Light/Dark

Majjhima Nikāya

MN100: Saṅgāravasutta - With Saṅgārava

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was wandering in the Kosalan country with a large Saṅgha of bhikkhus.

Now on that occasion a brahmin woman named Dhānañjānī was staying at Caṇḍalakappa, having full confidence in the Buddha, the Dhamma, and the Saṅgha.[n.917] Dhānañjānī was a stream-enterer. MA says that Saṅgārava was her husband's younger brother. One time she stumbled, and on recovering her balance exclaimed three times:

2"Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened!

3Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened!

4Honour to the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened!"


5At the time there was a brahmin student named Saṅgārava staying at Caṇḍalakappa. He was a master of the Three Vedas, with their vocabularies, liturgy, phonology, and etymology, and the histories as the fifth; skilled in philology and grammar, he was fully versed in natural philosophy and in the marks of a Great Man. Having heard the brahmin woman Dhānañjānī utter those words, he said to her: "This brahmin woman Dhānañjānī must be disgraced and degraded, since when there are brahmins around she praises that bald-pated recluse."

She replied: "My dear sir, you do not know the virtue and wisdom of the Blessed One. If you knew that Blessed One's virtue and wisdom, my dear sir, you would never think of abusing and reviling him."

"Then, madam, inform me when the recluse Gotama comes to Caṇḍalakappa."

"Yes, dear sir," the brahmin woman Dhānañjāni replied.


6Then, after wandering by stages in the Kosalan country, the Blessed One eventually arrived at Caṇḍalakappa. There in Cạ̣alakappa the Blessed One lived in the Mango Grove belonging to the brahmins of the Todeyya clan.

The brahmin woman Dhānañjānī heard that the Blessed One had arrived, so she went to the brahmin student Saṅgārava and told him: "My dear sir, the Blessed One has arrived in Caṇḍalakappa and he is living here in Caṇḍalakappa in the Mango Grove belonging to the brahmins of the Todeyya clan. Now, dear Sir, you may go at your own convenience."


7"Yes, madam," he replied. Then he went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and said:


8"Master Gotama, there are some recluses and brahmins who claim to teach the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now.[n.918] Diṭṭadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti. MA glosses: They claim to be the originators, creators, producers of a holy life, saying: "Having directly known here and now in this present existence and having reached the consummation, we have attained Nibbāna, called ‘perfection’ because it is the transcendence of everything." Where among these recluses and brahmins does Master Gotama stand?"

9"Bhāradvāja, I say that there is a diversity among those recluses and brahmins who claim to teach the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now. There are some recluses and brahmins who are traditionalists, who on the basis of oral tradition claim to teach the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now; such are the brahmins of the Three Vedas. There are some recluses and brahmins who, entirely on the basis of mere faith, claim to teach the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now; such are the reasoners and investigators.[n.919] It is puzzling that the reasoners and investigators (takkī, vīmaṁsī) are here said to rely on the basis of mere faith (saddhāmattakena). Elsewhere faith and reasoning are contrasted as two different grounds of conviction (MN 95.14), and "mere faith" seems more closely allied with reliance on oral tradition than with reasoning and investigation. There are some recluses and brahmins who, having directly known the Dhamma for themselves[n.920] Sāmaṁ yeva dhammaṁ abhiññāya. This phrase emphasises direct personal realisation as the foundation for promulgating a holy life. among things not heard before, claim to teach the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now.

"I, Bhāradvāja, am one of those recluses and brahmins who, having directly known the Dhamma for themselves among things not heard before, claim to teach the fundamentals of the holy life after having reached the consummation and perfection of direct knowledge here and now. As to how I am one of those recluses and brahmins, that may be understood in the following way.


10"Here, Bhāradvāja, before my enlightenment, while I was still only an unenlightened Bodhisatta, I considered thus: ‘Household life is crowded and dusty; life gone forth is wide open. It is not easy while living in a home to lead the holy life utterly perfect and pure as a polished shell. Suppose I shave off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and go forth from the home life into homelessness.’ Later, while still young, a black-haired young man endowed with the blessing of youth, in the prime of life, though my mother and father wished otherwise and wept with tearful faces, I shaved off my hair and beard, put on the yellow robe, and went forth from the home life into homelessness.

"Having gone forth, Bhāradvāja, in search of what is wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to Āḷāra Kālāma and said to him: ‘Friend Kālāma, I want to lead the holy life in this Dhamma and Discipline.’ Āḷāra Kālāma replied: ‘The venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is such that a wise man can soon enter upon and abide in it, realising for himself through direct knowledge his own teacher's doctrine.’ I soon quickly learned that Dhamma. As far as mere lip-reciting and rehearsal of his teaching went, I could speak with knowledge and assurance, and I claimed, ‘I know and see’ — and there were others who did likewise. "I considered: ‘It is not through mere faith alone that Āḷāra Kālāma declares: "By realising for myself with direct knowledge, I enter upon and abide in this Dhamma." Certainly Āḷāra Kālāma abides knowing and seeing this Dhamma.’

11Then I went to Āḷāra Kālāma and asked him: ‘Friend Kālāma, in what way do you declare that by realising for yourself with direct knowledge you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma?’ In reply he declared the base of nothingness.MA: He taught him the seven attainments (of serenity meditation) ending in the base of nothingness, the third of the four immaterial attainments. Though these attainments are spiritually exalted, they are still mundane and not in themselves directly conducive to Nibbāna.

"I considered: ‘Not only Āḷāra Kālāma has faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I endeavour to realise the Dhamma that Āḷāra Kālāma declares he enters upon and abides in by realising for himself with direct knowledge?’ "I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge.

Then I went to Āḷāra Kālāma and asked him:

‘Friend Kālāma, is it in this way that you declare that you enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for yourself with direct knowledge?’ —

‘That is the way, friend.’ —

‘It is in this way, friend, that I also enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge. ’

— ‘It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great gain for us that we have such a venerable one for our companion in the holy life. So the Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realising for myself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge. And the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that I declare I enter upon and abide in by realising for myself with direct knowledge. So you know the Dhamma that I know and I know the Dhamma that you know. As I am, so are you; as you are, so am I. Come, friend, let us now lead this community together.’

"Thus Āḷāra Kālāma, my teacher, placed me, his pupil, on an equal footing with himself and awarded me the highest honour. But it occurred to me: ‘This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna, but only to reappearance in the base of nothingness. That is, it leads to rebirth in the plane of existence called the base of nothingness, the objective counterpart of the seventh meditative attainment. Here the lifespan is supposed to be 60,000 aeons, but when that has elapsed one must pass away and return to a lower world. Thus one who attains this is still not free from birth and death but is caught in the trap of Māra (MA). Horner misses the point that rebirth is the issue by translating "only as far as reaching the plane of no-thing" (MLS 1:209). Not being satisfied with that Dhamma, disappointed with it, I left.

