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Majjhima Nikāya

MN99: Subhasutta - With Subha

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now on that occasion the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, was staying at the residence of a certain householder in Sāvatthī for some business or other.[n.908] Todeyya was a wealthy brahmin, the overlord of Tudigāma, a village near Sāvatthī. MN 135 was also spoken to this same Subha. Then the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, asked the householder in whose residence he was staying: "Householder, I have heard that Sāvatthī is not devoid of arahants. What recluse or brahmin may we go to today to pay our respects?"

"Venerable sir, this Blessed One is living at Sāvatthī in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika's Park. You may go to pay your respects to that Blessed One, venerable sir."

Then, having assented to the householder, the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, went to the Blessed One and exchanged greetings with him. When this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and asked the Blessed One:


"Master Gotama, the brahmins say this: ‘The householder is accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome. The one gone forth into homelessness is not accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome.’ What does Master Gotama say about this?"

2"Student, I speak about this after making an analysis;[n.909] Vibhajjavādo kho aham ettha. Such statements account for the later designation of Buddhism as vibhajjavāda, "the doctrine of analysis." As the context makes clear, the Buddha calls himself a vibhajjavādin, not because he analyses things into their constituents (as is popularly believed), but because he distinguishes the different implications of a question without answering one-sidedly. I do not speak about this one-sidedly. I do not praise the wrong way of practice on the part either of a householder or one gone forth; for whether it be a householder or one gone forth, one who has entered on the wrong way of practice, by reason of his wrong way of practice, is not accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome. I praise the right way of practice on the part either of a householder or one gone forth; for whether it be a householder or one gone forth, one who has entered on the right way of practice, by reason of his right way of practice, is accomplishing the true way, the Dhamma that is wholesome."


3"Master Gotama, the brahmins say this: ‘Since the work of the household life involves a great deal of activity, great functions, great engagements, and great undertakings, it is of great fruit. Since the work of those gone forth involves a small amount of activity, small functions, small engagements, and small undertakings, it is of small fruit.’ What does Master Gotama say about this?"

4"Again, student, I speak about this after making an analysis; I do not speak about this one-sidedly. There is work involving a great deal of activity, great functions, great engagements, and great undertakings, which, when it fails, is of small fruit. There is work involving a great deal of activity, great functions, great engagements, and great undertakings, which, when it succeeds, is of great fruit. There is work involving a small amount of activity, small functions, small engagements, and small undertakings, which, when it fails, is of small fruit. There is work involving a small amount of activity, small functions, small engagements, and small undertakings, which, when it succeeds, is of great fruit.

"What, student, is that work involving a great deal of activity … which, when it fails, is of small fruit? Agriculture is that work involving a great deal of activity … which, when it fails, is of small fruit. And what, student, is that work involving a great deal of activity … which, when it succeeds, is of great fruit? Agriculture again is that work involving a great deal of activity … which, when it succeeds, is of great fruit. And what, student, is that work involving a small amount of activity … which, when it fails, is of small fruit? Trade is that work involving a small amount of activity … which, when it fails, is of small fruit.[n.910] Obviously at the time trade was still in an early stage of development. The same statement could hardly be made today! And what, student, is that work involving a small amount of activity … which, when it succeeds, is of great fruit? Trade again is that work involving a small amount of activity … which, when it succeeds, is of great fruit.

5"Just as agriculture, student, is work that involves a great deal of activity … but is of small fruit when it fails, so the work of the household life involves a great deal of activity, great functions, great engagements, and great undertakings, but is of small fruit when it fails. Just as agriculture is work that involves a great deal of activity … and is of great fruit when it succeeds, so the work of the household life involves a great deal of activity, great functions, great engagements, and great undertakings, and is of great fruit when it succeeds. Just as trade is work that involves a small amount of activity … and is of small fruit when it fails, so the work of those gone forth involves a small amount of activity, small functions, small engagements, and small undertakings, and is of small fruit when it fails. Just as trade is work that involves a small amount of activity … but is of great fruit when it succeeds, so the work of those gone forth involves a small amount of activity, small functions, small engagements, and small undertakings, but is of great fruit when it succeeds."

6"Master Gotama, the brahmins prescribe five things for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome."

"If it is not troublesome for you, student, please state in this assembly the five things that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome."

"It is not troublesome for me, Master Gotama, when such venerable ones as yourself and others are sitting in the assembly."


"Then state them, student."

"Master Gotama, truth is the first thing that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome. Asceticism is the second thing … Celibacy is the third thing … Study is the fourth thing … Generosity is the fifth thing that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome. These are the five things that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome. What does Master Gotama say about this?"


7"How then, student,[n.911] As at MN 95.13. among the brahmins is there even a single brahmin who says thus: ‘I declare the result of these five things having realised it myself with direct knowledge’?" — "No, Master Gotama."

"How then, student, among the brahmins is there even a single teacher or teacher's teacher back to the seventh generation of teachers who says thus: ‘I declare the result of these five things having realised it myself with direct know ledge’?" — "No, Master Gotama."

"How then, student, the ancient brahmin seers, the creators of the hymns, the composers of the hymns, whose ancient hymns that were formerly chanted, uttered, and compiled the brahmins nowadays still chant and repeat, repeating what was spoken, reciting what was recited — that is, Aṭṭhaka, Vāmaka, Vāmadeva, Vessāmitta, Yamataggi, Angirasa, Bhāradvāja, V̄sẹ̣ha, Kassapa, and Bhagu — did even these ancient brahmin seers say thus: ‘We declare the result of these five things having realised it ourselves with direct knowledge’?" — "No, Master Gotama."

