthimāya disāya dhataraṭṭho mahārājā pacchimābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā; dakkhiṇāya disāya virūḷhako mahārājā uttarābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā; pacchimāya disāya virūpakkho mahārājā puratthābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā; uttarāya disāya vessavaṇo mahārājā dakkhiṇābhimukho nisinno hoti deve purakkhatvā. Yadā, bhante, kevalakappā ca devā tāvatiṁsā sudhammāyaṁ sabhāyaṁ sannisinnā honti sannipatitā, mahatī ca dibbaparisā samantato nisinnā honti, cattāro ca mahārājāno catuddisā nisinnā honti, idaṁ nesaṁ hoti āsanasmiṁ; atha pacchā amhākaṁ āsanaṁ hoti.

3Ye te, bhante, devā bhagavati brahmacariyaṁ caritvā adhunūpapannā tāvatiṁsakāyaṁ, te aññe deve atirocanti vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca. Tena sudaṁ, bhante, devā tāvatiṁsā attamanā honti pamuditā pītisomanassajātā; 'dibbā vata bho kāyā paripūrenti, hāyanti asurakāyā'ti.


4Atha kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ sampasādaṁ viditvā imāhi gāthāhi anumodi: 


5'Modanti vata bho devā,
tāvatiṁsā sahindakā;
Tathāgataṁ namassantā,
dhammassa ca sudhammataṁ.

6Nave deve ca passantā,
vaṇṇavante yasassine;
Sugatasmiṁ brahmacariyaṁ,
caritvāna idhāgate.

7Te aññe atirocanti,
vaṇṇena yasasāyunā;
Sāvakā bhūripaññassa,
visesūpagatā idha.

8Idaṁ disvāna nandanti,
tāvatiṁsā sahindakā;
Tathāgataṁ namassantā,
dhammassa ca sudhammatan'ti.

9Tena sudaṁ, bhante, devā tāvatiṁsā bhiyyoso mattāya attamanā honti pamuditā pītisomanassajātā; 'dibbā vata bho, kāyā paripūrenti, hāyanti asurakāyā'ti.

2. Aṭṭhayathābhuccavaṇṇa

10Atha kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ sampasādaṁ viditvā deve tāvatiṁse āmantesi: 'iccheyyātha no tumhe, mārisā, tassa bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe sotun'ti? 'Icchāma mayaṁ, mārisa, tassa bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe sotun'ti. Atha kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe payirudāhāsi: 

11'Taṁ kiṁ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṁsā? Yāvañca so bhagavā bahujanahitāya paṭipanno bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Evaṁ bahujanahitāya paṭipannaṁ bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (1)

12Svākkhāto kho pana tena bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhi. Evaṁ opaneyyikassa dhammassa desetāraṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (2)

13"Idaṁ kusalan"ti kho pana tena bhagavatā supaññattaṁ, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti supaññattaṁ. "Idaṁ sāvajjaṁ idaṁ anavajjaṁ, idaṁ sevitabbaṁ idaṁ na sevitabbaṁ, idaṁ hīnaṁ idaṁ paṇītaṁ, idaṁ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgan"ti supaññattaṁ. Evaṁ kusalākusalasāvajjānavajjasevitabbāsevitabbahīnapaṇītakaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgānaṁ dhammānaṁ paññāpetāraṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (3)

14Supaññattā kho pana tena bhagavatā sāvakānaṁ nibbānagāminī paṭipadā, saṁsandati nibbānañca paṭipadā ca. Seyyathāpi nāma gaṅgodakaṁ yamunodakena saṁsandati sameti; evameva supaññattā tena bhagavatā sāvakānaṁ nibbānagāminī paṭipadā, saṁsandati nibbānañca paṭipadā ca. Evaṁ nibbānagāminiyā paṭipadāya paññāpetāraṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (4)

15Abhinipphanno kho pana tassa bhagavato lābho abhinipphanno siloko, yāva maññe khattiyā sampiyāyamānarūpā viharanti, vigatamado kho pana so bhagavā āhāraṁ āhāreti. Evaṁ vigatamadaṁ āhāraṁ āharayamānaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (5)

16Laddhasahāyo kho pana so bhagavā sekhānañceva paṭipannānaṁ khīṇāsavānañca vusitavataṁ. Te bhagavā apanujja ekārāmataṁ anuyutto viharati. Evaṁ ekārāmataṁ anuyuttaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (6)

17Yathāvādī kho pana so bhagavā tathākārī, yathākārī tathāvādī, iti yathāvādī tathākārī, yathākārī tathāvādī. Evaṁ dhammānudhammappaṭipannaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (7)

18Tiṇṇavicikiccho kho pana so bhagavā vigatakathaṅkatho pariyositasaṅkappo ajjhāsayaṁ ādibrahmacariyaṁ. Evaṁ tiṇṇavicikicchaṁ vigatakathaṅkathaṁ pariyositasaṅkappaṁ ajjhāsayaṁ ādibrahmacariyaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā'ti. (8)

19Ime kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe payirudāhāsi. Tena sudaṁ, bhante, devā tāvatiṁsā bhiyyoso mattāya attamanā honti pamuditā pītisomanassajātā bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe sutvā.

Tatra, bhante, ekacce devā evamāhaṁsu: 'aho vata, mārisā, cattāro sammāsambuddhā loke uppajjeyyuṁ dhammañca deseyyuṁ yathariva bhagavā. Tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti. Ekacce devā evamāhaṁsu: 'tiṭṭhantu, mārisā, cattāro sammāsambuddhā, aho vata, mārisā, tayo sammāsambuddhā loke uppajjeyyuṁ dhammañca deseyyuṁ yathariva bhagavā. Tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti. Ekacce devā evamāhaṁsu: 'tiṭṭhantu, mārisā, tayo sammāsambuddhā, aho vata, mārisā, dve sammāsambuddhā loke uppajjeyyuṁ dhammañca deseyyuṁ yathariva bhagavā. Tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti.