12"Still in search, Bhāradvāja, of what is wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I went to Uddaka Rāmaputta and said to him: ‘Friend, I want to lead the holy life in this Dhamma and Discipline.ʹ[n.923] Both Horner in MLS and Ñm in Ms err in their translations of the account of the Bodhisatta's meeting with Uddaka Rāmaputta by assuming that Uddaka is identical with Rāma. However, as his name indicates, Uddaka was the son (putta) of Rāma, who must have already passed away before the Bodhisatta arrived on the scene. It should be noted that all references to Rāma are in the past tense and the third person, and that Uddaka in the end places the Bodhisatta in the position of teacher. Though the text does not allow for definite conclusions, this suggests that he himself had not yet reached the fourth immaterial attainment. Uddaka Rāmaputta replied: ‘The venerable one may stay here. This Dhamma is such that a wise man can soon enter upon and abide in it, himself realising through direct knowledge his own teacher's doctrine.’ I soon quickly learned that Dhamma. As far as mere lip-reciting and rehearsal of his teaching went, I could speak with knowledge and assurance, and I claimed, ‘I know and see’ — and there were others who did likewise."I considered: ‘It was not through mere faith alone that Rāma declared: "By realising for myself with direct knowledge, I enter upon and abide in this Dhamma." Certainly Rāma abided knowing and seeing this Dhamma.’

Then I went to Uddaka Rāmaputta and asked him: ‘Friend, in what way did Rāma declare that by realising for himself with direct knowledge he entered upon and abided in this Dhamma?ʹ In reply Uddaka Rāmaputta declared the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.

"I considered: ‘Not only Rāma had faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. I too have faith, energy, mindfulness, concentration, and wisdom. Suppose I endeavour to realise the Dhamma that Rāma declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge.’"I soon quickly entered upon and abided in that Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge.


13Then I went to Uddaka Rāmaputta and asked him: ‘Friend, was it in this way that Rāma declared that he entered upon and abided in this Dhamma by realising for himself with direct knowledge?’ —

‘That is the way, friend.’ —

‘It is in this way, friend, that I also enter upon and abide in this Dhamma by realising for myself with direct knowledge.’ —

‘It is a gain for us, friend, it is a great gain for us that we have such a venerable one for our companion in the holy life. So the Dhamma that Rāma declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge. And the Dhamma that you enter upon and abide in by realising for yourself with direct knowledge is the Dhamma that Rāma declared he entered upon and abided in by realising for himself with direct knowledge. So you know the Dhamma that Rāma knew and Rāma knew the Dhamma that you know. As Rāma was, so are you; as you are, so was Rāma. Come, friend, now lead this community.’

"Thus Uddaka Rāmaputta, my companion in the holy life, placed me in the position of a teacher and accorded me the highest honour. But it occurred to me: ‘This Dhamma does not lead to disenchantment, to dispassion, to cessation, to peace, to direct knowledge, to enlightenment, to Nibbāna, but only to reappearance in the base of neither-perception-nor-non-perception.’ Not being satisfied with that Dhamma, disappointed with it, I left.


14"Still in search, Bhāradvāja, of what is wholesome, seeking the supreme state of sublime peace, I wandered by stages through the Magadhan country until eventually I arrived at Uruvelā, at Senānigama. There I saw an agreeable piece of ground, a delightful grove with a clear-flowing river with pleasant, smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. I considered: ‘This is an agreeable piece of ground, this is a delightful grove with a clear-flowing river with pleasant, smooth banks and nearby a village for alms resort. This will serve for the striving of a clansman intent on striving.’ And I sat down there thinking: ‘This will serve for striving.ʹ

"Now these three similes occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.


15Suppose there were a wet sappy piece of wood lying in water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’ What do you think, Bhāradvāja? Could the man light a fire and produce heat by taking the upper fire-stick and rubbing it against the wet sappy piece of wood lying in the water?"

"No, Master Gotama. Why not? Because it is a wet sappy piece of wood, and it is lying in water. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment."

"So too, Bhāradvāja, as to those recluses and brahmins who still do not live bodily withdrawn from sensual pleasures, and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has not been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. This was the first simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

16"Again, Bhāradvāja, a second simile occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before. Suppose there were a wet sappy piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’ What do you think, Bhāradvāja? Could the man light a fire and produce heat by taking the upper fire-stick and rubbing it against the wet sappy piece of wood lying on dry land far from water?"

"No, Master Gotama. Why not? Because it is a wet sappy piece of wood, even though it is lying on dry land far from water. Eventually the man would reap only weariness and disappointment."

"So too, Bhāradvāja, as to those recluses and brahmins who live bodily withdrawn from sensual pleasures,PTS is certainly mistaken in reading here avūpakaṭṭho, "not withdrawn." In the first edition I translated this passage on the basis of BBS, which has kāyena c’eva cittena ca. But PTS and SBJ omit cittena, and it seems difficult to understand how these ascetics can be described as "mentally withdrawn" from sensual pleasures when they have not stilled sensual desire within themselves. I therefore follow PTS and SBJ. but whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has not been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are incapable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment. This was the second simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

17"Again, Bhāradvāja, a third simile occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before. Suppose there were a dry sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water, and a man came with an upper fire-stick, thinking: ‘I shall light a fire, I shall produce heat.’ What do you think, Bhāradvāja? Could the man light a fire and produce heat by rubbing it against the dry sapless piece of wood lying on dry land far from water?"


"Yes, Master Gotama. Why so? Because it is a dry sapless piece of wood, and it is lying on dry land far from water."

"So too, Bhāradvāja, as to those recluses and brahmins who live bodily withdrawn from sensual pleasures, and whose sensual desire, affection, infatuation, thirst, and fever for sensual pleasures has been fully abandoned and suppressed internally, even if those good recluses and brahmins feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment; and even if those good recluses and brahmins do not feel painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, they are capable of knowledge and vision and supreme enlightenment.It is puzzling that in the following paragraphs the Bodhisatta is shown engaging in self-mortification after he had here come to the conclusion that such practices are useless for the attainment of enlightenment. This dissonant juxtaposition of ideas raises a suspicion that the narrative sequence of the sutta has become jumbled. The appropriate place for the simile of the fire-sticks, it seems, would be at the end of the Bodhisatta's period of ascetic experimentation, when he has acquired a sound basis for rejecting self-mortification. Nevertheless, MA accepts the sequence as given and raises the question why the Bodhisatta undertook the practice of austerities if he could have attained Buddhahood without doing so. It answers: He did so, first, in order to show his own exertion to the world, because the quality of invincible energy gave him joy; and second, out of compassion for later generations, by inspiring them to strive with the same determination that he applied to the attainment of enlightenment. This was the third simile that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before. These are the three similes that occurred to me spontaneously, never heard before.