8"So, student, it seems that among the brahmins there is not even a single brahmin who says thus: ‘I declare the result of these five things having realised it myself with direct knowledge. ’ And among the brahmins there is not even a single teacher or a single teacher's teacher back to the seventh generation of teachers, who says thus: ‘I declare the result of these five things having realised it myself with direct knowledge.’ And the ancient brahmin seers, the creators of the hymns, the composers of the hymns … even these ancient brahmin seers did not say thus: ‘We declare the result of these five things having realised it ourselves with direct knowledge.’

9Suppose there were a file of blind men each in touch with the next: the first one does not see, the middle one does not see, and the last one does not see. So too, student, in regard to their statement the brahmins seem to be like a file of blind men: the first one does not see, the middle one does not see, and the last one does not see."

10When this was said, the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, was angry and displeased with the simile of the file of blind men, and he reviled, disparaged, and censured the Blessed One, saying: "The recluse Gotama will be worsted." Then he said to the Blessed One: "Master Gotama, the brahmin Pokkharasāti of the Upamaññā clan, lord of the Subhaga Grove, says thus:[n.912] This statement must have been made before Pokkharasāti became a follower of the Buddha, as is mentioned at MN 95.9. ‘Some recluses and brahmins here claim superhuman states, distinctions in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones. But what they say turns out to be ridiculous; it turns out to be mere words, empty and hollow. For how could a human being know or see or realise a superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones? That is impossible.’"


11"How then, student, does the brahmin Pokkharasāti understand the minds of all recluses and brahmins, having encompassed them with his own mind?"

"Master Gotama, the brahmin Pokkharasāti does not even understand the mind of his slavewoman Pụ̣ikā, having encompassed it with his own mind, so how could he understand thus the minds of all recluses and brahmins?"

12"Student, suppose there were a man born blind who could not see dark and light forms, who could not see blue, yellow, red, or carmine forms, who could not see what was even and uneven, who could not see the stars or the sun and moon. He might say thus: ‘There are no dark and light forms, and no one who sees dark and light forms; there are no blue, yellow, red, or carmine forms, and no one who sees blue, yellow, red, or carmine forms; there is nothing even and uneven, and no one who sees anything even and uneven; there are no stars and no sun and moon, and no one who sees stars and the sun and moon. I do not know these, I do not see these, therefore these do not exist.’ Speaking thus, student, would he be speaking rightly?"


13"No, Master Gotama. There are dark and light forms, and those who see dark and light forms … there are the stars and the sun and moon, and those who see the stars and the sun and moon. Saying, ‘I do not know these, I do not see these, therefore these do not exist,’ he would not be speaking rightly."


14"So too, student, the brahmin Pokkharasāti is blind and visionless. That he could know or see or realise a superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones — this is impossible.

15What do you think, student? What is better for those well-to-do brahmins of Kosala such as the brahmin Caṅkī, the brahmin Tārukkha, the brahmin Pokkharasāti, the brahmin Jāṇussoṇi, or your father, the brahmin Todeyya — that the statements they make accord with worldly convention or flaunt worldly convention?"

"That they accord with worldly convention, Master Gotama."


16"What is better for them, that the statements they make be thoughtful or thoughtless?"

"Thoughtful, Master Gotama."

17"What is better for them, that they make their statements after reflecting or without reflecting?"

"After reflecting, Master Gotama."

18"What is better for them, that the statements they make be beneficial or unbeneficial?"

"Beneficial, Master Gotama."


19"What do you think, student? If that is so, did the statement made by the brahmin Pokkharasāti accord with worldly convention or flaunt worldly convention?"


"It flaunted worldly convention, Master Gotama."

20"Was the statement made thoughtful or thoughtless?"

"Thoughtless, Master Gotama."

21"Was the statement made after reflecting or without reflecting?"

"Without reflecting, Master Gotama."

22"Was the statement made beneficial or unbeneficial?"

"Unbeneficial, Master Gotama."

23"Now there are these five hindrances, student. What are the five? The hindrance of sensual desire, the hindrance of ill will, the hindrance of sloth and torpor, the hindrance of restlessness and remorse, and the hindrance of doubt. These are the five hindrances. The brahmin Pokkharasāti is obstructed, hindered, blocked, and enveloped by these five hindrances. That he could know or see or realise a superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones — this is impossible.

24"Now there are these five cords of sensual pleasure, student. What are the five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by the ear … Odours cognizable by the nose … Flavours cognizable by the tongue … Tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of sensual pleasure. The brahmin Pokkharasāti is tied to these five cords of sensual pleasure, infatuated with them and utterly committed to them; he enjoys them without seeing the danger in them or understanding the escape from them. That he could know or see or realise a superhuman state, a distinction in knowledge and vision worthy of the noble ones — this is impossible.

25"What do you think, student? Which of these two fires would have a better flame, colour, and radiance — a fire that might burn in dependence on fuel, such as grass and wood, or a fire that might burn independent of fuel, such as grass and wood?"

"If it were possible, Master Gotama, for a fire to burn independent of fuel such as grass and wood, that fire would have a better flame, colour, and radiance."

"It is impossible, student, it cannot happen that a fire could burn independent of fuel such as grass or wood except through the exercise of supernormal power. Like the fire that burns dependent on fuel such as grass and wood, I say, is the rapture that is dependent on the five cords of sensual pleasure. Like the fire that burns independent of fuel such as grass and wood, I say, is the rapture that is apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states.

26And what, student, is the rapture that is apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states? Here, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna, which is accompanied by applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of seclusion. This is a rapture apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states. Again, with the stilling of applied and sustained thought, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the second jhāna, which has self-confidence and singleness of mind without applied and sustained thought, with rapture and pleasure born of concentration. This too is a rapture apart from sensual pleasures, apart from unwholesome states.


27"Of those five things, student, that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome, which of the five do they prescribe as the most fruitful for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome?"

"Of those five things, Master Gotama, that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome, they prescribe generosity as the most fruitful for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome."