20Evaṁ vutte, bhante, sakko devānamindo deve tāvatiṁse etadavoca: 'aṭṭhānaṁ kho etaṁ, mārisā, anavakāso, yaṁ ekissā lokadhātuyā dve arahanto sammāsambuddhā apubbaṁ acarimaṁ uppajjeyyuṁ, netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Aho vata, mārisā, so bhagavā appābādho appātaṅko ciraṁ dīghamaddhānaṁ tiṭṭheyya. Tadassa bahujanahitāya bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānan'ti.

Atha kho, bhante, yenatthena devā tāvatiṁsā sudhammāyaṁ sabhāyaṁ sannisinnā honti sannipatitā, taṁ atthaṁ cintayitvā taṁ atthaṁ mantayitvā vuttavacanāpi taṁ cattāro mahārājāno tasmiṁ atthe honti. Paccānusiṭṭhavacanāpi taṁ cattāro mahārājāno tasmiṁ atthe honti, sakesu sakesu āsanesu ṭhitā avipakkantā.

21Te vuttavākyā rājāno,
paṭiggayhānusāsaniṁ;
Vippasannamanā santā,
aṭṭhaṁsu samhi āsaneti.


22Atha kho, bhante, uttarāya disāya uḷāro āloko sañjāyi, obhāso pāturahosi atikkammeva devānaṁ devānubhāvaṁ. Atha kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo deve tāvatiṁse āmantesi: 'yathā kho, mārisā, nimittāni dissanti, uḷāro āloko sañjāyati, obhāso pātubhavati, brahmā pātubhavissati; brahmuno hetaṁ pubbanimittaṁ pātubhāvāya, yadidaṁ āloko sañjāyati obhāso pātubhavatīti.

23Yathā nimittā dissanti,
brahmā pātubhavissati;
Brahmuno hetaṁ nimittaṁ,
obhāso vipulo mahā'ti.

3. Sanankumārakathā

24Atha kho, bhante, devā tāvatiṁsā yathāsakesu āsanesu nisīdiṁsu: 'obhāsametaṁ ñassāma, yaṁvipāko bhavissati, sacchikatvāva naṁ gamissāmā'ti. Cattāropi mahārājāno yathāsakesu āsanesu nisīdiṁsu: 'obhāsametaṁ ñassāma, yaṁvipāko bhavissati, sacchikatvāva naṁ gamissāmā'ti. Idaṁ sutvā devā tāvatiṁsā ekaggā samāpajjiṁsu: 'obhāsametaṁ ñassāma, yaṁvipāko bhavissati, sacchikatvāva naṁ gamissāmā'ti.

25Yadā, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ pātubhavati, oḷārikaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinimminitvā pātubhavati. Yo kho pana, bhante, brahmuno pakativaṇṇo, anabhisambhavanīyo so devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ cakkhupathasmiṁ. Yadā, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ pātubhavati, so aññe deve atirocati vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca. Seyyathāpi, bhante, so vaṇṇo viggaho mānusaṁ viggahaṁ atirocati; evameva kho, bhante, yadā brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ pātubhavati, so aññe deve atirocati vaṇṇena ceva yasasā ca.

Yadā, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ pātubhavati, na tassaṁ parisāyaṁ koci devo abhivādeti vā paccuṭṭheti vā āsanena vā nimanteti. Sabbeva tuṇhībhūtā pañjalikā pallaṅkena nisīdanti: 'yassadāni devassa pallaṅkaṁ icchissati brahmā sanaṅkumāro, tassa devassa pallanke nisīdissatī'ti.


Yassa kho pana, bhante, devassa brahmā sanaṅkumāro pallanke nisīdati, uḷāraṁ so labhati devo vedapaṭilābhaṁ, uḷāraṁ so labhati devo somanassapaṭilābhaṁ. Seyyathāpi, bhante, rājā khattiyo muddhāvasitto adhunābhisitto rajjena, uḷāraṁ so labhati vedapaṭilābhaṁ, uḷāraṁ so labhati somanassapaṭilābhaṁ; evameva kho, bhante, yassa devassa brahmā sanaṅkumāro pallanke nisīdati, uḷāraṁ so labhati devo vedapaṭilābhaṁ, uḷāraṁ so labhati devo somanassapaṭilābhaṁ.



Atha, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ sampasādaṁ viditvā antarahito imāhi gāthāhi anumodi: 

26'Modanti vata bho devā,
tāvatiṁsā sahindakā;
Tathāgataṁ namassantā,
dhammassa ca sudhammataṁ.

27Nave deve ca passantā,
vaṇṇavante yasassine;
Sugatasmiṁ brahmacariyaṁ,
caritvāna idhāgate.

28Te aññe atirocanti,
vaṇṇena yasasāyunā;
Sāvakā bhūripaññassa,
visesūpagatā idha.

29Idaṁ disvāna nandanti,
tāvatiṁsā sahindakā;
Tathāgataṁ namassantā,
dhammassa ca sudhammatan'ti.


30Imamatthaṁ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro abhāsittha. Imamatthaṁ, bhante, brahmuno sanaṅkumārassa bhāsato aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgato saro hoti vissaṭṭho ca viññeyyo ca mañju ca savanīyo ca bindu ca avisārī ca gambhīro ca ninnādī ca. Yathāparisaṁ kho pana, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro sarena viññāpeti, na cassa bahiddhā parisāya ghoso niccharati. Yassa kho pana, bhante, evaṁ aṭṭhaṅgasamannāgato saro hoti, so vuccati 'brahmassaro'ti. Atha kho, bhante, devā tāvatiṁsā brahmānaṁ sanaṅkumāraṁ etadavocuṁ: 'sādhu, mahābrahme, etadeva mayaṁ saṅkhāya modāma; atthi ca sakkena devānamindena tassa bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhuccā vaṇṇā bhāsitā; te ca mayaṁ saṅkhāya modāmā'ti.

4. Aṭṭhayathābhuccavaṇṇa

31Atha, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro sakkaṁ devānamindaṁ etadavoca: 'sādhu, devānaminda, mayampi tassa bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe suṇeyyāmā'ti. 'Evaṁ, mahābrahme'ti kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo brahmuno sanaṅkumārassa bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe payirudāhāsi.