18"I thought: ‘Suppose, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrain, and crush mind with mind.’ So, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind. While I did so, sweat ran from my armpits. Just as a strong man might seize a weaker man by the head or shoulders and beat him down, constrain him, and crush him, so too, with my teeth clenched and my tongue pressed against the roof of my mouth, I beat down, constrained, and crushed mind with mind, and sweat ran from my armpits. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

19"I thought: ‘Suppose I practise the breathingless meditation. ’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth and nose. While I did so, there was a loud sound of winds coming out from my earholes. Just as there is a loud sound when a smith's bellows are blown, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my nose and ears, there was a loud sound of winds coming out from my earholes. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

20"I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, violent winds cut through my head. Just as if a strong man were to crush my head with the tip of a sharp sword, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, violent winds cut through my head. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

21"I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, there were violent pains in my head. Just as if a strong man were tightening a tough leather strap around my head as a headband, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, there were violent pains in my head. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

22"I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, violent winds carved up my belly. Just as if a skilled butcher or his apprentice were to carve up an ox's belly with a sharp butcher's knife, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, violent winds carved up my belly. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

23"I thought: ‘Suppose I practise further the breathingless meditation.’ So I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears. While I did so, there was a violent burning in my body. Just as if two strong men were to seize a weaker man by both arms and roast him over a pit of hot coals, so too, while I stopped the in-breaths and out-breaths through my mouth, nose, and ears, there was a violent burning in my body. But although tireless energy was aroused in me and unremitting mindfulness was established, my body was overwrought and uncalm because I was exhausted by the painful striving.

"Now when deities saw me, some said: ‘The recluse Gotama is dead.’ Other deities said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not dead, he is dying.’ And other deities said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not dead nor dying; he is an arahant, for such is the way arahants abide.’

24"I thought: ‘Suppose I practise entirely cutting off food.’ Then deities came to me and said: ‘Good sir, do not practise entirely cutting off food. If you do so, we shall infuse heavenly food into the pores of your skin and you will live on that.’ I considered: ‘If I claim to be completely fasting while these deities infuse heavenly food into the pores of my skin and I live on that, then I shall be lying.’ So I dismissed those deities, saying: ‘There is no need.’

25"I thought: ‘Suppose I take very little food, a handful each time, whether of bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea soup.’ So I took very little food, a handful each time, whether of bean soup or lentil soup or vetch soup or pea soup. While I did so, my body reached a state of extreme emaciation. Because of eating so little my limbs became like the jointed segments of vine stems or bamboo stems. Because of eating so little my backside became like a camel's hoof. Because of eating so little the projections on my spine stood forth like corded beads. Because of eating so little my ribs jutted out as gaunt as the crazy rafters of an old roofless barn. Because of eating so little the gleam of my eyes sank far down in their sockets, looking like the gleam of water that has sunk far down in a deep well. Because of eating so little my scalp shrivelled and withered as a green bitter gourd shrivels and withers in the wind and sun. Because of eating so little my belly skin adhered to my backbone; thus if I touched my belly skin I encountered my backbone and if I touched my backbone I encountered my belly skin. Because of eating so little, if I defecated or urinated, I fell over on my face there. Because of eating so little, if I tried to ease my body by rubbing my limbs with my hands, the hair, rotted at its roots, fell from my body as I rubbed.


"Now when people saw me, some said: ‘The recluse Gotama is black.’ Other people said: ‘The recluse Gotama is not black, he is brown.’ Other people said: ‘The recluse Gotama is neither black nor brown, he is golden-skinned.’ So much had the clear, bright colour of my skin deteriorated through eating so little.

26"I thought: ‘Whatever recluses or brahmins in the past have experienced painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. And whatever recluses and brahmins in the future will experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. And whatever recluses and brahmins at present experience painful, racking, piercing feelings due to exertion, this is the utmost, there is none beyond this. But by this racking practice of austerities I have not attained any superhuman states, any distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. Could there be another path to enlightenment?’

"I considered: ‘I recall that when my father the Sakyan was occupied, while I was sitting in the cool shade of a rose-apple tree, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. MA: During the Bodhisatta's boyhood as a prince, on one occasion his father led a ceremonial ploughing at a traditional festival of the Sakyans. The prince was brought to the festival and a place was prepared for him under a rose-apple tree. When his attendants left him to watch the ploughing ceremony, the prince, finding himself all alone, spontaneously sat up in the meditation posture and attained the first jhāna through mindfulness of breathing. When the attendants returned and found the boy seated in meditation, they reported this to the king, who came and bowed down in veneration to his son. Could that be the path to enlightenment?’ Then, following on that memory, came the realisation: ‘That is indeed the path to enlightenment.’

"I thought: ‘Why am I afraid of that pleasure that has nothing to do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states?’ I thought: ‘I am not afraid of that pleasure since it has nothing to do with sensual pleasures and unwholesome states.’This passage marks a change in the Bodhisatta's evaluation of pleasure; now it is no longer regarded as something to be feared and banished by the practice of austerities, but, when born of seclusion and detachment, is seen as a valuable accompaniment of the higher stages along the path to enlightenment. See MN 139.9 on the twofold division of pleasure.

27"I considered: ‘It is not easy to attain that pleasure with a body so excessively emaciated. Suppose I ate some solid food — some boiled rice and porridge.’ And I ate some solid food — some boiled rice and porridge. Now at that time five bhikkhus were waiting upon me, thinking: ‘If our recluse Gotama achieves some higher state, he will inform us.’ But when I ate the boiled rice and porridge, the five bhikkhus were disgusted and left me, thinking: ‘The recluse Gotama now lives luxuriously; he has given up his striving and reverted to luxury.’


28"Now when I had eaten solid food and regained my strength, then quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, I entered upon and abided in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. But such pleasant feeling that arose in me did not invade my mind and remain.

"With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, I entered upon and abided in the second jhāna … With the fading away as well of rapture … I entered upon and abided in the third jhāna … With the abandoning of pleasure and pain …

… I entered upon and abided in the fourth jhāna …


29"When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the recollection of past lives. I recollected my manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars I recollected my manifold past lives.


"This was the first true knowledge attained by me in the first watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.


30"When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the passing away and reappearance of beings.Explained in detail at Vsm XIII, 72–101. With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate. I understood how beings pass on according to their actions thus: ‘These worthy beings who were ill conducted in body, speech, and mind, revilers of noble ones, wrong in their views, giving effect to wrong view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a state of deprivation, in a bad destination, in perdition, even in hell; but these worthy beings who were well conducted in body, speech, and mind, not revilers of noble ones, right in their views, giving effect to rirght view in their actions, on the dissolution of the body, after death, have reappeared in a good destination, even in the heavenly world.’


Thus with the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, I saw beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and I understood how beings pass on according to their actions.

"This was the second true knowledge attained by me in the middle watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.