28"What do you think, student? Here a brahmin might be holding a great sacrifice, and two other brahmins would go there thinking to take part in that great sacrifice. One brahmin among them would think: ‘Oh, that only I might get the best seat, the best water, the best almsfood in the refectory; that no other brahmin might get the best seat, the best water, the best almsfood in the refectory!’ And it is possible that the other brahmin, not that brahmin, gets the best seat, the best water, the best almsfood in the refectory. Thinking about this, the first brahmin might become angry and displeased. What kind of result do the brahmins describe for this?"

"Master Gotama, brahmins do not give gifts in such a way, thinking: ‘Let the others become angry and displeased because of this.’ Rather, brahmins give gifts motivated by compassion."

"That being so, student, isn’t this the brahmins’ sixth basis for the performance of merit, that is, the motive of compassion?"[n.913] Anukampājātika.

"That being so, Master Gotama, this is the brahmins’ sixth basis for the performance of merit, that is, the motive of compassion."


29"Those five things, student, that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome — where do you often see those five things, among householders or among those gone forth?"

"Those five things, Master Gotama, that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome, I often see among those gone forth, seldom among householders. For the householder has a great deal of activity, great functions, great engagements, and great undertakings: he does not constantly and invariably speak the truth, practise asceticism, observe celibacy, engage in study, or engage in generosity. But one gone forth has a small amount of activity, small functions, small engagements, and small undertakings: he constantly and invariably speaks the truth, practises asceticism, observes celibacy, engages in study, and engages in generosity. Thus those five things that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome, I often see among those gone forth, seldom among householders."

30"Those five things, student, that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome, I call equipment of the mind, that is, for developing a mind that is without hostility and without ill will. Here, student, a bhikkhu is a speaker of truth. Thinking, ‘I am a speaker of truth,’ he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. It is that gladness connected with the wholesome that I call an equipment of the mind. Here, student, a bhikkhu is an ascetic … one who is celibate … one who engages in study … one who engages in generosity. Thinking, ‘I am one who engages in generosity,’ he gains inspiration in the meaning, gains inspiration in the Dhamma, gains gladness connected with the Dhamma. It is that gladness connected with the wholesome that I call an equipment of the mind. Thus those five things that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome, I call equipment of the mind, that is, for developing a mind that is without hostility and without ill will."

31When this was said, the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, said to the Blessed One: "Master Gotama, I have heard that the recluse Gotama knows the path to the company of Brahmā."


32"What do you think, student? Is the village of Naḷakāra near here, not far from here?"

33"Yes, sir, the village of Naḷakāra is near here, not far from here."

34"What do you think, student? Suppose there was a man born and raised in the village of Naḷakāra, and as soon as he had left Naḷakāra they asked him about the path to the village. Would that man be slow or hesitant in answering?"

35"No, Master Gotama.

36Why is that?


37Because that man has been born and raised in Naḷakāra, and is well acquainted with all the paths to the village."

"Still, a man born and raised in the village of Naḷakāra might be slow or hesitant in answering when asked about the path to the village, but a Tathāgata, when asked about the Brahma-world or the way leading to the Brahma-world, would never be slow or hesitant in answering. I understand Brahmā, student, and I understand the Brahma-world, and I understand the way leading to the Brahma-world, and I understand how one should practise to reappear in the Brahma-world."[n.914] This knowledge pertains to the third of the Tathāgata's powers, knowing the ways to all destinations. See MN 12.12.

38"Master Gotama, I have heard that the recluse Gotama teaches the path to the company of Brahmā. It would be good if Master Gotama would teach me the path to the company of Brahmā."


39"Then, student, listen and attend closely to what I shall say."

"Yes, sir," he replied. The Blessed One said this:


40"What, student, is the path to the company of Brahmā? Here a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with loving-kindness, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility, and without ill will. When the deliverance of mind by loving-kindness is developed in this way, no limiting action remains there, none persists there. Just as a vigorous trumpeter could make himself heard without difficulty in the four quarters, so too, when the deliverance of mind by loving-kindness is developed in this way, no limiting action remains there, none persists there.[n.915] MA explains limiting action (pamāṇakataṁ kammaṁ) as kamma pertaining to the sense sphere (kāmāvacara). It is contrasted with a limitless or immeasurable action, namely, the jhānas pertaining to the fine-material sphere or the immaterial sphere. In this case the brahmavihāras developed to the jhānic level are intended. When a jhāna pertaining to the fine-material sphere or the immaterial sphere is attained and mastered, a kamma pertaining to the sense sphere cannot overpower it and gain the opportunity to yield its own result. Rather, the kamma pertaining to the fine-material sphere or the immaterial sphere overpowers the sense-sphere kammas and produces its results. Obstructing the result of the sense-sphere kammas, the brahmavihāra that has been mastered leads to rebirth in the company of Brahmā. This is the path to the company of Brahmā.

41"Again, a bhikkhu abides pervading one quarter with a mind imbued with compassion … with a mind imbued with altruistic joy … with a mind imbued with equanimity, likewise the second, likewise the third, likewise the fourth; so above, below, around, and everywhere, and to all as to himself, he abides pervading the all-encompassing world with a mind imbued with equanimity, abundant, exalted, immeasurable, without hostility, and without ill will. When the deliverance of mind by equanimity is developed in this way, no limiting action remains there, none persists there. Just as a vigorous trumpeter could make himself heard without difficulty in the four quarters, so too, when the deliverance of mind by equanimity is developed in this way, no limiting action remains there, none persists there. This too is the path to the company of Brahmā."


42When this was said, the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, said to the Blessed One: "Magnificent, Master Gotama! Magnificent, Master Gotama! Master Gotama has made the Dhamma clear in many ways, as though he were turning upright what had been overturned, revealing what was hidden, showing the way to one who was lost, or holding up a lamp in the dark for those with eyesight to see forms. I go to Master Gotama for refuge and to the Dhamma and to the Saṅgha of bhikkhus. Let Master Gotama remember me as a lay follower who has gone to him for refuge for life.