32'Taṁ kiṁ maññati, bhavaṁ mahābrahmā? Yāvañca so bhagavā bahujanahitāya paṭipanno bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ. Evaṁ bahujanahitāya paṭipannaṁ bahujanasukhāya lokānukampāya atthāya hitāya sukhāya devamanussānaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (1)

33Svākkhāto kho pana tena bhagavatā dhammo sandiṭṭhiko akāliko ehipassiko opaneyyiko paccattaṁ veditabbo viññūhi. Evaṁ opaneyyikassa dhammassa desetāraṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (2)

34"Idaṁ kusalan"ti kho pana tena bhagavatā supaññattaṁ, "Idaṁ akusalan"ti supaññattaṁ, "Idaṁ sāvajjaṁ idaṁ anavajjaṁ, idaṁ sevitabbaṁ idaṁ na sevitabbaṁ, idaṁ hīnaṁ idaṁ paṇītaṁ, idaṁ kaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgan"ti supaññattaṁ. Evaṁ kusalākusalasāvajjānavajjasevitabbāsevitabbahīnapaṇītakaṇhasukkasappaṭibhāgānaṁ dhammānaṁ paññāpetāraṁ. Imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (3)

35Supaññattā kho pana tena bhagavatā sāvakānaṁ nibbānagāminī paṭipadā saṁsandati nibbānañca paṭipadā ca. Seyyathāpi nāma gaṅgodakaṁ yamunodakena saṁsandati sameti; evameva supaññattā tena bhagavatā sāvakānaṁ nibbānagāminī paṭipadā saṁsandati nibbānañca paṭipadā ca. Evaṁ nibbānagāminiyā paṭipadāya paññāpetāraṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (4)

36Abhinipphanno kho pana tassa bhagavato lābho abhinipphanno siloko, yāva maññe khattiyā sampiyāyamānarūpā viharanti. Vigatamado kho pana so bhagavā āhāraṁ āhāreti. Evaṁ vigatamadaṁ āhāraṁ āharayamānaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (5)

37Laddhasahāyo kho pana so bhagavā sekhānañceva paṭipannānaṁ khīṇāsavānañca vusitavataṁ, te bhagavā apanujja ekārāmataṁ anuyutto viharati. Evaṁ ekārāmataṁ anuyuttaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (6)

38Yathāvādī kho pana so bhagavā tathākārī, yathākārī tathāvādī; iti yathāvādī tathākārī, yathākārī tathāvādī. Evaṁ dhammānudhammappaṭippannaṁ imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā. (7)

39Tiṇṇavicikiccho kho pana so bhagavā vigatakathaṅkatho pariyositasaṅkappo ajjhāsayaṁ ādibrahmacariyaṁ. Evaṁ tiṇṇavicikicchaṁ vigatakathaṅkathaṁ pariyositasaṅkappaṁ ajjhāsayaṁ ādibrahmacariyaṁ. Imināpaṅgena samannāgataṁ satthāraṁ neva atītaṁse samanupassāma, na panetarahi, aññatra tena bhagavatā'ti. (8)


40Ime kho, bhante, sakko devānamindo brahmuno sanaṅkumārassa bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe payirudāhāsi. Tena sudaṁ, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro attamano hoti pamudito pītisomanassajāto bhagavato aṭṭha yathābhucce vaṇṇe sutvā. Atha, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro oḷārikaṁ attabhāvaṁ abhinimminitvā kumāravaṇṇī hutvā pañcasikho devānaṁ tāvatiṁsānaṁ pāturahosi. So vehāsaṁ abbhuggantvā ākāse antalikkhe pallaṅkena nisīdi. Seyyathāpi, bhante, balavā puriso supaccatthate vā pallanke same vā bhūmibhāge pallaṅkena nisīdeyya; evameva kho, bhante, brahmā sanaṅkumāro vehāsaṁ abbhuggantvā ākāse antalikkhe pallaṅkena nisīditvā deve tāvatiṁse āmantesi: 

5. Govindabrāhmaṇavatthu

41'Taṁ kiṁ maññanti, bhonto devā tāvatiṁsā, yāva dīgharattaṁ mahāpaññova so bhagavā ahosi.

42Bhūtapubbaṁ, bho, rājā disampati nāma ahosi. Disampatissa rañño govindo nāma brāhmaṇo purohito ahosi. Disampatissa rañño reṇu nāma kumāro putto ahosi. Govindassa brāhmaṇassa jotipālo nāma māṇavo putto ahosi. Iti reṇu ca rājaputto jotipālo ca māṇavo aññe ca cha khattiyā iccete aṭṭha sahāyā ahesuṁ. Atha kho, bho, ahorattānaṁ accayena govindo brāhmaṇo kālamakāsi. Govinde brāhmaṇe kālaṅkate rājā disampati paridevesi: "yasmiṁ vata, bho, mayaṁ samaye govinde brāhmaṇe sabbakiccāni sammā vossajjitvā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitā samaṅgībhūtā paricārema, tasmiṁ no samaye govindo brāhmaṇo kālaṅkato"ti.

Evaṁ vutte, bho, reṇu rājaputto rājānaṁ disampatiṁ etadavoca: "Mā kho tvaṁ, deva, govinde brāhmaṇe kālaṅkate atibāḷhaṁ paridevesi. Atthi, deva, govindassa brāhmaṇassa jotipālo nāma māṇavo putto paṇḍitataro ceva pitarā, alamatthadasataro ceva pitarā; yepissa pitā atthe anusāsi, tepi jotipālasseva māṇavassa anusāsaniyā"ti. "Evaṁ, kumārā"ti? "Evaṁ, devā"ti.

6. Mahāgovindavatthu

43Atha kho, bho, rājā disampati aññataraṁ purisaṁ āmantesi: "ehi tvaṁ, ambho purisa, yena jotipālo māṇavo tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā jotipālaṁ māṇavaṁ evaṁ vadehi: 'bhavamatthu bhavantaṁ jotipālaṁ, rājā disampati bhavantaṁ jotipālaṁ māṇavaṁ āmantayati, rājā disampati bhoto jotipālassa māṇavassa dassanakāmo'"ti. "Evaṁ, devā"ti kho, bho, so puriso disampatissa rañño paṭissutvā yena jotipālo māṇavo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā jotipālaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca: "bhavamatthu bhavantaṁ jotipālaṁ, rājā disampati bhavantaṁ jotipālaṁ māṇavaṁ āmantayati, rājā disampati bhoto jotipālassa māṇavassa dassanakāmo"ti. "Evaṁ, bho"ti kho, bho, jotipālo māṇavo tassa purisassa paṭissutvā yena rājā disampati tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā disampatinā raññā saddhiṁ sammodi; sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho, bho, jotipālaṁ māṇavaṁ rājā disampati etadavoca: "anusāsatu no bhavaṁ jotipālo, mā no bhavaṁ jotipālo anusāsaniyā paccabyāhāsi. Pettike taṁ ṭhāne ṭhapessāmi, govindiye abhisiñcissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bho"ti kho, bho, so jotipālo māṇavo disampatissa rañño paccassosi.