31"When my concentrated mind was thus purified, bright, unblemished, rid of imperfection, malleable, wieldy, steady, and attained to imperturbability, I directed it to knowledge of the destruction of the taints. I directly knew as it actually is: ‘This is suffering’; … ‘This is the origin of suffering’; … ‘This is the cessation of suffering’; … ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of suffering’; … ‘These are the taints’; … ‘This is the origin of the taints’; … ‘This is the cessation of the taints’; … ‘This is the way leading to the cessation of the taints.’

"When I knew and saw thus, my mind was liberated from the taint of sensual desire, from the taint of being, and from the taint of ignorance. When it was liberated there came the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ I directly knew: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

"This was the third true knowledge attained by me in the last watch of the night. Ignorance was banished and true knowledge arose, darkness was banished and light arose, as happens in one who abides diligent, ardent, and resolute.


32When this was said, the brahmin student Saṅgārava said to the Blessed One: "Master Gotama's striving was unfaltering, Master Gotama's striving was that of a true man, as it should be for an Accomplished One, a Fully Enlightened One. But how is it, Master Gotama, are there gods?"

"It is known to me to be the case, Bhāradvāja, that there are gods."

"But how is this, Master Gotama, that when you are asked, ‘Are there gods?’ you say: ‘It is known to me to be the case, Bhāradvāja, that there are gods’? If that is so, isn’t what you say empty and false?"[n.921] MA says that Saṅgārava had the idea that the Buddha spoke thus without actual knowledge, and he therefore accuses the Buddha of false speech. The sequence of ideas in this passage is difficult to follow and it is likely that the text is corrupt. K.R. Norman has proposed a reconstruction of this portion of the dialogue, but it is hard to follow him in details. See Norman, Collected Papers, 2:1–8.

"Bhāradvāja, when one is asked, ‘Are there gods?’ whether one answers, ‘There are gods,’ or ‘It is known to me to be the case that there are gods,’ a wise man can draw the definite conclusion that there are gods."

"But why didn’t Master Gotama answer me in the first way?"

"It is widely accepted in the world, Bhāradvāja, that there are gods."


33When this was said, the brahmin student Saṅgārava said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overturned, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Saṅgha of bhikkhus. Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life."

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā kosalesu cārikaṁ carati mahatā bhikkhusaṁghena saddhiṁ.

Tena kho pana samayena dhanañjānī nāma brāhmaṇī cañcalikappe paṭivasati abhippasannā buddhe ca dhamme ca saṁghe ca. Atha kho dhanañjānī brāhmaṇī upakkhalitvā tikkhattuṁ udānaṁ udānesi:

2"Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa.

3Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassa.

4Namo tassa bhagavato arahato sammāsambuddhassā"ti.


5Tena kho pana samayena saṅgāravo nāma māṇavo cañcalikappe paṭivasati tiṇṇaṁ vedānaṁ pāragū sanighaṇḍukeṭubhānaṁ sākkharappabhedānaṁ itihāsapañcamānaṁ, padako, veyyākaraṇo, lokāyatamahāpurisalakkhaṇesu anavayo. Assosi kho saṅgāravo māṇavo dhanañjāniyā brāhmaṇiyā evaṁ vācaṁ bhāsamānāya. Sutvā dhanañjāniṁ brāhmaṇiṁ etadavoca: "avabhūtāva ayaṁ dhanañjānī brāhmaṇī, parabhūtāva ayaṁ dhanañjānī brāhmaṇī, vijjamānānaṁ tevijjānaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ, atha ca pana tassa muṇḍakassa samaṇakassa vaṇṇaṁ bhāsissatī"ti.

"Na hi pana tvaṁ, tāta bhadramukha, tassa bhagavato sīlapaññāṇaṁ jānāsi. Sace tvaṁ, tāta bhadramukha, tassa bhagavato sīlapaññāṇaṁ jāneyyāsi, na tvaṁ, tāta bhadramukha, taṁ bhagavantaṁ akkositabbaṁ paribhāsitabbaṁ maññeyyāsī"ti.

"Tena hi, bhoti, yadā samaṇo gotamo cañcalikappaṁ anuppatto hoti atha me āroceyyāsī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bhadramukhā"ti kho dhanañjānī brāhmaṇī saṅgāravassa māṇavassa paccassosi.


6Atha kho bhagavā kosalesu anupubbena cārikaṁ caramāno yena cañcalikappaṁ tadavasari. Tatra sudaṁ bhagavā cañcalikappe viharati todeyyānaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ ambavane.

Assosi kho dhanañjānī brāhmaṇī: "Bhagavā kira cañcalikappaṁ anuppatto, cañcalikappe viharati todeyyānaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ ambavane"ti. Atha kho dhanañjānī brāhmaṇī yena saṅgāravo māṇavo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā saṅgāravaṁ māṇavaṁ etadavoca: "Ayaṁ, tāta bhadramukha, so bhagavā cañcalikappaṁ anuppatto, cañcalikappe viharati todeyyānaṁ brāhmaṇānaṁ ambavane. Yassadāni, tāta bhadramukha, kālaṁ maññasī"ti.


7"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho saṅgāravo māṇavo dhanañjāniyā brāhmaṇiyā paṭissutvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho saṅgāravo māṇavo bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: 


8"Santi kho, bho gotama, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti. Tatra, bho gotama, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti, tesaṁ bhavaṁ gotamo katamo"ti?

9"diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattānaṁ, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānantānampi kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, vemattaṁ vadāmi. Santi, bhāradvāja, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā anussavikā. Te anussavena diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti; seyyathāpi brāhmaṇā tevijjā. Santi pana, bhāradvāja, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā kevalaṁ saddhāmattakena diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti; seyyathāpi takkī vīmaṁsī. Santi, bhāradvāja, eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu sāmaṁyeva dhammaṁ abhiññāya diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti.

Tatra, bhāradvāja, ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu sāmaṁyeva dhammaṁ abhiññāya diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti, tesāhamasmi. Tadamināpetaṁ, bhāradvāja, pariyāyena veditabbaṁ, yathā ye te samaṇabrāhmaṇā pubbe ananussutesu dhammesu sāmaṁyeva dhammaṁ abhiññāya diṭṭhadhammābhiññāvosānapāramippattā, ādibrahmacariyaṁ paṭijānanti, tesāhamasmi.


10Idha me, bhāradvāja, pubbeva sambodhā anabhisambuddhassa bodhisattasseva sato etadahosi: ‘sambādho gharāvāso rajāpatho, abbhokāso pabbajjā. Nayidaṁ sukaraṁ agāraṁ ajjhāvasatā ekantaparipuṇṇaṁ ekantaparisuddhaṁ saṅkhalikhitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ carituṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, aparena samayena daharova samāno susukāḷakeso bhadrena yobbanena samannāgato paṭhamena vayasā akāmakānaṁ mātāpitūnaṁ assumukhānaṁ rudantānaṁ kesamassuṁ ohāretvā kāsāyāni vatthāni acchādetvā agārasmā anagāriyaṁ pabbajiṁ.

So evaṁ pabbajito samāno kiṅkusalagavesī anuttaraṁ santivarapadaṁ pariyesamāno yena āḷāro kālāmo tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā āḷāraṁ kālāmaṁ etadavocaṁ: ‘icchāmahaṁ, āvuso kālāma, imasmiṁ dhammavinaye brahmacariyaṁ caritun’ti. Evaṁ vutte, bhāradvāja, āḷāro kālāmo maṁ etadavoca: ‘viharatāyasmā. Tādiso ayaṁ dhammo yattha viññū puriso nacirasseva sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihareyyā’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, nacirasseva khippameva taṁ dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇiṁ. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, tāvatakeneva oṭṭhapahatamattena lapitalāpanamattena ‘ñāṇavādañca vadāmi, theravādañca jānāmi, passāmī’ti ca paṭijānāmi, ahañceva aññe ca. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘Na kho āḷāro kālāmo imaṁ dhammaṁ kevalaṁ saddhāmattakena sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmīti pavedeti; addhā āḷāro kālāmo imaṁ dhammaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ viharatī’ti.

11Atha khvāhaṁ, bhāradvāja, yena āḷāro kālāmo tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā āḷāraṁ kālāmaṁ etadavocaṁ: ‘kittāvatā no, āvuso kālāma, imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmīti pavedesī’ti? Evaṁ vutte, bhāradvāja, āḷāro kālāmo ākiñcaññāyatanaṁ pavedesi.

Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘Na kho āḷārasseva kālāmassa atthi saddhā, mayhampatthi saddhā; na kho āḷārasseva kālāmassa atthi vīriyaṁ … pe … sati … samādhi … paññā, mayhampatthi paññā. Yannūnāhaṁ yaṁ dhammaṁ āḷāro kālāmo sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmīti pavedeti tassa dhammassa sacchikiriyāya padaheyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, nacirasseva khippameva taṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsiṁ.

Atha khvāhaṁ, bhāradvāja, yena āḷāro kālāmo tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā āḷāraṁ kālāmaṁ etadavocaṁ: ‘ettāvatā no, āvuso kālāma, imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesī’ti?

‘Ettāvatā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedemī’ti.

‘Ahampi kho, āvuso, ettāvatā imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmī’ti.

‘Lābhā no, āvuso, suladdhaṁ no, āvuso, ye mayaṁ āyasmantaṁ tādisaṁ sabrahmacāriṁ passāma. Iti yāhaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedemi taṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharasi; yaṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharasi tamahaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedemi. Iti yāhaṁ dhammaṁ jānāmi taṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ jānāsi, yaṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ jānāsi tamahaṁ dhammaṁ jānāmi. Iti yādiso ahaṁ tādiso tuvaṁ, yādiso tuvaṁ tādiso ahaṁ. Ehi dāni, āvuso, ubhova santā imaṁ gaṇaṁ pariharāmā’ti.

Iti kho, bhāradvāja, āḷāro kālāmo ācariyo me samāno attano antevāsiṁ maṁ samānaṁ attanā samasamaṁ ṭhapesi, uḷārāya ca maṁ pūjāya pūjesi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘nāyaṁ dhammo nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati, yāvadeva ākiñcaññāyatanūpapattiyā’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, taṁ dhammaṁ analaṅkaritvā tasmā dhammā nibbijja apakkamiṁ.

12So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, kiṁkusalagavesī anuttaraṁ santivarapadaṁ pariyesamāno yena udako rāmaputto tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā udakaṁ rāmaputtaṁ etadavocaṁ: ‘icchāmahaṁ, āvuso, imasmiṁ dhammavinaye brahmacariyaṁ caritun’ti. Evaṁ vutte, bhāradvāja, udako rāmaputto maṁ etadavoca: ‘viharatāyasmā. Tādiso ayaṁ dhammo yattha viññū puriso nacirasseva sakaṁ ācariyakaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihareyyā’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, nacirasseva khippameva taṁ dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇiṁ. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, tāvatakeneva oṭṭhapahatamattena lapitalāpanamattena ‘ñāṇavādañca vadāmi, theravādañca jānāmi, passāmī’ti ca paṭijānāmi, ahañceva aññe ca. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘Na kho rāmo imaṁ dhammaṁ kevalaṁ saddhāmattakena sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmīti pavedesi; addhā rāmo imaṁ dhammaṁ jānaṁ passaṁ vihāsī’ti.

Atha khvāhaṁ, bhāradvāja, yena udako rāmaputto tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā udakaṁ rāmaputtaṁ etadavocaṁ: ‘kittāvatā no, āvuso, rāmo imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmīti pavedesī’ti?

Evaṁ vutte, bhāradvāja, udako rāmaputto nevasaññānāsaññāyatanaṁ pavedesi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘Na kho rāmasseva ahosi saddhā, mayhampatthi saddhā; na kho rāmasseva ahosi vīriyaṁ … pe … sati … samādhi … paññā, mayhampatthi paññā. Yannūnāhaṁ yaṁ dhammaṁ rāmo sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmīti pavedesi tassa dhammassa sacchikiriyāya padaheyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, nacirasseva khippameva taṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja vihāsiṁ.


13Atha khvāhaṁ, bhāradvāja, yena udako rāmaputto tenupasaṅkamiṁ; upasaṅkamitvā udakaṁ rāmaputtaṁ etadavocaṁ: ‘ettāvatā no, āvuso, rāmo imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesī’ti?

‘Ettāvatā kho, āvuso, rāmo imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesī’ti.

‘Ahampi kho, āvuso, ettāvatā imaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharāmī’ti.

‘Lābhā no, āvuso, suladdhaṁ no, āvuso, ye mayaṁ āyasmantaṁ tādisaṁ sabrahmacāriṁ passāma. Iti yaṁ dhammaṁ rāmo sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesi taṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharasi; yaṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharasi taṁ dhammaṁ rāmo sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja pavedesi. Iti yaṁ dhammaṁ rāmo abhiññāsi taṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ jānāsi, yaṁ tvaṁ dhammaṁ jānāsi taṁ dhammaṁ rāmo abhiññāsi. Iti yādiso rāmo ahosi tādiso tuvaṁ, yādiso tuvaṁ tādiso rāmo ahosi. Ehi dāni, āvuso, tuvaṁ imaṁ gaṇaṁ pariharā’ti.

Iti kho, bhāradvāja, udako rāmaputto sabrahmacārī me samāno ācariyaṭṭhāne maṁ ṭhapesi, uḷārāya ca maṁ pūjāya pūjesi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘nāyaṁ dhammo nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati, yāvadeva nevasaññānāsaññāyatanūpapattiyā’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, taṁ dhammaṁ analaṅkaritvā tasmā dhammā nibbijja apakkamiṁ.


14So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, kiṅkusalagavesī anuttaraṁ santivarapadaṁ pariyesamāno magadhesu anupubbena cārikaṁ caramāno yena uruvelā senānigamo tadavasariṁ. Tatthaddasaṁ ramaṇīyaṁ bhūmibhāgaṁ, pāsādikañca vanasaṇḍaṁ, nadiñca sandantiṁ setakaṁ supatitthaṁ ramaṇīyaṁ, samantā ca gocaragāmaṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘ramaṇīyo vata bho bhūmibhāgo, pāsādiko ca vanasaṇḍo, nadī ca sandati setakā supatitthā ramaṇīyā, samantā ca gocaragāmo. Alaṁ vatidaṁ kulaputtassa padhānatthikassa padhānāyā’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, tattheva nisīdiṁ: ‘alamidaṁ padhānāyā’ti.

Apissu maṁ, bhāradvāja, tisso upamā paṭibhaṁsu anacchariyā pubbe assutapubbā.


15Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, allaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ sasnehaṁ udake nikkhittaṁ. Atha puriso āgaccheyya uttarāraṇiṁ ādāya: ‘aggiṁ abhinibbattessāmi, tejo pātukarissāmī’ti. Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, bhāradvāja, api nu so puriso amuṁ allaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ sasnehaṁ udake nikkhittaṁ uttarāraṇiṁ ādāya abhimanthento aggiṁ abhinibbatteyya, tejo pātukareyyā"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama. Taṁ kissa hetu? Aduñhi, bho gotama, allaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ sasnehaṁ, tañca pana udake nikkhittaṁ; yāvadeva ca pana so puriso kilamathassa vighātassa bhāgī assā"ti.

"Evameva kho, bhāradvāja, ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā kāyena ceva cittena ca kāmehi avūpakaṭṭhā viharanti, yo ca nesaṁ kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapipāsā kāmapariḷāho so ca ajjhattaṁ na suppahīno hoti na suppaṭippassaddho, opakkamikā cepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti, abhabbāva te ñāṇāya dassanāya anuttarāya sambodhāya. No cepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti abhabbāva te ñāṇāya dassanāya anuttarāya sambodhāya. Ayaṁ kho maṁ, bhāradvāja, paṭhamā upamā paṭibhāsi anacchariyā pubbe assutapubbā.

16Aparāpi kho maṁ, bhāradvāja, dutiyā upamā paṭibhāsi anacchariyā pubbe assutapubbā. Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, allaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ sasnehaṁ ārakā udakā thale nikkhittaṁ. Atha puriso āgaccheyya uttarāraṇiṁ ādāya: ‘aggiṁ abhinibbattessāmi, tejo pātukarissāmī’ti. Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, bhāradvāja, api nu so puriso amuṁ allaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ sasnehaṁ ārakā udakā thale nikkhittaṁ uttarāraṇiṁ ādāya abhimanthento aggiṁ abhinibbatteyya tejo pātukareyyā"ti?

"No hidaṁ, bho gotama. Taṁ kissa hetu? Aduñhi, bho gotama, allaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ sasnehaṁ, kiñcāpi ārakā udakā thale nikkhittaṁ; yāvadeva ca pana so puriso kilamathassa vighātassa bhāgī assā"ti.

"Evameva kho, bhāradvāja, ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā kāyena ceva cittena ca kāmehi vūpakaṭṭhā viharanti, yo ca nesaṁ kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapipāsā kāmapariḷāho so ca ajjhattaṁ na suppahīno hoti na suppaṭippassaddho, opakkamikā cepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti, abhabbāva te ñāṇāya dassanāya anuttarāya sambodhāya. No cepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti, abhabbāva te ñāṇāya dassanāya anuttarāya sambodhāya. Ayaṁ kho maṁ, bhāradvāja, dutiyā upamā paṭibhāsi anacchariyā pubbe assutapubbā.

17Aparāpi kho maṁ, bhāradvāja, tatiyā upamā paṭibhāsi anacchariyā pubbe assutapubbā. Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, sukkhaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ koḷāpaṁ ārakā udakā thale nikkhittaṁ. Atha puriso āgaccheyya uttarāraṇiṁ ādāya: ‘aggiṁ abhinibbattessāmi, tejo pātukarissāmī’ti. Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, bhāradvāja, api nu so puriso amuṁ sukkhaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ koḷāpaṁ ārakā udakā thale nikkhittaṁ uttarāraṇiṁ ādāya abhimanthento aggiṁ abhinibbatteyya, tejo pātukareyyā"ti?


"Evaṁ, bho gotama. Taṁ kissa hetu? Aduñhi, bho gotama, sukkhaṁ kaṭṭhaṁ koḷāpaṁ, tañca pana ārakā udakā thale nikkhittan"ti.

"Evameva kho, bhāradvāja, ye hi keci samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā kāyena ceva cittena ca kāmehi vūpakaṭṭhā viharanti, yo ca nesaṁ kāmesu kāmacchando kāmasneho kāmamucchā kāmapipāsā kāmapariḷāho so ca ajjhattaṁ suppahīno hoti suppaṭippassaddho, opakkamikā cepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti, bhabbāva te ñāṇāya dassanāya anuttarāya sambodhāya. No cepi te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti, bhabbāva te ñāṇāya dassanāya anuttarāya sambodhāya. Ayaṁ kho maṁ, bhāradvāja, tatiyā upamā paṭibhāsi anacchariyā pubbe assutapubbā. Imā kho maṁ, bhāradvāja, tisso upamā paṭibhaṁsu anacchariyā pubbe assutapubbā.

18Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ dantebhidantamādhāya, jivhāya tāluṁ āhacca, cetasā cittaṁ abhiniggaṇheyyaṁ abhinippīḷeyyaṁ abhisantāpeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, dantebhidantamādhāya, jivhāya tāluṁ āhacca, cetasā cittaṁ abhiniggaṇhāmi abhinippīḷemi abhisantāpemi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, dantebhidantamādhāya, jivhāya tāluṁ āhacca, cetasā cittaṁ abhiniggaṇhato abhinippīḷayato abhisantāpayato kacchehi sedā muccanti. Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, balavā puriso dubbalataraṁ purisaṁ sīse vā gahetvā khandhe vā gahetvā abhiniggaṇheyya abhinippīḷeyya abhisantāpeyya; evameva kho me, bhāradvāja, dantebhidantamādhāya, jivhāya tāluṁ āhacca, cetasā cittaṁ abhiniggaṇhato abhinippīḷayato abhisantāpayato kacchehi sedā muccanti. Āraddhaṁ kho pana me, bhāradvāja, vīriyaṁ hoti asallīnaṁ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā; sāraddho ca pana me kāyo hoti appaṭippassaddho, teneva dukkhappadhānena padhānābhitunnassa sato.

19Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ appāṇakaṁyeva jhānaṁ jhāyeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca assāsapassāse uparundhiṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu kaṇṇasotehi vātānaṁ nikkhamantānaṁ adhimatto saddo hoti. Seyyathāpi nāma kammāragaggariyā dhamamānāya adhimatto saddo hoti; evameva kho me, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu kaṇṇasotehi vātānaṁ nikkhamantānaṁ adhimatto saddo hoti. Āraddhaṁ kho pana me, bhāradvāja, vīriyaṁ hoti asallīnaṁ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā; sāraddho ca pana me kāyo hoti appaṭippassaddho, teneva dukkhappadhānena padhānābhitunnassa sato.

20Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ appāṇakaṁyeva jhānaṁ jhāyeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāse uparundhiṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimattā vātā muddhani ūhananti. Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, balavā puriso, tiṇhena sikharena muddhani abhimattheyya; evameva kho me, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimattā vātā muddhani ūhananti. Āraddhaṁ kho pana me, bhāradvāja, vīriyaṁ hoti asallīnaṁ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā; sāraddho ca pana me kāyo hoti appaṭippassaddho, teneva dukkhappadhānena padhānābhitunnassa sato.

21Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ appāṇakaṁyeva jhānaṁ jhāyeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāse uparundhiṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimattā sīse sīsavedanā honti. Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, balavā puriso daḷhena varattakkhaṇḍena sīse sīsaveṭhaṁ dadeyya; evameva kho, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimattā sīse sīsavedanā honti. Āraddhaṁ kho pana me, bhāradvāja, vīriyaṁ hoti asallīnaṁ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā; sāraddho ca pana me kāyo hoti appaṭippassaddho, teneva dukkhappadhānena padhānābhitunnassa sato.

22Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ appāṇakaṁyeva jhānaṁ jhāyeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāse uparundhiṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimattā vātā kucchiṁ parikantanti. Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, dakkho goghātako vā goghātakantevāsī vā tiṇhena govikantanena kucchiṁ parikanteyya; evameva kho me, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimattā vātā kucchiṁ parikantanti. Āraddhaṁ kho pana me, bhāradvāja, vīriyaṁ hoti asallīnaṁ upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā; sāraddho ca pana me kāyo hoti appaṭippassaddho, teneva dukkhappadhānena padhānābhitunnassa sato.

23Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ appāṇakaṁyeva jhānaṁ jhāyeyyan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāse uparundhiṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimatto kāyasmiṁ ḍāho hoti. Seyyathāpi, bhāradvāja, dve balavanto purisā dubbalataraṁ purisaṁ nānābāhāsu gahetvā aṅgārakāsuyā santāpeyyuṁ samparitāpeyyuṁ; evameva kho me, bhāradvāja, mukhato ca nāsato ca kaṇṇato ca assāsapassāsesu uparuddhesu adhimatto kāyasmiṁ ḍāho hoti. Āraddhaṁ kho pana me, bhāradvāja, vīriyaṁ hoti asallīnaṁ, upaṭṭhitā sati asammuṭṭhā, sāraddho ca pana me kāyo hoti appaṭippassaddho, teneva dukkhappadhānena padhānābhitunnassa sato.

Apissu maṁ, bhāradvāja, devatā disvā evamāhaṁsu: ‘kālaṅkato samaṇo gotamo’ti. Ekaccā devatā evamāhaṁsu: ‘Na kālaṅkato samaṇo gotamo, api ca kālaṁ karotī’ti. Ekaccā devatā evamāhaṁsu: ‘Na kālaṅkato samaṇo gotamo, nāpi kālaṁ karoti; arahaṁ samaṇo gotamo, vihāro tveva so arahato evarūpo hotī’ti.

24Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ sabbaso āhārupacchedāya paṭipajjeyyan’ti. Atha kho maṁ, bhāradvāja, devatā upasaṅkamitvā etadavocuṁ: ‘mā kho tvaṁ, mārisa, sabbaso āhārupacchedāya paṭipajji. Sace kho tvaṁ, mārisa, sabbaso āhārupacchedāya paṭipajjissasi, tassa te mayaṁ dibbaṁ ojaṁ lomakūpehi ajjhohāressāma. Tāya tvaṁ yāpessasī’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘ahañceva kho pana sabbaso ajajjitaṁ paṭijāneyyaṁ, imā ca me devatā dibbaṁ ojaṁ lomakūpehi ajjhohāreyyuṁ, tāya cāhaṁ yāpeyyaṁ. Taṁ mamassa musā’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, tā devatā paccācikkhāmi, ‘halan’ti vadāmi.

25Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘yannūnāhaṁ thokaṁ thokaṁ āhāraṁ āhāreyyaṁ pasataṁ pasataṁ, yadi vā muggayūsaṁ, yadi vā kulatthayūsaṁ, yadi vā kaḷāyayūsaṁ, yadi vā hareṇukayūsan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, thokaṁ thokaṁ āhāraṁ āhāresiṁ pasataṁ pasataṁ, yadi vā muggayūsaṁ, yadi vā kulatthayūsaṁ, yadi vā kaḷāyayūsaṁ, yadi vā hareṇukayūsaṁ. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, thokaṁ thokaṁ āhāraṁ āhārayato pasataṁ pasataṁ, yadi vā muggayūsaṁ, yadi vā kulatthayūsaṁ, yadi vā kaḷāyayūsaṁ, yadi vā hareṇukayūsaṁ, adhimattakasimānaṁ patto kāyo hoti. Seyyathāpi nāma āsītikapabbāni vā kāḷapabbāni vā; evamevassu me aṅgapaccaṅgāni bhavanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma oṭṭhapadaṁ; evamevassu me ānisadaṁ hoti tāyevappāhāratāya; seyyathāpi nāma vaṭṭanāvaḷī; evamevassu me piṭṭhikaṇṭako uṇṇatāvanato hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma jarasālāya gopānasiyo oluggaviluggā bhavanti; evamevassu me phāsuḷiyo oluggaviluggā bhavanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma gambhīre udapāne udakatārakā gambhīragatā okkhāyikā dissanti; evamevassu me akkhikūpesu akkhitārakā gambhīragatā okkhāyikā dissanti tāyevappāhāratāya. Seyyathāpi nāma tittakālābu āmakacchinno vātātapena samphuṭito hoti sammilāto; evamevassu me sīsacchavi samphuṭitā hoti sammilātā tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, ‘udaracchaviṁ parimasissāmī’ti piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṁyeva pariggaṇhāmi, ‘piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṁ parimasissāmī’ti udaracchaviṁyeva pariggaṇhāmi; yāvassu me, bhāradvāja, udaracchavi piṭṭhikaṇṭakaṁ allīnā hoti tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, ‘vaccaṁ vā muttaṁ vā karissāmī’ti tattheva avakujjo papatāmi tāyevappāhāratāya. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, imameva kāyaṁ assāsento pāṇinā gattāni anumajjāmi. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, pāṇinā gattāni anumajjato pūtimūlāni lomāni kāyasmā papatanti tāyevappāhāratāya.


Apissu maṁ, bhāradvāja, manussā disvā evamāhaṁsu: ‘kāḷo samaṇo gotamo’ti. Ekacce manussā evamāhaṁsu: ‘Na kāḷo samaṇo gotamo, sāmo samaṇo gotamo’ti. Ekacce manussā evamāhaṁsu: ‘Na kāḷo samaṇo gotamo napi sāmo, maṅguracchavi samaṇo gotamo’ti; yāvassu me, bhāradvāja, tāva parisuddho chavivaṇṇo pariyodāto upahato hoti tāyevappāhāratāya.

26Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘ye kho keci atītamaddhānaṁ samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayiṁsu, etāvaparamaṁ, nayito bhiyyo; yepi hi keci anāgatamaddhānaṁ samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayissanti, etāvaparamaṁ, nayito bhiyyo; yepi hi keci etarahi samaṇā vā brāhmaṇā vā opakkamikā dukkhā tibbā kharā kaṭukā vedanā vedayanti, etāvaparamaṁ, nayito bhiyyo. Na kho panāhaṁ imāya kaṭukāya dukkarakārikāya adhigacchāmi uttari manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṁ. Siyā nu kho añño maggo bodhāyā’ti?

Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘abhijānāmi kho panāhaṁ pitu sakkassa kammante sītāya jambucchāyāya nisinno vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharitā. Siyā nu kho eso maggo bodhāyā’ti? Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, satānusāri viññāṇaṁ ahosi: ‘eseva maggo bodhāyā’ti. Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘kiṁ nu kho ahaṁ tassa sukhassa bhāyāmi yaṁ taṁ sukhaṁ aññatreva kāmehi aññatra akusalehi dhammehī’ti?

Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘Na kho ahaṁ tassa sukhassa bhāyāmi yaṁ taṁ sukhaṁ aññatreva kāmehi aññatra akusalehi dhammehī’ti.

27Tassa mayhaṁ, bhāradvāja, etadahosi: ‘Na kho taṁ sukaraṁ sukhaṁ adhigantuṁ evaṁ adhimattakasimānaṁ pattakāyena. Yannūnāhaṁ oḷārikaṁ āhāraṁ āhāreyyaṁ odanakummāsan’ti. So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, oḷārikaṁ āhāraṁ āhāresiṁ odanakummāsaṁ. Tena kho pana maṁ, bhāradvāja, samayena pañcavaggiyā bhikkhū paccupaṭṭhitā honti: ‘Yaṁ kho samaṇo gotamo dhammaṁ adhigamissati taṁ no ārocessatī’ti. Yato kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, oḷārikaṁ āhāraṁ āhāresiṁ odanakummāsaṁ, atha me te pañcavaggiyā bhikkhū nibbijja pakkamiṁsu: ‘bāhulliko samaṇo gotamo padhānavibbhanto āvatto bāhullāyā’ti.


28So kho ahaṁ, bhāradvāja, oḷārikaṁ āhāraṁ āhāretvā balaṁ gahetvā vivicceva kāmehi … pe … paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihāsiṁ. Vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja vihāsiṁ.


29So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte pubbenivāsānussatiñāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ. So anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi, seyyathidaṁ — ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo … pe … iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarāmi.


Ayaṁ kho me, bhāradvāja, rattiyā paṭhame yāme paṭhamā vijjā adhigatā, avijjā vihatā, vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato, āloko uppanno; yathā taṁ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.


30So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte sattānaṁ cutūpapātañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ.


So dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passāmi cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāmi … pe …

ayaṁ kho me, bhāradvāja, rattiyā majjhime yāme dutiyā vijjā adhigatā, avijjā vihatā, vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato, āloko uppanno; yathā taṁ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato.

31So evaṁ samāhite citte parisuddhe pariyodāte anangaṇe vigatūpakkilese mudubhūte kammaniye ṭhite āneñjappatte āsavānaṁ khayañāṇāya cittaṁ abhininnāmesiṁ. So ‘idaṁ dukkhan’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ dukkhanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ; ‘ime āsavā’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ āsavasamudayo’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodho’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ, ‘Ayaṁ āsavanirodhagāminī paṭipadā’ti yathābhūtaṁ abbhaññāsiṁ.

Tassa me evaṁ jānato evaṁ passato kāmāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccittha, bhavāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccittha, avijjāsavāpi cittaṁ vimuccittha. Vimuttasmiṁ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṁ ahosi. ‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti abbhaññāsiṁ.

Ayaṁ kho me, bhāradvāja, rattiyā pacchime yāme tatiyā vijjā adhigatā, avijjā vihatā, vijjā uppannā; tamo vihato, āloko uppanno; yathā taṁ appamattassa ātāpino pahitattassa viharato"ti.


32Evaṁ vutte, saṅgāravo māṇavo bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "aṭṭhitavataṁ bhoto gotamassa padhānaṁ ahosi, sappurisavataṁ bhoto gotamassa padhānaṁ ahosi; yathā taṁ arahato sammāsambuddhassa. Kiṁ nu kho, bho gotama, atthi devā"ti?

"Ṭhānaso metaṁ, bhāradvāja, viditaṁ yadidaṁ — adhidevā"ti.

"Kiṁ nu kho, bho gotama, ‘atthi devā’ti puṭṭho samāno ‘ṭhānaso metaṁ, bhāradvāja, viditaṁ yadidaṁ adhidevā’ti vadesi. Nanu, bho gotama, evaṁ sante tucchā musā hotī"ti?

"‘Atthi devā’ti, bhāradvāja, puṭṭho samāno ‘atthi devā’ti yo vadeyya, ‘ṭhānaso me viditā’ti yo vadeyya; atha khvettha viññunā purisena ekaṁsena niṭṭhaṁ gantabbaṁ yadidaṁ: ‘atthi devā’"ti.

"Kissa pana me bhavaṁ gotamo ādikeneva na byākāsī"ti?

"Uccena sammataṁ kho etaṁ, bhāradvāja, lokasmiṁ yadidaṁ: ‘atthi devā’"ti.


33Evaṁ vutte, saṅgāravo māṇavo bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama, abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama. Seyyathāpi, bho gotama, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṁ bhotā gotamena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhavaṁ gotamo dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gatan"ti.

Saṅgāravasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dasamaṁ.
Brāhmaṇavaggo niṭṭhito pañcamo.

34Brahmāyu selassalāyano,
ghoṭamukho ca brāhmaṇo;
Caṅkī esu dhanañjāni,
vāseṭṭho subhagāravoti.

35Vaggo gahapati bhikkhu,
paribbājakanāmako;
Rājavaggo brāhmaṇoti,
pañca majjhimaāgame.

Majjhimapaṇṇāsakaṁ samattaṁ.