"And now, Master Gotama, we depart. We are busy and have much to do." "You may go, student, at your own convenience."

Then the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, having delighted and rejoiced in the Blessed One's words, rose from his seat, and after paying homage to the Blessed One, keeping him on his right, he departed.

43Now on that occasion the brahmin Jāṇussoṇi was driving out of Sāvatthī in the middle of the day in an all-white chariot drawn by white mares.[n.916] As at MN 27.2. He saw the brahmin student Subha, Todeyya's son, coming in the distance and asked him: "Now where is Master Bhāradvāja coming from in the middle of the day?"

"Sir, I am coming from the presence of the recluse Gotama."

"What does Master Bhāradvāja think of the recluse Gotama's lucidity of wisdom? He is wise, is he not?"

"Sir, who am I to know the recluse Gotama's lucidity of wisdom? One would surely have to be his equal to know the recluse Gotama's lucidity of wisdom."

"Master Bhāradvāja praises the recluse Gotama with high praise indeed."


"Sir, who am I to praise the recluse Gotama? The recluse Gotama is praised by the praised as best among gods and humans. Sir, those five things that the brahmins prescribe for the performance of merit, for accomplishing the wholesome, the recluse Gotama calls equipment of the mind, that is, for developing a mind that is without hostility and without ill will."

44When this was said, the brahmin Jāṇussoṇi got down from his all-white chariot drawn by white mares, and after arranging his upper robe on one shoulder, he extended his hands in reverential salutation towards the Blessed One and uttered this exclamation: "It is a gain for King Pasenadi of Kosala, it is a great gain for King Pasenadi of Kosala that the Tathāgata, accomplished and fully enlightened, lives in his realm."


1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.

Tena kho pana samayena subho māṇavo todeyyaputto sāvatthiyaṁ paṭivasati aññatarassa gahapatissa nivesane kenacideva karaṇīyena. Atha kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto yassa gahapatissa nivesane paṭivasati taṁ gahapatiṁ etadavoca: "sutaṁ metaṁ, gahapati: ‘avivittā sāvatthī arahantehī’ti. Kaṁ nu khvajja samaṇaṁ vā brāhmaṇaṁ vā payirupāseyyāmā"ti?

"Ayaṁ, bhante, bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme. Taṁ, bhante, bhagavantaṁ payirupāsassū"ti.

Atha kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto tassa gahapatissa paṭissutvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavatā saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca:


"brāhmaṇā, bho gotama, evamāhaṁsu: ‘gahaṭṭho ārādhako hoti ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ, na pabbajito ārādhako hoti ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan’ti. Idha bhavaṁ gotamo kimāhā"ti?

2"Vibhajjavādo kho ahamettha, māṇava; nāhamettha ekaṁsavādo. Gihissa vāhaṁ, māṇava, pabbajitassa vā micchāpaṭipattiṁ na vaṇṇemi. Gihī vā hi, māṇava, pabbajito vā micchāpaṭipanno micchāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu na ārādhako hoti ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalaṁ. Gihissa vāhaṁ, māṇava, pabbajitassa vā sammāpaṭipattiṁ vaṇṇemi. Gihī vā hi, māṇava, pabbajito vā sammāpaṭipanno sammāpaṭipattādhikaraṇahetu ārādhako hoti ñāyaṁ dhammaṁ kusalan"ti.


3"Brāhmaṇā, bho gotama, evamāhaṁsu: ‘mahaṭṭhamidaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ gharāvāsakammaṭṭhānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti; appaṭṭhamidaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ pabbajjā kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaphalaṁ hotī’ti. Idha bhavaṁ gotamo kimāhā"ti.

4"Etthāpi kho ahaṁ, māṇava, vibhajjavādo; nāhamettha ekaṁsavādo. Atthi, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ, vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti; atthi, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ, sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti; atthi, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ, vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti; atthi, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti. Katamañca, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti?

Kasi kho, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti. Katamañca, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti? Kasiyeva kho, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti. Katamañca, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti? Vaṇijjā kho, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti. Katamañca, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti? Vaṇijjāyeva kho, māṇava, kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti.

5Seyyathāpi, māṇava, kasi kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti; evameva kho, māṇava, gharāvāsakammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, kasiyeva kammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti; evameva kho, māṇava, gharāvāsakammaṭṭhānaṁ mahaṭṭhaṁ mahākiccaṁ mahādhikaraṇaṁ mahāsamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, vaṇijjā kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti; evameva kho, māṇava, pabbajjā kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ vipajjamānaṁ appaphalaṁ hoti. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, vaṇijjāyeva kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hoti; evameva kho, māṇava, pabbajjā kammaṭṭhānaṁ appaṭṭhaṁ appakiccaṁ appādhikaraṇaṁ appasamārambhaṁ sampajjamānaṁ mahapphalaṁ hotī"ti.

6"Brāhmaṇā, bho gotama, pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāyā"ti.

"Ye te, māṇava, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāya — sace te agaru — sādhu te pañca dhamme imasmiṁ parisati bhāsassū"ti.

"Na kho me, bho gotama, garu yatthassu bhavanto vā nisinno bhavantarūpo vā"ti.


"Tena hi, māṇava, bhāsassū"ti.

"Saccaṁ kho, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā paṭhamaṁ dhammaṁ paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāya. Tapaṁ kho, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā dutiyaṁ dhammaṁ paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāya. Brahmacariyaṁ kho, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā tatiyaṁ dhammaṁ paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāya. Ajjhenaṁ kho, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā catutthaṁ dhammaṁ paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāya. Cāgaṁ kho, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā pañcamaṁ dhammaṁ paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāya. Brāhmaṇā, bho gotama, ime pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya, kusalassa ārādhanāyāti. Idha bhavaṁ gotamo kimāhā"ti?