Atha kho, bho, rājā disampati jotipālaṁ māṇavaṁ govindiye abhisiñci, taṁ pettike ṭhāne ṭhapesi. Abhisitto jotipālo māṇavo govindiye pettike ṭhāne ṭhapito yepissa pitā atthe anusāsi tepi atthe anusāsati, yepissa pitā atthe nānusāsi tepi atthe anusāsati; yepissa pitā kammante abhisambhosi tepi kammante abhisambhoti, yepissa pitā kammante nābhisambhosi tepi kammante abhisambhoti. Tamenaṁ manussā evamāhaṁsu: "govindo vata, bho, brāhmaṇo, mahāgovindo vata, bho, brāhmaṇo"ti. Iminā kho evaṁ, bho, pariyāyena jotipālassa māṇavassa govindo mahāgovindotveva samaññā udapādi.

6.1. Rajjasaṁvibhajana

44Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena te cha khattiyā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te cha khattiye etadavoca: "disampati kho, bho, rājā jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayoanuppatto, ko nu kho pana, bho, jānāti jīvitaṁ? Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati, yaṁ disampatimhi raññe kālaṅkate rājakattāro reṇuṁ rājaputtaṁ rajje abhisiñceyyuṁ. Āyantu, bhonto, yena reṇu rājaputto tenupasaṅkamatha; upasaṅkamitvā reṇuṁ rājaputtaṁ evaṁ vadetha: 'mayaṁ kho bhoto reṇussa sahāyā piyā manāpā appaṭikūlā, yaṁsukho bhavaṁ taṁsukhā mayaṁ, yaṁdukkho bhavaṁ taṁdukkhā mayaṁ. Disampati kho, bho, rājā jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayoanuppatto, ko nu kho pana, bho, jānāti jīvitaṁ? Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati, yaṁ disampatimhi raññe kālaṅkate rājakattāro bhavantaṁ reṇuṁ rajje abhisiñceyyuṁ. Sace bhavaṁ reṇu rajjaṁ labhetha, saṁvibhajetha no rajjenā'"ti.

"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho, bho, te cha khattiyā mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa paṭissutvā yena reṇu rājaputto tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā reṇuṁ rājaputtaṁ etadavocuṁ: "Mayaṁ kho bhoto reṇussa sahāyā piyā manāpā appaṭikūlā; yaṁsukho bhavaṁ taṁsukhā mayaṁ, yaṁdukkho bhavaṁ taṁdukkhā mayaṁ. Disampati kho, bho, rājā jiṇṇo vuddho mahallako addhagato vayoanuppatto, ko nu kho pana bho jānāti jīvitaṁ? Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ vijjati, yaṁ disampatimhi raññe kālaṅkate rājakattāro bhavantaṁ reṇuṁ rajje abhisiñceyyuṁ. Sace bhavaṁ reṇu rajjaṁ labhetha, saṁvibhajetha no rajjenā"ti. "Ko nu kho, bho, añño mama vijite sukho bhavetha, aññatra bhavantebhi? Sacāhaṁ, bho, rajjaṁ labhissāmi, saṁvibhajissāmi vo rajjenā"ti.

45Atha kho, bho, ahorattānaṁ accayena rājā disampati kālamakāsi. Disampatimhi raññe kālaṅkate rājakattāro reṇuṁ rājaputtaṁ rajje abhisiñciṁsu. Abhisitto reṇu rajjena pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti. Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena te cha khattiyā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te cha khattiye etadavoca: "disampati kho, bho, rājā kālaṅkato. Abhisitto reṇu rajjena pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappito samaṅgībhūto paricāreti. Ko nu kho pana, bho, jānāti, madanīyā kāmā? Āyantu, bhonto, yena reṇu rājā tenupasaṅkamatha; upasaṅkamitvā reṇuṁ rājānaṁ evaṁ vadetha: 'disampati kho, bho, rājā kālaṅkato, abhisitto bhavaṁ reṇu rajjena, sarati bhavaṁ taṁ vacanan'"ti?


46"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho, bho, te cha khattiyā mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa paṭissutvā yena reṇu rājā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā reṇuṁ rājānaṁ etadavocuṁ: "disampati kho, bho, rājā kālaṅkato, abhisitto bhavaṁ reṇu rajjena, sarati bhavaṁ taṁ vacanan"ti? "Sarāmahaṁ, bho, taṁ vacanaṁ. Ko nu kho, bho, pahoti imaṁ mahāpathaviṁ uttarena āyataṁ dakkhiṇena sakaṭamukhaṁ sattadhā samaṁ suvibhattaṁ vibhajitun"ti? "Ko nu kho, bho, añño pahoti, aññatra mahāgovindena brāhmaṇenā"ti?

Atha kho, bho, reṇu rājā aññataraṁ purisaṁ āmantesi: "ehi tvaṁ, ambho purisa, yena mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo tenupasaṅkama; upasaṅkamitvā mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ evaṁ vadehi: 'rājā taṁ, bhante, reṇu āmantetī'"ti. "Evaṁ, devā"ti kho, bho, so puriso reṇussa rañño paṭissutvā yena mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ etadavoca: "rājā taṁ, bhante, reṇu āmantetī"ti. "Evaṁ, bho"ti kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo tassa purisassa paṭissutvā yena reṇu rājā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā reṇunā raññā saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho, bho, mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ reṇu rājā etadavoca: "etu, bhavaṁ govindo imaṁ mahāpathaviṁ uttarena āyataṁ dakkhiṇena sakaṭamukhaṁ sattadhā samaṁ suvibhattaṁ vibhajatū"ti. "Evaṁ, bho"ti kho bho mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo reṇussa rañño paṭissutvā imaṁ mahāpathaviṁ uttarena āyataṁ dakkhiṇena sakaṭamukhaṁ sattadhā samaṁ suvibhattaṁ vibhaji. Sabbāni sakaṭamukhāni paṭṭhapesi.


Tatra sudaṁ majjhe reṇussa rañño janapado hoti.

47Dantapuraṁ kaliṅgānaṁ,
assakānañca potanaṁ;
Mahesayaṁ avantīnaṁ,
sovīrānañca rorukaṁ.

48Mithilā ca videhānaṁ,
campā aṅgesu māpitā;
Bārāṇasī ca kāsīnaṁ,
ete govindamāpitāti.


49Atha kho, bho, te cha khattiyā yathāsakena lābhena attamanā ahesuṁ paripuṇṇasaṅkappā: "yaṁ vata no ahosi icchitaṁ, yaṁ ākaṅkhītaṁ, yaṁ adhippetaṁ, yaṁ abhipatthitaṁ, taṁ no laddhan"ti.

50Sattabhū brahmadatto ca,
vessabhū bharato saha;
Reṇu dve dhataraṭṭhā ca,
tadāsuṁ satta bhāradhāti.

Paṭhamabhāṇavāro niṭṭhito.

6.2. Kittisaddaabbhuggamana

51Atha kho, bho, te cha khattiyā yena mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ etadavocuṁ: "yathā kho bhavaṁ govindo reṇussa rañño sahāyo piyo manāpo appaṭikūlo. Evameva kho bhavaṁ govindo amhākampi sahāyo piyo manāpo appaṭikūlo, anusāsatu no bhavaṁ govindo; mā no bhavaṁ govindo anusāsaniyā paccabyāhāsī"ti. "Evaṁ, bho"ti kho mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo tesaṁ channaṁ khattiyānaṁ paccassosi. Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo satta ca rājāno khattiye muddhāvasitte rajje anusāsi, satta ca brāhmaṇamahāsāle satta ca nhātakasatāni mante vācesi.


52Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa aparena samayena evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggacchi: "sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmānaṁ passati, sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmunā sākaccheti sallapati mantetī"ti. Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa etadahosi: "mayhaṁ kho evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmānaṁ passati, sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmunā sākaccheti sallapati mantetī'ti. Na kho panāhaṁ brahmānaṁ passāmi, na brahmunā sākacchemi, na brahmunā sallapāmi, na brahmunā mantemi. Sutaṁ kho pana metaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ: 'yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati, so brahmānaṁ passati brahmunā sākaccheti brahmunā sallapati brahmunā mantetī'ti. Yannūnāhaṁ vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyeyyaṁ, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyeyyan"ti.


53Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena reṇu rājā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā reṇuṁ rājānaṁ etadavoca: "mayhaṁ kho, bho, evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmānaṁ passati, sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmunā sākaccheti sallapati mantetī'ti. Na kho panāhaṁ, bho, brahmānaṁ passāmi, na brahmunā sākacchemi, na brahmunā sallapāmi, na brahmunā mantemi. Sutaṁ kho pana metaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ: 'yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati, so brahmānaṁ passati, brahmunā sākaccheti brahmunā sallapati brahmunā mantetī'ti. Icchāmahaṁ, bho, vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyituṁ, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyituṁ; namhi kenaci upasaṅkamitabbo aññatra ekena bhattābhihārenā"ti. "Yassadāni bhavaṁ govindo kālaṁ maññatī"ti.


54Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena te cha khattiyā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te cha khattiye etadavoca: "mayhaṁ kho, bho, evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmānaṁ passati, sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmunā sākaccheti sallapati mantetī'ti. Na kho panāhaṁ, bho, brahmānaṁ passāmi, na brahmunā sākacchemi, na brahmunā sallapāmi, na brahmunā mantemi. Sutaṁ kho pana metaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ, 'yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati, so brahmānaṁ passati brahmunā sākaccheti brahmunā sallapati brahmunā mantetī'ti. Icchāmahaṁ, bho, vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyituṁ, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyituṁ; namhi kenaci upasaṅkamitabbo aññatra ekena bhattābhihārenā"ti. "Yassadāni bhavaṁ govindo kālaṁ maññatī"ti.


55Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena te satta ca brāhmaṇamahāsālā satta ca nhātakasatāni tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te satta ca brāhmaṇamahāsāle satta ca nhātakasatāni etadavoca: "mayhaṁ kho, bho, evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmānaṁ passati, sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmunā sākaccheti sallapati mantetī'ti. Na kho panāhaṁ, bho, brahmānaṁ passāmi, na brahmunā sākacchemi, na brahmunā sallapāmi, na brahmunā mantemi. Sutaṁ kho pana metaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ: 'yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati, so brahmānaṁ passati, brahmunā sākaccheti, brahmunā sallapati, brahmunā mantetī'ti. Tena hi, bho, yathāsute yathāpariyatte mante vitthārena sajjhāyaṁ karotha, aññamaññañca mante vācetha; icchāmahaṁ, bho, vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyituṁ, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyituṁ; namhi kenaci upasaṅkamitabbo aññatra ekena bhattābhihārenā"ti. "Yassadāni bhavaṁ govindo kālaṁ maññatī"ti.


56Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena cattārīsā bhariyā sādisiyo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā cattārīsā bhariyā sādisiyo etadavoca: "mayhaṁ kho, bhotī, evaṁ kalyāṇo kittisaddo abbhuggato: 'sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmānaṁ passati, sakkhi mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmunā sākaccheti sallapati mantetī'ti. Na kho panāhaṁ, bhotī, brahmānaṁ passāmi, na brahmunā sākacchemi, na brahmunā sallapāmi, na brahmunā mantemi. Sutaṁ kho pana metaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ 'yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati, so brahmānaṁ passati, brahmunā sākaccheti, brahmunā sallapati, brahmunā mantetī'ti, icchāmahaṁ, bhotī, vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyituṁ, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyituṁ; namhi kenaci upasaṅkamitabbo aññatra ekena bhattābhihārenā"ti. "Yassadāni bhavaṁ govindo kālaṁ maññatī"ti.


57Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo puratthimena nagarassa navaṁ sandhāgāraṁ kārāpetvā vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyi, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyi; nāssudha koci upasaṅkamati aññatra ekena bhattābhihārena. Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa catunnaṁ māsānaṁ accayena ahudeva ukkaṇṭhanā ahu paritassanā: "sutaṁ kho pana metaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ vuddhānaṁ mahallakānaṁ ācariyapācariyānaṁ bhāsamānānaṁ: 'yo vassike cattāro māse paṭisallīyati, karuṇaṁ jhānaṁ jhāyati, so brahmānaṁ passati, brahmunā sākaccheti brahmunā sallapati brahmunā mantetī'ti. Na kho panāhaṁ brahmānaṁ passāmi, na brahmunā sākacchemi na brahmunā sallapāmi na brahmunā mantemī"ti.

6.3. Brahmunāsākacchā

58Atha kho, bho, brahmā sanaṅkumāro mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa cetasā cetoparivitakkamaññāya—seyyathāpi nāma balavā puriso samiñjitaṁ vā bāhaṁ pasāreyya, pasāritaṁ vā bāhaṁ samiñjeyya; evameva—brahmaloke antarahito mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa sammukhe pāturahosi. Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa ahudeva bhayaṁ ahu chambhitattaṁ ahu lomahaṁso yathā taṁ adiṭṭhapubbaṁ rūpaṁ disvā. Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo bhīto saṁviggo lomahaṭṭhajāto brahmānaṁ sanaṅkumāraṁ gāthāya ajjhabhāsi: 


59"Vaṇṇavā yasavā sirimā,
ko nu tvamasi mārisa;
Ajānantā taṁ pucchāma,
kathaṁ jānemu taṁ mayan"ti.

60"Maṁ ve kumāraṁ jānanti,
brahmaloke sanantanaṁ;
Sabbe jānanti maṁ devā,
evaṁ govinda jānahi".

61"Āsanaṁ udakaṁ pajjaṁ,
madhusākañca brahmuno;
Agghe bhavantaṁ pucchāma,
agghaṁ kurutu no bhavaṁ".

62"Paṭiggaṇhāma te agghaṁ,
yaṁ tvaṁ govinda bhāsasi;
Diṭṭhadhammahitatthāya,
samparāya sukhāya ca;
Katāvakāso pucchassu,
yaṁ kiñci abhipatthitan"ti.


63Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa etadahosi: "katāvakāso khomhi brahmunā sanaṅkumārena. Kiṁ nu kho ahaṁ brahmānaṁ sanaṅkumāraṁ puccheyyaṁ diṭṭhadhammikaṁ vā atthaṁ samparāyikaṁ vā"ti? Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa etadahosi: "kusalo kho ahaṁ diṭṭhadhammikānaṁ atthānaṁ, aññepi maṁ diṭṭhadhammikaṁ atthaṁ pucchanti. Yannūnāhaṁ brahmānaṁ sanaṅkumāraṁ samparāyikaññeva atthaṁ puccheyyan"ti. Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo brahmānaṁ sanaṅkumāraṁ gāthāya ajjhabhāsi: 


64"Pucchāmi brahmānaṁ sanaṅkumāraṁ,
Kankhī akaṅkhīṁ paravediyesu;
Katthaṭṭhito kimhi ca sikkhamāno,
Pappoti macco amataṁ brahmalokan"ti.

65"Hitvā mamattaṁ manujesu brahme,
Ekodibhūto karuṇedhimutto;
Nirāmagandho virato methunasmā,
Etthaṭṭhito ettha ca sikkhamāno;
Pappoti macco amataṁ brahmalokan"ti.


66"'Hitvā mamattan'ti ahaṁ, bhoto, ājānāmi. Idhekacco appaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā bhogakkhandhaṁ pahāya appaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya mahantaṁ vā ñātiparivaṭṭaṁ pahāya kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajati, iti 'hitvā mamattan'ti ahaṁ, bhoto, ājānāmi.

67'Ekodibhūto'ti ahaṁ, bhoto, ājānāmi. Idhekacco vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ, iti 'ekodibhūto'ti ahaṁ, bhoto, ājānāmi.

68'Karuṇedhimutto'ti ahaṁ, bhoto, ājānāmi. Idhekacco karuṇāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṁ, tathā tatiyaṁ, tathā catutthaṁ. Iti uddhamadhotiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ karuṇāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjena pharitvā viharati. Iti 'karuṇedhimutto'ti ahaṁ, bhoto, ājānāmi. Āmagandhe ca kho ahaṁ, bhoto, bhāsamānassa na ājānāmi.


69Ke āmagandhā manujesu brahme,
Ete avidvā idha brūhi dhīra;
Kenāvaṭā vāti pajā kurutu,
Āpāyikā nivutabrahmalokā"ti.

70"Kodho mosavajjaṁ nikati ca dubbho,
Kadariyatā atimāno usūyā;
Icchā vivicchā paraheṭhanā ca,
Lobho ca doso ca mado ca moho;
Etesu yuttā anirāmagandhā,
Āpāyikā nivutabrahmalokā"ti.


71"Yathā kho ahaṁ, bhoto, āmagandhe bhāsamānassa ājānāmi. Te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā. Pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti. "Yassadāni bhavaṁ govindo kālaṁ maññatī"ti.

6.4. Reṇurājaāmantanā

72Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena reṇu rājā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā reṇuṁ rājānaṁ etadavoca: "aññaṁ dāni bhavaṁ purohitaṁ pariyesatu, yo bhoto rajjaṁ anusāsissati. Icchāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajituṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā. Pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti.


73"Āmantayāmi rājānaṁ,
reṇuṁ bhūmipatiṁ ahaṁ;
Tvaṁ pajānassu rajjena,
nāhaṁ porohicce rame".

74"Sace te ūnaṁ kāmehi,
ahaṁ paripūrayāmi te;
Yo taṁ hiṁsati vāremi,
bhūmisenāpati ahaṁ;
Tuvaṁ pitā ahaṁ putto,
mā no govinda pājahi ".

75"Namatthi ūnaṁ kāmehi,
hiṁsitā me na vijjati;
Amanussavaco sutvā,
tasmāhaṁ na gahe rame".

76"Amanusso kathaṁvaṇṇo,
kiṁ te atthaṁ abhāsatha;
Yañca sutvā jahāsi no,
gehe amhe ca kevalī".

77"Upavutthassa me pubbe,
yiṭṭhukāmassa me sato;
Aggi pajjalito āsi,
kusapattaparitthato.

78Tato me brahmā pāturahu,
brahmalokā sanantano;
So me pañhaṁ viyākāsi,
taṁ sutvā na gahe rame".

79"Saddahāmi ahaṁ bhoto,
yaṁ tvaṁ govinda bhāsasi;
Amanussavaco sutvā,
kathaṁ vattetha aññathā.

80Te taṁ anuvattissāma,
satthā govinda no bhavaṁ;
Maṇi yathā veḷuriyo,
akāco vimalo subho;
Evaṁ suddhā carissāma,
govindassānusāsaneti.

81Sace bhavaṁ govindo agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissati, mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma. Atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.

6.5. Chakhattiyaāmantanā

82Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena te cha khattiyā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te cha khattiye etadavoca: "aññaṁ dāni bhavanto purohitaṁ pariyesantu, yo bhavantānaṁ rajje anusāsissati. Icchāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajituṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā. Pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti. Atha kho, bho, te cha khattiyā ekamantaṁ apakkamma evaṁ samacintesuṁ: "ime kho brāhmaṇā nāma dhanaluddhā; yannūna mayaṁ mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ dhanena sikkheyyāmā"ti. Te mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evamāhaṁsu: "saṁvijjati kho, bho, imesu sattasu rajjesu pahūtaṁ sāpateyyaṁ, tato bhoto yāvatakena attho, tāvatakaṁ āharīyatan"ti. "Alaṁ, bho, mamapidaṁ pahūtaṁ sāpateyyaṁ bhavantānaṁyeva vāhasā. Tamahaṁ sabbaṁ pahāya agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāmi. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā, pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti.

Atha kho, bho, te cha khattiyā ekamantaṁ apakkamma evaṁ samacintesuṁ: "ime kho brāhmaṇā nāma itthiluddhā; yannūna mayaṁ mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ itthīhi sikkheyyāmā"ti. Te mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ upasaṅkamitvā evamāhaṁsu: "saṁvijjanti kho, bho, imesu sattasu rajjesu pahūtā itthiyo, tato bhoto yāvatikāhi attho, tāvatikā ānīyatan"ti. "Alaṁ, bho, mamapimā cattārīsā bhariyā sādisiyo. Tāpāhaṁ sabbā pahāya agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāmi. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā, pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyanti".

83"Sace bhavaṁ govindo agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissati, mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.


84"Sace jahatha kāmāni,
yattha satto puthujjano;
Ārambhavho daḷhā hotha,
khantībalasamāhitā.

85Esa maggo ujumaggo,
esa maggo anuttaro;
Saddhammo sabbhi rakkhito,
brahmalokūpapattiyā"ti.


86"Tena hi bhavaṁ govindo satta vassāni āgametu. Sattannaṁ vassānaṁ accayena mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.

87"Aticiraṁ kho, bho, satta vassāni, nāhaṁ sakkomi, bhavante, satta vassāni āgametuṁ. Ko nu kho pana, bho, jānāti jīvitānaṁ. Gamanīyo samparāyo, mantāyaṁ boddhabbaṁ, kattabbaṁ kusalaṁ, caritabbaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā, pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti.

"Tena hi bhavaṁ govindo chabbassāni āgametu … pe … pañca vassāni āgametu … cattāri vassāni āgametu … tīṇi vassāni āgametu … dve vassāni āgametu … ekaṁ vassaṁ āgametu, ekassa vassassa accayena mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.


88"Aticiraṁ kho, bho, ekaṁ vassaṁ, nāhaṁ sakkomi bhavante ekaṁ vassaṁ āgametuṁ. Ko nu kho pana, bho, jānāti jīvitānaṁ. Gamanīyo samparāyo, mantāyaṁ boddhabbaṁ, kattabbaṁ kusalaṁ, caritabbaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā, pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti. "Tena hi bhavaṁ govindo satta māsāni āgametu, sattannaṁ māsānaṁ accayena mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.


89"Aticiraṁ kho, bho, satta māsāni, nāhaṁ sakkomi bhavante satta māsāni āgametuṁ. Ko nu kho pana, bho, jānāti jīvitānaṁ. Gamanīyo samparāyo, mantāyaṁ boddhabbaṁ, kattabbaṁ kusalaṁ, caritabbaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā, pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti.


90"Tena hi bhavaṁ govindo cha māsāni āgametu … pe … pañca māsāni āgametu … cattāri māsāni āgametu … tīṇi māsāni āgametu … dve māsāni āgametu … ekaṁ māsaṁ āgametu … addhamāsaṁ āgametu, addhamāsassa accayena mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.


91"Aticiraṁ kho, bho, addhamāso, nāhaṁ sakkomi bhavante addhamāsaṁ āgametuṁ. Ko nu kho pana, bho, jānāti jīvitānaṁ. Gamanīyo samparāyo, mantāyaṁ boddhabbaṁ, kattabbaṁ kusalaṁ, caritabbaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, natthi jātassa amaraṇaṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā, pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti. "Tena hi bhavaṁ govindo sattāhaṁ āgametu, yāva mayaṁ sake puttabhātaro rajjena anusāsissāma, sattāhassa accayena mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti. "Na ciraṁ kho, bho, sattāhaṁ, āgamessāmahaṁ bhavante sattāhan"ti.

6.6. Brāhmaṇamahāsālādīnaṁāmantanā

92Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena te satta ca brāhmaṇamahāsālā satta ca nhātakasatāni tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā te satta ca brāhmaṇamahāsāle satta ca nhātakasatāni etadavoca: "aññaṁ dāni bhavanto ācariyaṁ pariyesantu, yo bhavantānaṁ mante vācessati. Icchāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajituṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa. Te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā, pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti. "Mā bhavaṁ govindo agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbaji. Pabbajjā, bho, appesakkhā ca appalābhā ca; brahmaññaṁ mahesakkhañca mahālābhañcā"ti. "Mā bhavanto evaṁ avacuttha: 'pabbajjā appesakkhā ca appalābhā ca, brahmaññaṁ mahesakkhañca mahālābhañcā'ti. Ko nu kho, bho, aññatra mayā mahesakkhataro vā mahālābhataro vā. Ahañhi, bho, etarahi rājāva raññaṁ brahmāva brāhmaṇānaṁ devatāva gahapatikānaṁ. Tamahaṁ sabbaṁ pahāya agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāmi. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā. Pabbajissāmahaṁ, bho, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti. "Sace bhavaṁ govindo agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissati, mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.

6.7. Bhariyānaṁāmantanā

93Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo yena cattārīsā bhariyā sādisiyo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā cattārīsā bhariyā sādisiyo etadavoca: "yā bhotīnaṁ icchati, sakāni vā ñātikulāni gacchatu aññaṁ vā bhattāraṁ pariyesatu. Icchāmahaṁ, bhotī, agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajituṁ. Yathā kho pana me sutaṁ brahmuno āmagandhe bhāsamānassa, te na sunimmadayā agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā. Pabbajissāmahaṁ, bhotī, agārasmā anagāriyan"ti. "Tvaññeva no ñāti ñātikāmānaṁ, tvaṁ pana bhattā bhattukāmānaṁ. Sace bhavaṁ govindo agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissati, mayampi agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajissāma, atha yā te gati, sā no gati bhavissatī"ti.

6.8. Mahāgovindapabbajjā

94Atha kho, bho, mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo tassa sattāhassa accayena kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbaji. Pabbajitaṁ pana mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ satta ca rājāno khattiyā muddhāvasittā satta ca brāhmaṇamahāsālā satta ca nhātakasatāni cattārīsā ca bhariyā sādisiyo anekāni ca khattiyasahassāni anekāni ca brāhmaṇasahassāni anekāni ca gahapatisahassāni anekehi ca itthāgārehi itthiyo kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā mahāgovindaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajitaṁ anupabbajiṁsu.

Tāya sudaṁ, bho, parisāya parivuto mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo gāmanigamarājadhānīsu cārikaṁ carati. Yaṁ kho pana, bho, tena samayena mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo gāmaṁ vā nigamaṁ vā upasaṅkamati, tattha rājāva hoti raññaṁ, brahmāva brāhmaṇānaṁ, devatāva gahapatikānaṁ. Tena kho pana samayena manussā khipanti vā upakkhalanti vā. Te evamāhaṁsu: "namatthu mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa, namatthu satta purohitassā"ti.

95Mahāgovindo, bho, brāhmaṇo mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā vihāsi, tathā dutiyaṁ, tathā tatiyaṁ, tathā catutthaṁ. Iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyāpajjena pharitvā vihāsi. Karuṇāsahagatena cetasā … pe … muditāsahagatena cetasā … pe … upekkhāsahagatena cetasā … pe … abyāpajjena pharitvā vihāsi. Sāvakānañca brahmalokasahabyatāya maggaṁ desesi.

96Ye kho pana, bho, tena samayena mahāgovindassa brāhmaṇassa sāvakā sabbenasabbaṁ sāsanaṁ ājāniṁsu. Te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā sugatiṁ brahmalokaṁ upapajjiṁsu. Ye na sabbenasabbaṁ sāsanaṁ ājāniṁsu, te kāyassa bhedā paraṁ maraṇā appekacce paranimmitavasavattīnaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjiṁsu; appekacce nimmānaratīnaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjiṁsu; appekacce tusitānaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjiṁsu; appekacce yāmānaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjiṁsu; appekacce tāvatiṁsānaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjiṁsu; appekacce cātumahārājikānaṁ devānaṁ sahabyataṁ upapajjiṁsu; ye sabbanihīnaṁ kāyaṁ paripūresuṁ te gandhabbakāyaṁ paripūresuṁ. Iti kho, bho, sabbesaṁyeva tesaṁ kulaputtānaṁ amoghā pabbajjā ahosi avañjhā saphalā saudrayā'ti. Sarati taṁ bhagavā"ti?

97"Sarāmahaṁ, pañcasikha. Ahaṁ tena samayena mahāgovindo brāhmaṇo ahosiṁ. Ahaṁ tesaṁ sāvakānaṁ brahmalokasahabyatāya maggaṁ desesiṁ. Taṁ kho pana me, pañcasikha, brahmacariyaṁ na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati, yāvadeva brahmalokūpapattiyā.

98Idaṁ kho pana me, pañcasikha, brahmacariyaṁ ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati. Katamañca taṁ, pañcasikha, brahmacariyaṁ ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati? Ayameva ariyo aṭṭhaṅgiko maggo. Seyyathidaṁ—sammādiṭṭhi sammāsaṅkappo sammāvācā sammākammanto sammāājīvo sammāvāyāmo sammāsati sammāsamādhi. Idaṁ kho taṁ, pañcasikha, brahmacariyaṁ ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati.

99Ye kho pana me, pañcasikha, sāvakā sabbenasabbaṁ sāsanaṁ ājānanti, te āsavānaṁ khayā anāsavaṁ cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharanti; ye na sabbenasabbaṁ sāsanaṁ ājānanti, te pañcannaṁ orambhāgiyānaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā opapātikā honti tattha parinibbāyino anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā. Ye na sabbenasabbaṁ sāsanaṁ ājānanti, appekacce tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā rāgadosamohānaṁ tanuttā sakadāgāmino honti sakideva imaṁ lokaṁ āgantvā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti. Ye na sabbenasabbaṁ sāsanaṁ ājānanti, appekacce tiṇṇaṁ saṁyojanānaṁ parikkhayā sotāpannā honti avinipātadhammā niyatā sambodhiparāyaṇā. Iti kho, pañcasikha, sabbesaṁyeva imesaṁ kulaputtānaṁ amoghā pabbajjā avañjhā saphalā saudrayā"ti.

100Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamano pañcasikho gandhabbaputto bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā tatthevantaradhāyīti.

Mahāgovindasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ.