Light/Dark

Majjhima Nikāya

MN76: Sandakasutta - With Sandaka

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Kosambī in Ghosita's Park.

Now on that occasion the wanderer Sandaka was staying in the Pilakkha-tree Cave with a large assembly of wanderers.

Then, when it was evening, the venerable Ānanda rose from meditation and addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Come, friends, let us go to the Devakaṭa Pool to see the cave." — "Yes, friend," those bhikkhus replied. Then the venerable Ānanda went to the Devakaṭa Pool together with a number of bhikkhus.

2Now on that occasion the wanderer Sandaka was seated with a large assembly of wanderers who were making an uproar, loudly and noisily talking many kinds of pointless talk,[n.748] Tiracchānakathā. Many translators render this expression as "animal talk." However, tiracchāna means literally "going horizontally," and though this term is used as a designation for animals, MA explains that in the present context it means talk that goes "horizontally" or "perpendicularly" to the path leading to heaven and liberation. such as talk of kings, robbers, ministers, armies, dangers, battles, food, drink, clothing, beds, garlands, perfumes, relatives, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, countries, women, heroes, streets, wells, the dead, trifles, the origin of the world, the origin of the sea, whether things are so or are not so.

3Then the wanderer Sandaka saw the venerable Ānanda coming in the distance. Seeing him, he quieted his own assembly thus: "Sirs, be quiet; sirs, make no noise. Here comes the recluse Ānanda, a disciple of the recluse Gotama, one of the recluse Gotama's disciples staying in Kosambī. These venerable ones like quiet; they are disciplined in quiet; they commend quiet. Perhaps if he finds our assembly a quiet one, he will think to join us." Then the wanderers became silent.

4The venerable Ānanda went to the wanderer Sandaka who said to him: "Let Master Ānanda come! Welcome to Master Ānanda! It is long since Master Ānanda found an opportunity to come here. Let Master Ānanda be seated; this seat is ready."

The venerable Ānanda sat down on the seat made ready, and the wanderer Sandaka took a low seat and sat down at one side. When he had done so, the venerable Ānanda asked him: "For what discussion are you sitting together here now, Sandaka? And what was your discussion that was left unfinished?"

5"Master Ānanda, let be the discussion for which we are now sitting together here. Master Ānanda can well hear about it later. It would be good if Master Ānanda would give a talk on his own teacher's Dhamma."


"Then, Sandaka, listen and attend closely to what I shall say."

"Yes, sir," he replied. The venerable Ānanda said this:

"Sandaka, these four ways that negate the living of the holy life have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, and also these four kinds of holy life without consolation have been declared, wherein a wise man certainly would not live the holy life, or if he should live it, would not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome."[n.749] The "four ways that negate the living of the holy life" (abrahmacariyavāsā, lit. "ways that are not living the holy life") are teachings that in principle nullify the prospect of attaining the ultimate fruits of spiritual discipline. As the sutta will show, their proponents — inconsistently with their own principles — did observe celibacy and practise austerities. The "four kinds of holy life without consolation" (anassāsikāni brahmacariyāni) do not undermine the principles of the holy life, but they fail to offer the prospect of attaining the ultimate fruits of spiritual discipline.


"But, Master Ānanda, what are those four ways that negate the living of the holy life that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein a wise man certainly would not live the holy life, or if he should live it, would not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome?"

6"Here, Sandaka, some teacher holds such a doctrine and view as this: ‘There is nothing given, nothing offered, nothing sacrificed; no fruit or result of good and bad actions; no this world, no other world; no mother, no father; no beings who are reborn spontaneously; no good and virtuous recluses and brahmins in the world who have themselves realised by direct knowledge and declare this world and the other world. A person consists of the four great elements.[n.750] The following passage makes explicit the materialist premises of the nihilistic view already set forth at MN 60.7. The Sāmaññaphala Sutta ascribes this view to Ajita Kesakambalin (DN 2.23/i.55). When he dies, earth returns and goes back to the body of earth, water returns and goes back to the body of water, fire returns and goes back to the body of fire, air returns and goes back to the body of air; the faculties pass over to space. Four men with the bier as fifth carry away the corpse. The funeral orations last as far as the charnel ground; the bones whiten; burnt offerings end with ashes. Giving is a doctrine of fools. When anyone asserts the doctrine that there is giving and the like, it is empty, false prattle. Fools and the wise are alike cut off and annihilated with the dissolution of the body; after death they do not exist.’

7"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher holds this doctrine and view: "There is nothing given … after death they do not exist." If this good teacher's words are true, then both of us are exactly equal here, we stand on the same level: I who have not practised this teaching here and he who has practised it; I who have not lived the holy life here and he who has lived it.[n.751] The point seems to be that even if one does not live the holy life, one ultimately reaps the same rewards as one who does, as the rest of the passage will make clear. Yet I do not say that both of us are cut off and annihilated with the dissolution of the body, that after death we shall not exist. But it is superfluous for this good teacher to go about naked, to be shaven, to exert himself in the squatting posture, and to pull out his hair and beard, since I, who live in a house crowded with children, who use Benares sandalwood, who wear garlands, scents, and unguents, and accept gold and silver, shall reap exactly the same destination, the same future course, as this good teacher. What do I know and see that I should lead the holy life under this teacher?’ So when he finds that this way negates the living of the holy life, he turns away from it and leaves it.


"This is the first way that negates the living of the holy life that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein a wise man certainly would not live the holy life, or if he should live it, would not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.


8"Again, Sandaka, here some teacher holds such a doctrine and view as this: ‘When one acts or makes others act, when one mutilates or makes others mutilate, when one tortures or makes others inflict torture, when one inflicts sorrow or makes others inflict sorrow, when one oppresses or makes others inflict oppression, when one intimidates or makes others inflict intimidation, when one kills living beings, takes what is not given, breaks into houses, plunders wealth, commits burglary, ambushes highways, seduces another's wife, utters falsehood — no evil is done by the doer. If, with a razor-rimmed wheel, one were to make the living beings on this earth into one mass of flesh, into one heap of flesh, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the south bank of the Ganges killing and slaughtering, mutilating and making others mutilate, torturing and making others inflict torture, because of this there would be no evil and no outcome of evil. If one were to go along the north bank of the Ganges giving gifts and making others give gifts, making offerings and making others make offerings, because of this there would be no merit and no outcome of merit. By giving, by taming oneself, by restraint, by speaking truth, there is no merit and no outcome of merit.’