7"Kiṁ pana, māṇava, atthi koci brāhmaṇānaṁ ekabrāhmaṇopi yo evamāha: ‘Ahaṁ imesaṁ pañcannaṁ dhammānaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā vipākaṁ pavedemī’"ti? "No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

"Kiṁ pana, māṇava, atthi koci brāhmaṇānaṁ ekācariyopi ekācariyapācariyopi yāva sattamā ācariyamahayugāpi yo evamāha: ‘Ahaṁ imesaṁ pañcannaṁ dhammānaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā vipākaṁ pavedemī’"ti? "No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

"Kiṁ pana, māṇava, yepi te brāhmaṇānaṁ pubbakā isayo mantānaṁ kattāro mantānaṁ pavattāro yesamidaṁ etarahi brāhmaṇā porāṇaṁ mantapadaṁ gītaṁ pavuttaṁ samihitaṁ tadanugāyanti tadanubhāsanti bhāsitamanubhāsanti vācitamanuvācenti, seyyathidaṁ — aṭṭhako vāmako vāmadevo vessāmitto yamataggi aṅgīraso bhāradvājo vāseṭṭho kassapo bhagu, tepi evamāhaṁsu: ‘mayaṁ imesaṁ pañcannaṁ dhammānaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā vipākaṁ pavedemā’"ti? "No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

8"Iti kira, māṇava, natthi koci brāhmaṇānaṁ ekabrāhmaṇopi yo evamāha: ‘Ahaṁ imesaṁ pañcannaṁ dhammānaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā vipākaṁ pavedemī’ti; natthi koci brāhmaṇānaṁ ekācariyopi ekācariyapācariyopi yāva sattamā ācariyamahayugāpi yo evamāha: ‘Ahaṁ imesaṁ pañcannaṁ dhammānaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā vipākaṁ pavedemī’ti; yepi te brāhmaṇānaṁ pubbakā isayo mantānaṁ kattāro mantānaṁ pavattāro, yesamidaṁ etarahi brāhmaṇā porāṇaṁ mantapadaṁ gītaṁ pavuttaṁ samihitaṁ, tadanugāyanti tadanubhāsanti bhāsitamanubhāsanti vācitamanuvācenti, seyyathidaṁ — aṭṭhako vāmako vāmadevo vessāmitto yamataggi aṅgīraso bhāradvājo vāseṭṭho kassapo bhagu. Tepi na evamāhaṁsu: ‘mayaṁ imesaṁ pañcannaṁ dhammānaṁ sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā vipākaṁ pavedemā’ti.

9Seyyathāpi, māṇava, andhaveṇi paramparāsaṁsattā purimopi na passati majjhimopi na passati pacchimopi na passati; evameva kho, māṇava, andhaveṇūpamaṁ maññe brāhmaṇānaṁ bhāsitaṁ sampajjati — purimopi na passati majjhimopi na passati pacchimopi na passatī"ti.

10Evaṁ vutte, subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavatā andhaveṇūpamena vuccamāno kupito anattamano bhagavantaṁyeva khuṁsento bhagavantaṁyeva vambhento bhagavantaṁyeva vadamāno: "Samaṇo gotamo pāpito bhavissatī"ti bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "brāhmaṇo, bho gotama, pokkharasāti opamañño subhagavaniko evamāha: ‘evameva panidhekacce samaṇabrāhmaṇā uttari manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṁ paṭijānanti. Tesamidaṁ bhāsitaṁ hassakaṁyeva sampajjati, nāmakaṁyeva sampajjati, rittakaṁyeva sampajjati, tucchakaṁyeva sampajjati. Kathañhi nāma manussabhūto uttari manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṁ ñassati vā dakkhati vā sacchi vā karissatīti — netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjatī’"ti?


11"Kiṁ pana, māṇava, brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti opamañño subhagavaniko sabbesaṁyeva samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānātī"ti?

"Sakāyapi hi, bho gotama, puṇṇikāya dāsiyā brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti opamañño subhagavaniko cetasā ceto paricca na pajānāti, kuto pana sabbesaṁyeva samaṇabrāhmaṇānaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānissatī"ti?

12"Seyyathāpi, māṇava, jaccandho puriso na passeyya kaṇhasukkāni rūpāni, na passeyya nīlakāni rūpāni, na passeyya pītakāni rūpāni, na passeyya lohitakāni rūpāni, na passeyya mañjiṭṭhakāni rūpāni, na passeyya samavisamaṁ, na passeyya tārakarūpāni, na passeyya candimasūriye. So evaṁ vadeyya: ‘Natthi kaṇhasukkāni rūpāni, natthi kaṇhasukkānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; natthi nīlakāni rūpāni, natthi nīlakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; natthi pītakāni rūpāni, natthi pītakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; natthi lohitakāni rūpāni, natthi lohitakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; natthi mañjiṭṭhakāni rūpāni, natthi mañjiṭṭhakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; natthi samavisamaṁ, natthi samavisamassa dassāvī; natthi tārakarūpāni, natthi tārakarūpānaṁ dassāvī; natthi candimasūriyā, natthi candimasūriyānaṁ dassāvī. Ahametaṁ na jānāmi, ahametaṁ na passāmi; tasmā taṁ natthī’ti. Sammā nu kho so, māṇava, vadamāno vadeyyā"ti?


13"No hidaṁ, bho gotama. Atthi kaṇhasukkāni rūpāni, atthi kaṇhasukkānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; atthi nīlakāni rūpāni, atthi nīlakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; atthi pītakāni rūpāni, atthi pītakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; atthi lohitakāni rūpāni, atthi lohitakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; atthi mañjiṭṭhakāni rūpāni, atthi mañjiṭṭhakānaṁ rūpānaṁ dassāvī; atthi samavisamaṁ, atthi samavisamassa dassāvī; atthi tārakarūpāni, atthi tārakarūpānaṁ dassāvī; atthi candimasūriyā, atthi candimasūriyānaṁ dassāvī. ‘Ahametaṁ na jānāmi, ahametaṁ na passāmi; tasmā taṁ natthī’ti; na hi so, bho gotama, sammā vadamāno vadeyyā"ti.


14"Evameva kho, māṇava, brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti opamañño subhagavaniko andho acakkhuko. So vata uttari manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṁ ñassati vā dakkhati vā sacchi vā karissatīti — netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

15Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, māṇava, ye te kosalakā brāhmaṇamahāsālā, seyyathidaṁ — caṅkī brāhmaṇo tārukkho brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti brāhmaṇo jāṇussoṇi brāhmaṇo pitā ca te todeyyo, katamā nesaṁ seyyo, yaṁ vā te sammuccā vācaṁ bhāseyyuṁ yaṁ vā asammuccā"ti?

"Sammuccā, bho gotama".


16"Katamā nesaṁ seyyo, yaṁ vā te mantā vācaṁ bhāseyyuṁ yaṁ vā amantā"ti?

"Mantā, bho gotama".

17"Katamā nesaṁ seyyo, yaṁ vā te paṭisaṅkhāya vācaṁ bhāseyyuṁ yaṁ vā appaṭisaṅkhāyā"ti?

"Paṭisaṅkhāya, bho gotama".

18"Katamā nesaṁ seyyo, yaṁ vā te atthasaṁhitaṁ vācaṁ bhāseyyuṁ yaṁ vā anatthasaṁhitan"ti?

"Atthasaṁhitaṁ, bho gotama".


19"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, māṇava, yadi evaṁ sante, brāhmaṇena pokkharasātinā opamaññena subhagavanikena sammuccā vācā bhāsitā asammuccā"ti?


"Asammuccā, bho gotama".

20"Mantā vācā bhāsitā amantā vā"ti?

"Amantā, bho gotama".

21"Paṭisaṅkhāya vācā bhāsitā appaṭisaṅkhāyā"ti?

"Appaṭisaṅkhāya, bho gotama".

22"Atthasaṁhitā vācā bhāsitā anatthasaṁhitā"ti?

"Anatthasaṁhitā, bho gotama".

23"Pañca kho ime, māṇava, nīvaraṇā. Katame pañca? Kāmacchandanīvaraṇaṁ, byāpādanīvaraṇaṁ, thinamiddhanīvaraṇaṁ uddhaccakukkuccanīvaraṇaṁ, vicikicchānīvaraṇaṁ — ime kho, māṇava, pañca nīvaraṇā. Imehi kho, māṇava, pañcahi nīvaraṇehi brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti opamañño subhagavaniko āvuto nivuto ophuṭo pariyonaddho. So vata uttari manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṁ ñassati vā dakkhati vā sacchi vā karissatīti — netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

24Pañca kho ime, māṇava, kāmaguṇā. Katame pañca? Cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā; sotaviññeyyā saddā … pe … ghānaviññeyyā gandhā … jivhā viññeyyā rasā … kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā — ime kho, māṇava, pañca kāmaguṇā. Imehi kho, māṇava, pañcahi kāmaguṇehi brāhmaṇo pokkharasāti opamañño subhagavaniko gathito mucchito ajjhopanno anādīnavadassāvī anissaraṇapañño paribhuñjati. So vata uttari manussadhammā alamariyañāṇadassanavisesaṁ ñassati vā dakkhati vā sacchi vā karissatīti — netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

25Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, māṇava, yaṁ vā tiṇakaṭṭhupādānaṁ paṭicca aggiṁ jāleyya yaṁ vā nissaṭṭhatiṇakaṭṭhupādānaṁ aggiṁ jāleyya, katamo nu khvāssa aggi accimā ceva vaṇṇavā ca pabhassaro cā"ti?

"Sace taṁ, bho gotama, ṭhānaṁ nissaṭṭhatiṇakaṭṭhupādānaṁ aggiṁ jāletuṁ, svāssa aggi accimā ceva vaṇṇavā ca pabhassaro cā"ti.

"Aṭṭhānaṁ kho etaṁ, māṇava, anavakāso yaṁ nissaṭṭhatiṇakaṭṭhupādānaṁ aggiṁ jāleyya aññatra iddhimatā. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, tiṇakaṭṭhupādānaṁ paṭicca aggi jalati tathūpamāhaṁ, māṇava, imaṁ pītiṁ vadāmi yāyaṁ pīti pañca kāmaguṇe paṭicca. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, nissaṭṭhatiṇakaṭṭhupādāno aggi jalati tathūpamāhaṁ, māṇava, imaṁ pītiṁ vadāmi yāyaṁ pīti aññatreva kāmehi aññatra akusalehi dhammehi.

26Katamā ca, māṇava, pīti aññatreva kāmehi aññatra akusalehi dhammehi? Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi … pe … paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayampi kho, māṇava, pīti aññatreva kāmehi aññatra akusalehi dhammehi. Puna caparaṁ, māṇava, bhikkhu vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Ayampi kho, māṇava, pīti aññatreva kāmehi aññatra akusalehi dhammehi.


27Ye te, māṇava, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya, katamettha brāhmaṇā dhammaṁ mahapphalataraṁ paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāyā"ti?

"Yeme, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya, cāgamettha brāhmaṇā dhammaṁ mahapphalataraṁ paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāyā"ti.

28"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, māṇava, idha aññatarassa brāhmaṇassa mahāyañño paccupaṭṭhito assa. Atha dve brāhmaṇā āgaccheyyuṁ: ‘itthannāmassa brāhmaṇassa mahāyaññaṁ anubhavissāmā’ti. Tatrekassa brāhmaṇassa evamassa: ‘aho vata ahameva labheyyaṁ bhattagge aggāsanaṁ aggodakaṁ aggapiṇḍaṁ, na añño brāhmaṇo labheyya bhattagge aggāsanaṁ aggodakaṁ aggapiṇḍan’ti. Ṭhānaṁ kho panetaṁ, māṇava, vijjati yaṁ añño brāhmaṇo labheyya bhattagge aggāsanaṁ aggodakaṁ aggapiṇḍaṁ, na so brāhmaṇo labheyya bhattagge aggāsanaṁ aggodakaṁ aggapiṇḍaṁ. ‘Añño brāhmaṇo labhati bhattagge aggāsanaṁ aggodakaṁ aggapiṇḍaṁ, nāhaṁ labhāmi bhattagge aggāsanaṁ aggodakaṁ aggapiṇḍan’ti — iti so kupito hoti anattamano. Imassa pana, māṇava, brāhmaṇā kiṁ vipākaṁ paññapentī"ti?

"Na khvettha, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā evaṁ dānaṁ denti: ‘iminā paro kupito hotu anattamano’ti. Atha khvettha brāhmaṇā anukampājātikaṁyeva dānaṁ dentī"ti.

"Evaṁ sante kho, māṇava, brāhmaṇānaṁ idaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ puññakiriyavatthu hoti — yadidaṁ anukampājātikan"ti.

"Evaṁ sante, bho gotama, brāhmaṇānaṁ idaṁ chaṭṭhaṁ puññakiriyavatthu hoti — yadidaṁ anukampājātikan"ti.


29"Ye te, māṇava, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya, ime tvaṁ pañca dhamme kattha bahulaṁ samanupassasi — gahaṭṭhesu vā pabbajitesu vā"ti?

"Yeme, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya, imāhaṁ pañca dhamme pabbajitesu bahulaṁ samanupassāmi appaṁ gahaṭṭhesu. Gahaṭṭho hi, bho gotama, mahaṭṭho mahākicco mahādhikaraṇo mahāsamārambho, na satataṁ samitaṁ saccavādī hoti; pabbajito kho pana, bho gotama, appaṭṭho appakicco appādhikaraṇo appasamārambho, satataṁ samitaṁ saccavādī hoti. Gahaṭṭho hi, bho gotama, mahaṭṭho mahākicco mahādhikaraṇo mahāsamārambho na satataṁ samitaṁ tapassī hoti … brahmacārī hoti … sajjhāyabahulo hoti … cāgabahulo hoti; pabbajito kho pana, bho gotama, appaṭṭho appakicco appādhikaraṇo appasamārambho satataṁ samitaṁ tapassī hoti … brahmacārī hoti … sajjhāyabahulo hoti … cāgabahulo hoti. Yeme, bho gotama, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya, imāhaṁ pañca dhamme pabbajitesu bahulaṁ samanupassāmi appaṁ gahaṭṭhesū"ti.

30"Ye te, māṇava, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya cittassāhaṁ ete parikkhāre vadāmi — yadidaṁ cittaṁ averaṁ abyābajjhaṁ tassa bhāvanāya. Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu saccavādī hoti. So ‘saccavādīmhī’ti labhati atthavedaṁ, labhati dhammavedaṁ, labhati dhammūpasaṁhitaṁ pāmojjaṁ. Yaṁ taṁ kusalūpasaṁhitaṁ pāmojjaṁ, cittassāhaṁ etaṁ parikkhāraṁ vadāmi — yadidaṁ cittaṁ averaṁ abyābajjhaṁ tassa bhāvanāya. Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu tapassī hoti … pe … brahmacārī hoti … pe … sajjhāyabahulo hoti … pe … cāgabahulo hoti. So ‘cāgabahulomhī’ti labhati atthavedaṁ, labhati dhammavedaṁ, labhati dhammūpasaṁhitaṁ pāmojjaṁ. Yaṁ taṁ kusalūpasaṁhitaṁ pāmojjaṁ, cittassāhaṁ etaṁ parikkhāraṁ vadāmi — yadidaṁ cittaṁ averaṁ abyābajjhaṁ tassa bhāvanāya. Ye te, māṇava, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya, cittassāhaṁ ete parikkhāre vadāmi –  yadidaṁ cittaṁ averaṁ abyābajjhaṁ tassa bhāvanāyā"ti.

31Evaṁ vutte, subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "sutaṁ metaṁ, bho gotama: ‘samaṇo gotamo brahmānaṁ sahabyatāya maggaṁ jānātī’"ti.


32"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, māṇava, āsanne ito naḷakāragāmo, na yito dūre naḷakāragāmo"ti?

33"Evaṁ, bho, āsanne ito naḷakāragāmo, na yito dūre naḷakāragāmo"ti.

34"Taṁ, kiṁ maññasi, māṇava, idhassa puriso naḷakāragāme jātavaddho; tamenaṁ naḷakāragāmato tāvadeva avasaṭaṁ naḷakāragāmassa maggaṁ puccheyyuṁ; siyā nu kho, māṇava, tassa purisassa naḷakāragāme jātavaddhassa naḷakāragāmassa maggaṁ puṭṭhassa dandhāyitattaṁ vā vitthāyitattaṁ vā"ti?

35"No hidaṁ, bho gotama".

36"Taṁ kissa hetu"?


37"Amu hi, bho gotama, puriso naḷakāragāme jātavaddho. Tassa sabbāneva naḷakāragāmassa maggāni suviditānī"ti.

"Siyā nu kho, māṇava, tassa purisassa naḷakāragāme jātavaddhassa naḷakāragāmassa maggaṁ puṭṭhassa dandhāyitattaṁ vā vitthāyitattaṁ vāti, na tveva tathāgatassa brahmalokaṁ vā brahmalokagāminiṁ vā paṭipadaṁ puṭṭhassa dandhāyitattaṁ vā vitthāyitattaṁ vā. Brahmānañcāhaṁ, māṇava, pajānāmi brahmalokañca brahmalokagāminiñca paṭipadaṁ; yathāpaṭipanno ca brahmalokaṁ upapanno tañca pajānāmī"ti.

38"Sutaṁ metaṁ, bho gotama: ‘samaṇo gotamo brahmānaṁ sahabyatāya maggaṁ desetī’ti. Sādhu me bhavaṁ gotamo brahmānaṁ sahabyatāya maggaṁ desetū"ti.


39"Tena hi, māṇava, suṇāhi, sādhukaṁ manasi karohi, bhāsissāmī"ti.

"Evaṁ, bho"ti kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavato paccassosi. Bhagavā etadavoca: 


40"Katamo ca, māṇava, brahmānaṁ sahabyatāya maggo? Idha, māṇava, bhikkhu mettāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṁ, tathā tatiyaṁ, tathā catutthaṁ; iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ mettāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Evaṁ bhāvitāya kho, māṇava, mettāya cetovimuttiyā yaṁ pamāṇakataṁ kammaṁ na taṁ tatrāvasissati, na taṁ tatrāvatiṭṭhati. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, balavā saṅkhadhamo appakasireneva cātuddisā viññāpeyya; evameva kho, māṇava … pe … evaṁ bhāvitāya kho, māṇava, mettāya cetovimuttiyā yaṁ pamāṇakataṁ kammaṁ na taṁ tatrāvasissati, na taṁ tatrāvatiṭṭhati. Ayampi kho, māṇava, brahmānaṁ sahabyatāya maggo.

41"Puna caparaṁ, māṇava, bhikkhu karuṇāsahagatena cetasā … pe … muditāsahagatena cetasā … pe … upekkhāsahagatena cetasā ekaṁ disaṁ pharitvā viharati, tathā dutiyaṁ, tathā tatiyaṁ, tathā catutthaṁ; iti uddhamadho tiriyaṁ sabbadhi sabbattatāya sabbāvantaṁ lokaṁ upekkhāsahagatena cetasā vipulena mahaggatena appamāṇena averena abyābajjhena pharitvā viharati. Evaṁ bhāvitāya kho, māṇava, upekkhāya cetovimuttiyā yaṁ pamāṇakataṁ kammaṁ na taṁ tatrāvasissati, na taṁ tatrāvatiṭṭhati. Seyyathāpi, māṇava, balavā saṅkhadhamo appakasireneva cātuddisā viññāpeyya; evameva kho, māṇava … pe … evaṁ bhāvitāya kho, māṇava, upekkhāya cetovimuttiyā yaṁ pamāṇakataṁ kammaṁ na taṁ tatrāvasissati, na taṁ tatrāvatiṭṭhati. Ayampi kho, māṇava, brahmānaṁ sahabyatāya maggo"ti.


42Evaṁ vutte, subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "Abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama, abhikkantaṁ, bho gotama. Seyyathāpi, bho gotama, nikkujjitaṁ vā ukkujjeyya, paṭicchannaṁ vā vivareyya, mūḷhassa vā maggaṁ ācikkheyya, andhakāre vā telapajjotaṁ dhāreyya: ‘cakkhumanto rūpāni dakkhantī’ti; evamevaṁ bhotā gotamena anekapariyāyena dhammo pakāsito. Esāhaṁ bhavantaṁ gotamaṁ saraṇaṁ gacchāmi dhammañca bhikkhusaṅghañca. Upāsakaṁ maṁ bhavaṁ gotamo dhāretu ajjatagge pāṇupetaṁ saraṇaṁ gataṁ.

Handa ca dāni mayaṁ, bho gotama, gacchāma; bahukiccā mayaṁ bahukaraṇīyā"ti. "Yassadāni tvaṁ, māṇava, kālaṁ maññasī"ti.

Atha kho subho māṇavo todeyyaputto bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā padakkhiṇaṁ katvā pakkāmi.

43Tena kho pana samayena jāṇussoṇi brāhmaṇo sabbasetena vaḷavābhirathena sāvatthiyā niyyāti divā divassa. Addasā kho jāṇussoṇi brāhmaṇo subhaṁ māṇavaṁ todeyyaputtaṁ dūratova āgacchantaṁ. Disvāna subhaṁ māṇavaṁ todeyyaputtaṁ etadavoca: "handa kuto nu bhavaṁ bhāradvājo āgacchati divā divassā"ti?

"Ito hi kho ahaṁ, bho, āgacchāmi samaṇassa gotamassa santikā"ti.

"Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, bhavaṁ bhāradvājo samaṇassa gotamassa paññāveyyattiyaṁ paṇḍito maññeti"?

"Ko cāhaṁ, bho, ko ca samaṇassa gotamassa paññāveyyattiyaṁ jānissāmi? Sopi nūnassa tādisova yo samaṇassa gotamassa paññāveyyattiyaṁ jāneyyā"ti.

"Uḷārāya khalu bhavaṁ bhāradvājo samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ pasaṁsāya pasaṁsatī"ti.


"Ko cāhaṁ, bho, ko ca samaṇaṁ gotamaṁ pasaṁsissāmi? Pasatthapasatthova so bhavaṁ gotamo seṭṭho devamanussānaṁ. Ye cime, bho, brāhmaṇā pañca dhamme paññapenti puññassa kiriyāya kusalassa ārādhanāya; cittassete samaṇo gotamo parikkhāre vadeti –  yadidaṁ cittaṁ averaṁ abyābajjhaṁ tassa bhāvanāyā"ti.

44Evaṁ vutte, jāṇussoṇi brāhmaṇo sabbasetā vaḷavābhirathā orohitvā ekaṁsaṁ uttarāsaṅgaṁ karitvā yena bhagavā tenañjaliṁ paṇāmetvā udānaṁ udānesi: "lābhā rañño pasenadissa kosalassa, suladdhalābhā rañño pasenadissa kosalassa yassa vijite tathāgato viharati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho"ti.


Subhasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ navamaṁ.