9"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher holds this doctrine and view: "When one acts … there is no merit and no outcome of merit." If this good teacher's words are true, then both of us are exactly equal here, we stand on the same level: I who have not practised this teaching here and he who has practised it; I who have not lived the holy life here and he who has lived it. Yet I do not say that whatever both of us do, no evil is done. But it is superfluous for this good teacher … What do I know and see that I should lead the holy life under thiWs teacher?’ So when he finds that this way negates the living of the holy life, he turns away from it and leaves it.


"This is the second way that negates the living of the holy life that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened …


10"Again, Sandaka, here some teacher holds such a doctrine and view as this: ‘There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled without cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified without cause or condition. There is no power, no energy, no manly strength, no manly endurance. All beings, all living things, all creatures, all souls are without mastery, power, and energy; moulded by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes.’

11"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher holds this doctrine and view: "There is no cause … in the six classes." If this good teacher's words are true, then both of us are exactly equal here, we stand on the same level: I who have not practised this teaching here and he who has practised it; I who have not lived the holy life here and he who has lived it. Yet I do not say that both of us will be purified without cause or condition. But it is superfluous for this good teacher … What do I know and see that I should lead the holy life under this teacher?’ So when he finds that this way negates the living of the holy life, he turns away from it and leaves it.

"This is the third way that negates the living of the holy life that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened …


12"Again, Sandaka, here some teacher holds such a doctrine and view as this: [n.752] In the Sāmaññaphala Sutta the view that follows, as far as "the space between the seven bodies," is ascribed to Pakudha Kaccāyana (DN 2.26/i.56). However, in that sutta the following passage on the elaborate system of classifications, down to "fools and the wise both will make an end of suffering," is connected with the view of non-causality and follows immediately upon the statement of the doctrine of non-causality set forth in this sutta at ¶8. The entire view is there assigned to Makkhali Gosāla. Since there are evident connections between the non-causality doctrine and items in the system of classifications (e.g., the reference to the "six classes"), and since both are known to have been typical of the Ājīvaka movement headed by Makkhali Gosāla, it seems that the inclusion of this system of classifications here under the doctrine of the seven bodies came about through an error of oral transmission. The correct version would thus be the one preserved by the Dīgha Nikāya. For the commentary on the system of classification, see Bodhi, The Discourse on the Fruits of Recluseship, pp. 72–77. ‘There are these seven bodies that are unmade, not brought forth, uncreated, without a creator, barren, standing like mountain peaks, standing like pillars. They do not move or change or obstruct each other. None is able to arouse pleasure or pain or pleasure-and-pain in another. What are the seven? They are the earth-body, the water-body, the fire-body, the air-body, pleasure, pain, and the soul as the seventh. These seven bodies are unmade … Herein, there is no killer, no slaughterer, no hearer, no speaker, no cognizer, no intimater. Even those who cut off someone's head with a sharp sword do not deprive anyone of life; the sword merely passes through the space between the seven bodies. There are these fourteen hundred thousand principal kinds of generation, and sixty hundred kinds, and six hundred kinds; there are five hundred kinds of action, and five kinds of action, and three kinds of action, and action and half-action; there are sixty-two ways, sixty-two sub-aeons, six classes, eight planes of man, forty-nine hundred kinds of livelihood, forty-nine hundred kinds of wanderers, forty-nine hundred abodes of serpents, twenty hundred faculties, thirty hundred hells, thirty-six elements of dust, seven percipient breeds, seven non-percipient breeds, seven sheathless breeds, seven kinds of gods, seven kinds of men, seven kinds of demons, seven lakes, seven knots, seven kinds of chasms, seven hundred kinds of chasms, seven kinds of dreams, seven hundred kinds of dreams; and there are eighty-four hundred thousand great aeons wherein, by running and wandering through the round of rebirths, fools and the wise both will make an end of suffering. There is none of this: "By this virtue or observance or asceticism or holy life I shall make unripened action ripen or annihilate ripened action as it comes." Pleasure and pain are meted out. The round of rebirths is limited, there is no shortening or extending it, no increasing or decreasing it. Just as a ball of string when thrown goes as far as the string unwinds, so too, by running and wandering through the round of rebirths, fools and the wise both will make an end of suffering.’


13"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher holds this doctrine and view: "There are these seven bodies … fools and the wise both will make an end of suffering." If this good teacher's words are true, then both of us are exactly equal here, we stand on the same level: I who have not practised this teaching here and he who has practised it; I who have not lived the holy life here and he who has lived it. Yet I do not say that both of us will make an end of suffering by running and wandering through the round of rebirths. But it is superfluous for this good teacher to go about naked, to be shaven, to exert himself in the squatting position, and to pull out his hair and beard, since I, who live in a house crowded with children, who use Benares sandalwood, who wear garlands, scents, and unguents, and accept gold and silver, shall reap exactly the same destination, the same future course, as this good teacher. What do I know and see that I should lead the holy life under this teacher?’ So when he finds that this way negates the living of the holy life, he turns away from it and leaves it.

"This is the fourth way that negates the living of the holy life that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened …


14"These, Sandaka, are the four ways that negate the living of the holy life that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein a wise man certainly would not live the holy life, or if he should live it, would not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome."

15"It is wonderful, Master Ānanda, it is marvellous, how the four ways that negate the living of the holy life have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened … But, Master Ānanda, what are those four kinds of holy life without consolation that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein a wise man certainly would not live the holy life, or if he should live it, would not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome?"

16"Here, Sandaka, some teacher claims to be omniscient and all-seeing, to have complete knowledge and vision thus: ‘Whether I am walking or standing or sleeping or awake, knowledge and vision are continuously and uninterruptedly present to me.’[n.753] This is the claim made by the Jain teacher the Nigaṇṭha Nātaputta at MN 14.17, and both the latter and Pūraṇa Kassapa at AN 9:38/iv.428–29. The fact that he makes bad judgements and must ask questions belies his claim to omniscience. He enters an empty house, he gets no almsfood, a dog bites him, he meets with a wild elephant, a wild horse, a wild bull, he asks the name and clan of a woman or a man, he asks the name of a village or a town, and the way to go there. When he is questioned: ‘How is this?’ he replies: ‘I had to enter an empty house, that is why I entered it. I had to get no almsfood, that is why I did not get any. I had to be bitten by a dog, that is why I was bitten. I had to meet with a wild elephant, a wild horse, a wild bull, that is why I met with them. I had to ask the name and clan of a woman or a man, that is why I asked. I had to ask the name of a village or a town and the way to go there, that is why I asked.’

"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher claims to be omniscient and all-seeing, to have complete knowledge and vision … When he is questioned: "How is this?" he replies: "I had to … that is why I asked."’ So when he finds that this holy life is without consolation, he turns away from it and leaves it.

"This is the first kind of holy life without consolation that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein a wise man certainly would not live the holy life, or if he should live it, would not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.


17"Again, Sandaka, here some teacher is a traditionalist, one who regards oral tradition as truth; he teaches a Dhamma by oral tradition, by legends handed down, by the authority of the collections. But when a teacher is a traditionalist, one who regards oral tradition as truth, some is well transmitted and some badly transmitted, [n.754] With BBS and SBJ we should read sussutaṁ and dussutaṁ. PTS sussataṁ and dussataṁ are clearly mistaken. some is true and some is otherwise.

"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher is a traditionalist … some is true and some is otherwise.’ So when he finds that this holy life is without consolation, he turns away from it and leaves it.


"This is the second kind of holy life without consolation that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened …


18"Again, Sandaka, here a certain teacher is a reasoner, an inquirer. He teaches a Dhamma hammered out by reasoning, following a line of inquiry as it occurs to him. But when a teacher is a reasoner, an inquirer, some is well reasoned and some is wrongly reasoned, some is true and some is otherwise.


"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher is a reasoner … some is true and some is otherwise.’ So when he finds that this holy life is without consolation, he turns away from it and leaves it.


"This is the third kind of holy life without consolation that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened …


19"Again, Sandaka, here a certain teacher is dull and confused. Because he is dull and confused, when he is asked such and such a question, he engages in verbal wriggling, in eel-wriggling: ‘I don’t say it is like this. And I don’t say it is like that. And I don’t say it is otherwise. And I don’t say it is not so. And I don’t say it is not not so.’[n.755] MA: This position is called eel-wriggling (amarāvikkhepa) because the doctrine roams about here and there, like an eel diving in and out of the water, and thus it is impossible to catch hold of it. In the Sāmaññaphala Sutta this position is ascribed to Sañjaya Belaṭṭhiputta (DN 2.32/1.58–59). It is quite possible that the "eel-wrigglers" were a class of radical sceptics who questioned the entire prospect of apodictic knowledge about ultimate issues.


"About this a wise man considers thus: ‘This good teacher is dull and confused … thus he engages in verbal wriggling, in eel-wriggling … ’ So when he finds that this holy life is without consolation, he turns away from it and leaves it.


"This is the fourth kind of holy life without consolation that has been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened …


20"These, Sandaka, are the four kinds of holy life without consolation that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, wherein a wise man certainly would not live the holy life, or if he should live it, would not attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome."


21"It is wonderful, Master Ānanda, it is marvellous, how the four kinds of holy life without consolation have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened … But, Master Ānanda, what does that teacher assert, what does he declare, wherein a wise man certainly would live the holy life, and while living it would attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome?’"


22"Here, Sandaka, a Tathāgata appears in the world, accomplished, fully enlightened … "Having thus abandoned these five hindrances, imperfections of the mind that weaken wisdom, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, he enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. A wise man certainly would live the holy life with a teacher under whom a disciple attains such a lofty distinction, and while living it he would attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.


23–25"Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhāna … With the fading away as well of rapture … he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna … With the abandoning of pleasure and pain … he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna. A wise man certainly would live the holy life with a teacher under whom a disciple attains such a lofty distinction …


26"When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births … Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives. A wise man certainly would live the holy life with a teacher under whom a disciple attains such a lofty distinction …

27"When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings … Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions. A wise man certainly would live the holy life with a teacher under whom a disciple attains such a lofty distinction …

28"When his concentrated mind is thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, he directs it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. He understands as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’ … He understands as it actually is: ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’

"When he knows and sees thus, his mind is liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’ A wise man certainly would live the holy life with a teacher under whom a disciple attains such a lofty distinction, and while living it he would attain the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome."


29"But, Master Ānanda, when a bhikkhu is an arahant with taints destroyed, one who has lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached his own goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and is completely liberated through final knowledge, could he enjoy sensual pleasures?"

"Sandaka, when a bhikkhu is an arahant with taints destroyed … and is completely liberated through final knowledge, he is incapable of transgression in five cases. A bhikkhu whose taints are destroyed is incapable of deliberately depriving a living being of life; he is incapable of taking what is not given, that is, of stealing; he is incapable of indulging in sexual intercourse; he is incapable of knowingly speaking falsehood; he is incapable of enjoying sensual pleasures by storing them up as he did formerly in lay life.[n.756] MA: He is incapable of storing up food provisions and other pleasurable goods and subsequently enjoying them. When a bhikkhu is an arahant with taints destroyed … he is incapable of transgression in these five cases."[n.757] At DN 29.26/iii.133 four other things that the arahant cannot do are mentioned: he cannot take a wrong course of action because of desire, hatred, fear, or delusion.

30"But, Master Ānanda, when a bhikkhu is an arahant with taints destroyed … is his knowledge and vision that his taints are destroyed continuously and uninterruptedly present to him whether he is walking or standing or sleeping or awake?"

"As to that, Sandaka, I shall give you a simile, for some wise men here understand the meaning of a statement by means of a simile. Suppose a man's hands and feet were cut off. Whether he is walking or standing or sleeping or awake, his hands and feet are continuously and uninterruptedly cut off, but he would know this only when he reviews the fact. So too, Sandaka, when a bhikkhu is an arahant with taints destroyed … his knowledge and vision that his taints are destroyed is not continuously and uninterruptedly present to him whether he is walking or standing or sleeping or awake; rather, he knows ‘My taints are destroyed’ only when he reviews this fact."[n.758] The translation of this passage follows SBJ and PTS. The BBS version is more elaborate.


31"How many emancipators[n.759] Niyyātāro: Ñm had rendered this as "guides," Horner as "great leaders." Evidently both followed PED, which takes niyyātar to be an agent noun related to niyyāma(ka), pilot or helmsman. But niyyātar must be an agent noun of the verb niyyāti, "to go out (to final emancipation)," and thus it has been rendered here as "emancipator." This may be the only place in the Nikāyas where this word occurs. are there in this Dhamma and Discipline, Master Ānanda?"

"There are not only one hundred, Sandaka, or two hundred, three hundred, four hundred or five hundred, but far more emancipators than that in this Dhamma and Discipline." "It is wonderful, Master Ānanda, it is marvellous! There is no lauding of one 's own Dhamma and no disparaging of the Dhamma of others; there is the teaching of the Dhamma in its full range, and so many emancipators. But these Ājīvakas, those mothers’ dead sons, laud themselves and disparage others, and they recognise only three emancipators, namely, Nanda Vaccha, Kisa Sankicca, and Makkhali Gosāla."[n.760] On these three mentors of the Ājīvakas, see MN 36.5 and n. 383. MA explains the phrase puttamatāya puttā, "mother's dead sons," thus: The idea occurred to him, "The Ājīvakas are dead; their mother had dead sons."

Then the wanderer Sandaka addressed his own assembly: "Go, sirs. The holy life is to be lived under the recluse Gotama. It is not easy for us now to give up gain, honour, and renown."

That is how the wanderer Sandaka exhorted his own assembly to live the holy life under the Blessed One.

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā kosambiyaṁ viharati ghositārāme.

Tena kho pana samayena sandako paribbājako pilakkhaguhāyaṁ paṭivasati mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṁ pañcamattehi paribbājakasatehi.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando sāyanhasamayaṁ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito bhikkhū āmantesi: "āyāmāvuso, yena devakatasobbho tenupasaṅkamissāma guhādassanāyā"ti. "Evamāvuso"ti kho te bhikkhū āyasmato ānandassa paccassosuṁ. Atha kho āyasmā ānando sambahulehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṁ yena devakatasobbho tenupasaṅkami.

2Tena kho pana samayena sandako paribbājako mahatiyā paribbājakaparisāya saddhiṁ nisinno hoti unnādiniyā uccāsaddamahāsaddāya anekavihitaṁ tiracchānakathaṁ kathentiyā, seyyathidaṁ – rājakathaṁ corakathaṁ mahāmattakathaṁ senākathaṁ bhayakathaṁ yuddhakathaṁ annakathaṁ pānakathaṁ vatthakathaṁ sayanakathaṁ mālākathaṁ gandhakathaṁ ñātikathaṁ yānakathaṁ gāmakathaṁ nigamakathaṁ nagarakathaṁ janapadakathaṁ itthikathaṁ sūrakathaṁ visikhākathaṁ kumbhaṭṭhānakathaṁ pubbapetakathaṁ nānattakathaṁ lokakkhāyikaṁ samuddakkhāyikaṁ itibhavābhavakathaṁ iti vā.

3Addasā kho sandako paribbājako āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ dūratova āgacchantaṁ. Disvāna sakaṁ parisaṁ saṇṭhāpesi: "appasaddā bhonto hontu, mā bhonto saddamakattha; ayaṁ samaṇassa gotamassa sāvako āgacchati samaṇo ānando. Yāvatā kho pana samaṇassa gotamassa sāvakā kosambiyaṁ paṭivasanti, ayaṁ tesaṁ aññataro samaṇo ānando. Appasaddakāmā kho pana te āyasmanto appasaddavinītā appasaddassa vaṇṇavādino; appeva nāma appasaddaṁ parisaṁ viditvā upasaṅkamitabbaṁ maññeyyā"ti. Atha kho te paribbājakā tuṇhī ahesuṁ.

4Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena sandako paribbājako tenupasaṅkami. Atha kho sandako paribbājako āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "etu kho bhavaṁ ānando, svāgataṁ bhoto ānandassa. Cirassaṁ kho bhavaṁ ānando imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya. Nisīdatu bhavaṁ ānando, idamāsanaṁ paññattan"ti.

Nisīdi kho āyasmā ānando paññatte āsane. Sandakopi kho paribbājako aññataraṁ nīcaṁ āsanaṁ gahetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho sandakaṁ paribbājakaṁ āyasmā ānando etadavoca: "kāya nuttha, sandaka, etarahi kathāya sannisinnā, kā ca pana vo antarākathā vippakatā"ti?

5"Tiṭṭhatesā, bho ānanda, kathā yāya mayaṁ etarahi kathāya sannisinnā. Nesā bhoto ānandassa kathā dullabhā bhavissati pacchāpi savanāya. Sādhu vata bhavantaṁyeva ānandaṁ paṭibhātu sake ācariyake dhammīkathā"ti.


"Tena hi, sandaka, suṇāhi, sādhukaṁ manasi karohi, bhāsissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho sandako paribbājako āyasmato ānandassa paccassosi.

Āyasmā ānando etadavoca: "cattārome, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena abrahmacariyavāsā akkhātā cattāri ca anassāsikāni brahmacariyāni akkhātāni, yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti.


"Katame pana te, bho ānanda, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro abrahmacariyavāsā akkhātā, yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti?

6"Idha, sandaka, ekacco satthā evaṁvādī hoti evaṁdiṭṭhi: ‘Natthi dinnaṁ, natthi yiṭṭhaṁ, natthi hutaṁ, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, natthi ayaṁ loko, natthi paroloko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedenti. Cātumahābhūtiko ayaṁ puriso yadā kālaṁ karoti, pathavī pathavīkāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, āpo āpokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, tejo tejokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, vāyo vāyokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, ākāsaṁ indriyāni saṅkamanti. Āsandipañcamā purisā mataṁ ādāya gacchanti, yāvāḷāhanā padāni paññāyanti. Kāpotakāni aṭṭhīni bhavanti. Bhassantā āhutiyo; dattupaññattaṁ yadidaṁ dānaṁ. Tesaṁ tucchā musā vilāpo ye keci atthikavādaṁ vadanti. Bāle ca paṇḍite ca kāyassa bhedā ucchijjanti vinassanti na honti paraṁ maraṇā’ti.

7Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā evaṁvādī evaṁdiṭṭhi — natthi dinnaṁ, natthi yiṭṭhaṁ, natthi hutaṁ, natthi sukatadukkaṭānaṁ kammānaṁ phalaṁ vipāko, natthi ayaṁ loko, natthi paroloko, natthi mātā, natthi pitā, natthi sattā opapātikā, natthi loke samaṇabrāhmaṇā sammaggatā sammāpaṭipannā ye imañca lokaṁ parañca lokaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā pavedenti. Cātumahābhūtiko ayaṁ puriso yadā kālaṁ karoti, pathavī pathavīkāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, āpo āpokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, tejo tejokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, vāyo vāyokāyaṁ anupeti anupagacchati, ākāsaṁ indriyāni saṅkamanti. Āsandipañcamā purisā mataṁ ādāya gacchanti, yāvāḷāhanā padāni paññāyanti. Kāpotakāni aṭṭhīni bhavanti. Bhassantā āhutiyo; dattupaññattaṁ yadidaṁ dānaṁ. Tesaṁ tucchā musā vilāpo ye keci atthikavādaṁ vadanti. Bāle ca paṇḍite ca kāyassa bhedā ucchijjanti vinassanti na honti paraṁ maraṇā’ti. Sace imassa bhoto satthuno saccaṁ vacanaṁ, akatena me ettha kataṁ, avusitena me ettha vusitaṁ. Ubhopi mayaṁ ettha samasamā sāmaññaṁ pattā, yo cāhaṁ na vadāmi ‘ubho kāyassa bhedā ucchijjissāma, vinassissāma, na bhavissāma paraṁ maraṇā’ti. Atirekaṁ kho panimassa bhoto satthuno naggiyaṁ muṇḍiyaṁ ukkuṭikappadhānaṁ kesamassulocanaṁ, yohaṁ puttasambādhasayanaṁ ajjhāvasanto kāsikacandanaṁ paccanubhonto mālāgandhavilepanaṁ dhārento jātarūparajataṁ sādiyanto iminā bhotā satthārā samasamagatiko bhavissāmi abhisamparāyaṁ. Sohaṁ kiṁ jānanto kiṁ passanto imasmiṁ satthari brahmacariyaṁ carissāmi? ‘So abrahmacariyavāso ayan’ti — iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.


Ayaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena paṭhamo abrahmacariyavāso akkhāto yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


8Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, idhekacco satthā evaṁvādī hoti evaṁdiṭṭhi: ‘karoto kārayato chindato chedāpayato pacato pācāpayato socayato socāpayato kilamato kilamāpayato phandato phandāpayato pāṇamatipātayato adinnaṁ ādiyato sandhiṁ chindato nillopaṁ harato ekāgārikaṁ karoto paripanthe tiṭṭhato paradāraṁ gacchato musā bhaṇato karoto na karīyati pāpaṁ. Khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā pathaviyā pāṇe ekaṁ maṁsakhalaṁ ekaṁ maṁsapuñjaṁ kareyya, natthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Dakkhiṇañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṁ gaccheyya hananto ghātento chindanto chedāpento pacanto pacāpento, natthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Uttarāñcepi gaṅgāya tīraṁ gaccheyya dadanto dāpento yajanto yajāpento, natthi tatonidānaṁ puññaṁ, natthi puññassa āgamo. Dānena damena saṁyamena saccavajjena natthi puññaṁ, natthi puññassa āgamo’ti.


9Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā evaṁvādī evaṁdiṭṭhi — karoto kārayato chindato chedāpayato pacato pācāpayato socato socāpayato kilamato kilamāpayato phandato phandāpayato pāṇamatipātayato adinnaṁ ādiyato sandhiṁ chindato nillopaṁ harato ekāgārikaṁ karoto paripanthe tiṭṭhato paradāraṁ gacchato musā bhaṇato karoto na karīyati pāpaṁ khurapariyantena cepi cakkena yo imissā pathaviyā pāṇe ekaṁ maṁsakhalaṁ ekaṁ maṁsapuñjaṁ kareyya, natthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Dakkhiṇañcepi gaṅgāya tīraṁ gaccheyya hananto ghātento chindanto chedāpento pacanto pacāpento, natthi tatonidānaṁ pāpaṁ, natthi pāpassa āgamo. Uttarāñcepi gaṅgāya tīraṁ gaccheyya dadanto dāpento yajanto yajāpento, natthi tatonidānaṁ puññaṁ, natthi puññassa āgamo. Dānena damena saṁyamena saccavajjena natthi puññaṁ, natthi puññassa āgamo’ti. Sace imassa bhoto satthuno saccaṁ vacanaṁ, akatena me ettha kataṁ, avusitena me ettha vusitaṁ. Ubhopi mayaṁ ettha samasamā sāmaññaṁ pattā, yo cāhaṁ na vadāmi ‘ubhinnaṁ kurutaṁ na karīyati pāpan’ti. Atirekaṁ kho panimassa bhoto satthuno naggiyaṁ muṇḍiyaṁ ukkuṭikappadhānaṁ kesamassulocanaṁ, yohaṁ puttasambādhasayanaṁ ajjhāvasanto kāsikacandanaṁ paccanubhonto mālāgandhavilepanaṁ dhārento jātarūparajataṁ sādiyanto iminā bhotā satthārā samasamagatiko bhavissāmi abhisamparāyaṁ. Sohaṁ kiṁ jānanto kiṁ passanto imasmiṁ satthari brahmacariyaṁ carissāmi? ‘So abrahmacariyavāso ayan’ti iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.


Ayaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dutiyo abrahmacariyavāso akkhāto yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


10Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, idhekacco satthā evaṁvādī hoti evaṁdiṭṭhi: ‘Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṁ saṅkilesāya; ahetū appaccayā sattā saṅkilissanti; natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā; ahetū appaccayā sattā visujjhanti; natthi balaṁ, natthi vīriyaṁ, natthi purisathāmo, natthi purisaparakkamo; sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā niyatisaṅgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’ti.

11Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā evaṁvādī evaṁdiṭṭhi — natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṁ saṅkilesāya, ahetū appaccayā sattā saṅkilissanti. Natthi hetu natthi paccayo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā, ahetū appaccayā sattā visujjhanti. Natthi balaṁ, natthi vīriyaṁ, natthi purisathāmo, natthi purisaparakkamo, sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā niyatisaṅgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’ti. Sace imassa bhoto satthuno saccaṁ vacanaṁ, akatena me ettha kataṁ, avusitena me ettha vusitaṁ. Ubhopi mayaṁ ettha samasamā sāmaññaṁ pattā, yo cāhaṁ na vadāmi ‘ubho ahetū appaccayā visujjhissāmā’ti. Atirekaṁ kho panimassa bhoto satthuno naggiyaṁ muṇḍiyaṁ ukkuṭikappadhānaṁ kesamassulocanaṁ, yohaṁ puttasambādhasayanaṁ ajjhāvasanto kāsikacandanaṁ paccanubhonto mālāgandhavilepanaṁ dhārento jātarūparajataṁ sādiyanto iminā bhotā satthārā samasamagatiko bhavissāmi abhisamparāyaṁ. Sohaṁ kiṁ jānanto kiṁ passanto imasmiṁ satthari brahmacariyaṁ carissāmi? ‘So abrahmacariyavāso ayan’ti — iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.

Ayaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tatiyo abrahmacariyavāso akkhāto yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


12Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, idhekacco satthā evaṁvādī hoti evaṁdiṭṭhi: ‘sattime kāyā akaṭā akaṭavidhā animmitā animmātā vañjhā kūṭaṭṭhā esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhitā, te na iñjanti na vipariṇamanti na aññamaññaṁ byābādhenti nālaṁ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā. Katame satta? Pathavīkāyo āpokāyo tejokāyo vāyokāyo sukhe dukkhe jīve sattame — ime sattakāyā akaṭā akaṭavidhā animmitā animmātā vañjhā kūṭaṭṭhā esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhitā. Te na iñjanti na vipariṇamanti na aññamaññaṁ byābādhenti. Nālaṁ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā. Tattha natthi hantā vā ghātetā vā sotā vā sāvetā vā viññātā vā viññāpetā vā. Yopi tiṇhena satthena sīsaṁ chindati, na koci kañci jīvitā voropeti. Sattannaṁ tveva kāyānamantarena satthaṁ vivaramanupatati. Cuddasa kho panimāni yonipamukhasatasahassāni saṭṭhi ca satāni cha ca satāni pañca ca kammuno satāni pañca ca kammāni tīṇi ca kammāni, kamme ca aḍḍhakamme ca, dvaṭṭhipaṭipadā, dvaṭṭhantarakappā, chaḷābhijātiyo, aṭṭha purisabhūmiyo, ekūnapaññāsa ājīvakasate, ekūnapaññāsa paribbājakasate, ekūnapaññāsa nāgāvāsasate, vīse indriyasate, tiṁse nirayasate, chattiṁsa rajodhātuyo, satta saññīgabbhā, satta asaññīgabbhā, satta nigaṇṭhigabbhā, satta devā, satta mānusā, satta pesācā, satta sarā, satta pavuṭā, satta papātā, satta papātasatāni, satta supinā, satta supinasatāni, cullāsīti mahākappino satasahassāni, yāni bāle ca paṇḍite ca sandhāvitvā saṁsaritvā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti. Tattha natthi imināhaṁ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā aparipakkaṁ vā kammaṁ paripācessāmi, paripakkaṁ vā kammaṁ phussa phussa byantiṁ karissāmīti. Hevaṁ natthi doṇamite sukhadukkhe pariyantakate saṁsāre, natthi hāyanavaḍḍhane, natthi ukkaṁsāvakaṁse. Seyyathāpi nāma suttaguḷe khitte nibbeṭhiyamānameva paleti; evameva bāle cDN 2.a paṇḍite ca sandhāvitvā saṁsaritvā dukkhassantaṁ karissantī’ti.


13Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā evaṁvādī evaṁdiṭṭhi — sattime kāyā akaṭā akaṭavidhā animmitā animmātā vañjhā kūṭaṭṭhā esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhitā. Te na iñjanti na vipariṇamanti na aññamaññaṁ byābādhenti. Nālaṁ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā. Katame satta? Pathavīkāyo āpokāyo tejokāyo vāyokāyo sukhe dukkhe jīve sattame — ime satta kāyā akaṭā akaṭavidhā animmitā animmātā vañjhā kūṭaṭṭhā esikaṭṭhāyiṭṭhitā. Te na iñjanti na vipariṇamanti na aññamaññaṁ byābādhenti. Nālaṁ aññamaññassa sukhāya vā dukkhāya vā sukhadukkhāya vā. Tattha natthi hantā vā ghātetā vā sotā vā sāvetā vā viññātā vā viññāpetā vā. Yopi tiṇhena satthena sīsaṁ chindati, na koci kañci jīvitā voropeti. Sattannaṁ tveva kāyānamantarena satthaṁ vivaramanupatati. Cuddasa kho panimāni yonipamukhasatasahassāni saṭṭhi ca satāni cha ca satāni pañca ca kammuno satāni pañca ca kammāni tīṇi ca kammāni, kamme ca aḍḍhakamme ca, dvaṭṭhipaṭipadā, dvaṭṭhantarakappā, chaḷābhijātiyo, aṭṭha purisabhūmiyo, ekūnapaññāsa ājīvakasate, ekūnapaññāsa paribbājakasate, ekūnapaññāsa nāgāvāsasate, vīse indriyasate, tiṁse nirayasate, chattiṁsa rajodhātuyo, satta saññīgabbhā, satta asaññīgabbhā, satta nigaṇṭhigabbhā, satta devā, satta mānusā, satta pesācā, satta sarā, satta pavuṭā, satta papātā, satta papātasatāni, satta supinā, satta supinasatāni, cullāsīti mahākappino satasahassāni, yāni bāle ca paṇḍite ca sandhāvitvā saṁsaritvā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti. Tattha natthi imināhaṁ sīlena vā vatena vā tapena vā brahmacariyena vā aparipakkaṁ vā kammaṁ paripācessāmi, paripakkaṁ vā kammaṁ phussa phussa byantiṁ karissāmīti, hevaṁ natthi doṇamite sukhadukkhe pariyantakate saṁsāre, natthi hāyanavaḍḍhane, natthi ukkaṁsāvakaṁse. Seyyathāpi nāma suttaguḷe khitte nibbeṭhiyamānameva paleti; evameva bāle ca paṇḍite ca sandhāvitvā saṁsaritvā dukkhassantaṁ karissantī’ti. Sace pana imassa bhoto satthuno saccaṁ vacanaṁ, akatena me ettha kataṁ, avusitena me ettha vusitaṁ. Ubhopi mayaṁ ettha samasamā sāmaññaṁ pattā, yo cāhaṁ na vadāmi ‘ubho sandhāvitvā saṁsaritvā dukkhassantaṁ karissāmā’ti. Atirekaṁ kho panimassa bhoto satthuno naggiyaṁ muṇḍiyaṁ ukkuṭikappadhānaṁ kesamassulocanaṁ, yohaṁ puttasambādhasayanaṁ ajjhāvasanto kāsikacandanaṁ paccanubhonto mālāgandhavilepanaṁ dhārento jātarūparajataṁ sādiyanto iminā bhotā satthārā samasamagatiko bhavissāmi abhisamparāyaṁ. Sohaṁ kiṁ jānanto kiṁ passanto imasmiṁ satthari brahmacariyaṁ carissāmi? ‘So abrahmacariyavāso ayan’ti — iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.

Ayaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena catuttho abrahmacariyavāso akkhāto yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


14Ime kho te, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro abrahmacariyavāsā akkhātā yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti.

DN 2.

15"Acchariyaṁ, bho ānanda, abbhutaṁ, bho ānanda. Yāvañcidaṁ tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāro abrahmacariyavāsāva samānā ‘abrahmacariyavāsā’ti akkhātā yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalanti. Katamāni pana tāni, bho ānanda, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāri anassāsikāni brahmacariyāni akkhātāni yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti?

16"Idha, sandaka, ekacco satthā sabbaññū sabbadassāvī aparisesaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ paṭijānāti: ‘carato ca me tiṭṭhato ca suttassa ca jāgarassa ca satataṁ samitaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ paccupaṭṭhitan’ti. So suññampi agāraṁ pavisati, piṇḍampi na labhati, kukkuropi ḍaṁsati, caṇḍenapi hatthinā samāgacchati, caṇḍenapi assena samāgacchati, caṇḍenapi goṇena samāgacchati, itthiyāpi purisassapi nāmampi gottampi pucchati, gāmassapi nigamassapi nāmampi maggampi pucchati. So ‘kimidan’ti puṭṭho samāno ‘suññaṁ me agāraṁ pavisitabbaṁ ahosi’, tena pāvisiṁ; ‘piṇḍampi aladdhabbaṁ ahosi’, tena nālatthaṁ; ‘kukkurena ḍaṁsitabbaṁ ahosi’, tenamhi daṭṭho; ‘caṇḍena hatthinā samāgantabbaṁ ahosi’, tena samāgamiṁ; ‘caṇḍena assena samāgantabbaṁ ahosi’, tena samāgamiṁ; ‘caṇḍena goṇena samāgantabbaṁ ahosi’, tena samāgamiṁ; ‘itthiyāpi purisassapi nāmampi gottampi pucchitabbaṁ ahosi’, tena pucchiṁ; ‘gāmassapi nigamassapi nāmampi maggampi pucchitabbaṁ ahosi’, tena pucchinti.

Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā sabbaññū sabbadassāvī aparisesaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ paṭijānāti … pe … ‘gāmassapi nigamassapi nāmampi maggampi pucchitabbaṁ ahosi, tena pucchin’ti. So ‘anassāsikaṁ idaṁ brahmacariyan’ti –  iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.

DN 2.

Idaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena paṭhamaṁ anassāsikaṁ brahmacariyaṁ akkhātaṁ yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


17Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, idhekacco satthā anussaviko hoti anussavasacco. So anussavena itihitihaparamparāya piṭakasampadāya dhammaṁ deseti. Anussavikassa kho pana, sandaka, satthuno anussavasaccassa sussutampi hoti dussutampi hoti tathāpi hoti aññathāpi hoti.

Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā anussaviko anussavasacco so anussavena itihitihaparamparāya piṭakasampadāya dhammaṁ deseti. Anussavikassa kho pana satthuno anussavasaccassa sussutampi hoti dussutampi hoti tathāpi hoti aññathāpi hoti’. So ‘anassāsikaṁ idaṁ brahmacariyan’ti — iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.


Idaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dutiyaṁ anassāsikaṁ brahmacariyaṁ akkhātaṁ yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


18Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, idhekacco satthā takkī hoti vīmaṁsī. So takkapariyāhataṁ vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayampaṭibhānaṁ dhammaṁ deseti. Takkissa kho pana, sandaka, satthuno vīmaṁsissa sutakkitampi hoti duttakkitampi hoti tathāpi hoti aññathāpi hoti.


Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā takkī vīmaṁsī. So takkapariyāhataṁ vīmaṁsānucaritaṁ sayampaṭibhānaṁ dhammaṁ deseti. Takkissa kho pana satthuno vīmaṁsissa sutakkitampi hoti duttakkitampi hoti tathāpi hoti aññathāpi hoti’. So ‘anassāsikaṁ idaṁ brahmacariyan’ti — iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.


Idaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena tatiyaṁ anassāsikaṁ brahmacariyaṁ akkhātaṁ yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


19Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, idhekacco satthā mando hoti momūho. So mandattā momūhattā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭho samāno vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjati amarāvikkhepaṁ: ‘evantipi me no, tathātipi me no, aññathātipi me no, notipi me no, no notipi me no’ti.


Tatra, sandaka, viññū puriso iti paṭisañcikkhati: ‘Ayaṁ kho bhavaṁ satthā mando momūho. So mandattā momūhattā tattha tattha pañhaṁ puṭṭho samāno vācāvikkhepaṁ āpajjati amarāvikkhepaṁ — evantipi me no, tathātipi me no, aññathātipi me no, notipi me no, no notipi me no’ti. So ‘anassāsikaṁ idaṁ brahmacariyan’ti — iti viditvā tasmā brahmacariyā nibbijja pakkamati.


Idaṁ kho, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena catutthaṁ anassāsikaṁ brahmacariyaṁ akkhātaṁ yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.



20Imāni kho tāni, sandaka, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāri anassāsikāni brahmacariyāni akkhātāni yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti.


21"Acchariyaṁ, bho ānanda, abbhutaṁ, bho ānanda. Yāvañcidaṁ tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena cattāri anassāsikāneva brahmacariyāni anassāsikāni brahmacariyānīti akkhātāni yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ na vaseyya, vasanto ca nārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ. So pana, bho ānanda, satthā kiṁ vādī kiṁ akkhāyī yattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti.


22"Idha, sandaka, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā … pe … so ime pañca nīvaraṇe pahāya cetaso upakkilese paññāya dubbalīkaraṇe vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Yasmiṁ kho, sandaka, satthari sāvako evarūpaṁ uḷāravisesaṁ adhigacchati tattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


23Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā … pe … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Yasmiṁ kho, sandaka, satthari sāvako evarūpaṁ uḷāravisesaṁ adhigacchati tattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.

24Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, bhikkhu pītiyā ca virāgā upekkhako ca viharati … pe … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Yasmiṁ kho, sandaka, satthari sāvako evarūpaṁ uḷāravisesaṁ adhigacchati tattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.

25Puna caparaṁ, sandaka, bhikkhu sukhassa ca pahānā … pe … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Yasmiṁ kho, sandaka, satthari sāvako evarūpaṁ uḷāravisesaṁ adhigacchati tattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.


26So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmeti. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, seyyathidaṁ — ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo … pe … iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. Yasmiṁ kho, sandaka, satthari sāvako evarūpaṁ uḷāravisesaṁ adhigacchati tattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.

27So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmeti. So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate … pe … yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. Yasmiṁ kho, sandaka, satthari sāvako evarūpaṁ uḷāravisesaṁ adhigacchati tattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ.

28So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmeti. So ‘idaṁ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti; ‘ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ pajānāti.

Tassa evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccati. Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṁ hoti. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti. Yasmiṁ kho, sandaka, satthari sāvako evarūpaṁ uḷāravisesaṁ adhigacchati tattha viññū puriso sasakkaṁ brahmacariyaṁ vaseyya, vasanto ca ārādheyya ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti.


29"Yo pana so, bho ānanda, bhikkhu arahaṁ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojano sammadaññā vimutto paribhuñjeyya so kāme"ti?

"Yo so, sandaka, bhikkhu arahaṁ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojano sammadaññāvimutto, abhabbo so pañcaṭṭhānāni ajjhācarituṁ. Abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu sañcicca pāṇaṁ jīvitā voropetuṁ, abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu adinnaṁ theyyasaṅkhātaṁ ādātuṁ, abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu methunaṁ dhammaṁ paṭisevetuṁ, abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu sampajānamusā bhāsituṁ, abhabbo khīṇāsavo bhikkhu sannidhikārakaṁ kāme paribhuñjituṁ, seyyathāpi pubbe agāriyabhūto. Yo so, sandaka, bhikkhu arahaṁ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojano sammadaññāvimutto, abhabbo so imāni pañcaṭṭhānāni ajjhācaritun"ti.

30"Yo pana so, bho ānanda, bhikkhu arahaṁ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojano sammadaññāvimutto tassa carato ceva tiṭṭhato ca suttassa ca jāgarassa ca satataṁ samitaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ paccupaṭṭhitaṁ: ‘khīṇā me āsavā’"ti?

"Tena hi, sandaka, upamaṁ te karissāmi; upamāyapidhekacce viññū purisā bhāsitassa atthaṁ ājānanti. Seyyathāpi, sandaka, purisassa hatthapādā chinnā; tassa carato ceva tiṭṭhato ca suttassa ca jāgarassa ca satataṁ samitaṁ jānāti: ‘chinnā me hatthapādā’ti, udāhu paccavekkhamāno jānāti: ‘chinnā me hatthapādā’"ti? "Na kho, bho ānanda, so puriso satataṁ samitaṁ jānāti: ‘chinnā me hatthapādā’ti. Api ca kho pana naṁ paccavekkhamāno jānāti: ‘chinnā me hatthapādā’"ti. "Evameva kho, sandaka, yo so bhikkhu arahaṁ khīṇāsavo vusitavā katakaraṇīyo ohitabhāro anuppattasadattho parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojano sammadaññāvimutto tassa carato ceva tiṭṭhato ca suttassa ca jāgarassa ca satataṁ samitaṁ ñāṇadassanaṁ na paccupaṭṭhitaṁ: ‘khīṇā me āsavā’ti; api ca kho pana naṁ paccavekkhamāno jānāti: ‘khīṇā me āsavā’"ti.


31"Kīvabahukā pana, bho ānanda, imasmiṁ dhammavinaye niyyātāro"ti?

"Na kho, sandaka, ekaṁyeva sataṁ na dve satāni na tīṇi satāni na cattāri satāni na pañca satāni, atha kho bhiyyova ye imasmiṁ dhammavinaye niyyātāro"ti. "Acchariyaṁ, bho ānanda, abbhutaṁ, bho ānanda. Na ca nāma sadhammokkaṁsanā bhavissati, na paradhammavambhanā, āyatane ca dhammadesanā tāva bahukā ca niyyātāro paññāyissanti. Ime panājīvakā puttamatāya puttā attānañceva ukkaṁsenti, pare ca vambhenti tayo ceva niyyātāro paññapenti, seyyathidaṁ — nandaṁ vacchaṁ, kisaṁ saṅkiccaṁ, makkhaliṁ gosālan"ti.

Atha kho sandako paribbājako sakaṁ parisaṁ āmantesi: "carantu bhonto samaṇe gotame brahmacariyavāso. Na dāni sukaraṁ amhehi lābhasakkārasiloke pariccajitun"ti.

Iti hidaṁ sandako paribbājako sakaṁ parisaṁ uyyojesi bhagavati brahmacariyeti.

Sandakasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ.