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Majjhima Nikāya

MN122: Mahāsuññatasutta - The Longer Discourse on Emptiness

1Thus have I heard.[n.1145] This sutta together with its full commentary has been published in translation by Ñm as The Greater Discourse on Voidness. On one occasion the Blessed One was living in the Sakyan country at Kapilavatthu in Nigrodha's Park.

Then, when it was morning, the Blessed One dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Kapilavatthu for alms. When he had wandered for alms in Kapilavatthu and had returned from his almsround, after his meal he went for his daytime abiding to the dwelling of Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan. Now on that occasion there were many resting places prepared in Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan's dwelling.[n.1146] MA: This was a dwelling built in Nigrodha's Park by Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan. Beds, chairs, mattresses, and mats were prepared, and they were so close together that the dwelling looked like the residence of a society of bhikkhus. When the Blessed One saw this, he thought: "There are many resting places prepared in Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan's dwelling. Do many bhikkhus live there?"

2Now on that occasion the venerable Ānanda, along with many bhikkhus, was busy making robes at Ghāṭā the Sakyan's dwelling. Then, when it was evening, the Blessed One rose from retreat and went to Ghāṭā the Sakyan's dwelling. There he sat down on a seat made ready and asked the venerable Ānanda:

"Ānanda, there are many resting places prepared in Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan's dwelling. Do many bhikkhus live there?"[n.1147] MA explains that this was merely a rhetorical question, since the Buddhas can know by direct knowledge whatever they wish to know. The Buddha asked this with the thought in mind: "As soon as these bhikkhus form into a society and delight in society, they will act in improper ways. I shall expound the Great Practice of Voidness which will be like a training rule (prohibiting delight in society)."

"Venerable sir, many resting places have been prepared in Kāḷakhemaka the Sakyan's dwelling. Many bhikkhus are living there. This is our time for making robes, venerable sir."[n.1148] MA: Ven. Ānanda intended to say: "These bhikkhus are living this way not just because they delight in being busy, but on account of making robes."

3"Ānanda, a bhikkhu does not shine by delighting in company, by taking delight in company, by devoting himself to delight in company; by delighting in society, by taking delight in society, by rejoicing in society. Indeed, Ānanda, it is not possible that a bhikkhu who delights in company, takes delight in company, and devotes himself to delight in company, who delights in society, takes delight in society, and rejoices in society, will ever obtain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the bliss of renunciation, the bliss of seclusion, the bliss of peace, the bliss of enlightenment.[n.1149] See MN 66.20 and n.678. But it can be expected that when a bhikkhu lives alone, withdrawn from society, he will obtain at will, without trouble or difficulty, the bliss of renunciation, the bliss of seclusion, the bliss of peace, the bliss of enlightenment.

4"Indeed, Ānanda, it is not possible that a bhikkhu who delights in company, takes delight in company, and devotes himself to delight in company, who delights in society, takes delight in society, and rejoices in society, will ever enter upon and abide in either the deliverance of mind that is temporary and delectable or in the deliverance of mind that is perpetual and unshakeable.[n.1150] The former is deliverance through the jhānas and the immaterial attainments, the latter deliverance through the supramundane paths and fruits. See also MN 29.6 and n.348. But it can be expected that when a bhikkhu lives alone, withdrawn from society, he will enter upon and abide in the deliverance of mind that is temporary and delectable or in the deliverance of mind that is perpetual and unshakeable.

5"I do not see even a single kind of form, Ānanda, from the change and alteration of which there would not arise sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who lusts for it and takes delight in it.

6"However, Ānanda, there is this abiding discovered by the Tathāgata: to enter and abide in voidness internally by giving no attention to all signs.[n.1151] MA: The Buddha begins the present passage in order to ward off the criticism that while he enjoins his disciples to live in solitude, he himself is often surrounded by a large retinue. "Voidness" here is the fruition attainment of voidness; see n.1137. If, while the Tathāgata is abiding thus, he is visited by bhikkhus or bhikkhunīs, by men or women lay followers, by kings or kings’ ministers, by other sectarians or their disciples, then with a mind leaning to seclusion, tending and inclining to seclusion, withdrawn, delighting in renunciation, and altogether done away with things that are the basis for taints, he invariably talks to them in a way concerned with dismissing them.

"Therefore, Ānanda, if a bhikkhu should wish: ‘May I enter upon and abide in voidness internally,’ he should steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it.

7And how does he steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it?

"Here, Ānanda, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna … the second jhāna … the third jhāna … the fourth jhāna, which has neither-pain-nor-pleasure and purity of mindfulness due to equanimity. That is how a bhikkhu steadies his mind internally, quiets it, brings it to singleness, and concentrates it.

"Then he gives attention to voidness internally.[n.1152] MA explains voidness internally as that connected with one's own five aggregates, voidness externally as that connected with the aggregates of others. The voidness spoken of here thus must be the temporary deliverance of mind reached through the insight contemplation of non-self, as explained at MN 43.33. When the insight into non-self is brought to the level of the path, it issues in the fruition experiencing Nibbāna by way of its aspect of voidness. While he is giving attention to voidness internally, his mind does not enter into voidness internally or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: ‘While I am giving attention to voidness internally, my mind does not enter into voidness internally or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.

"He gives attention to voidness externally … He gives attention to voidness internally and externally … He gives attention to imperturbability.[n.1153] MA: He gives attention to an imperturbable immaterial meditative attainment. While he is giving attention to imperturbability, his mind does not enter into imperturbability or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: ‘While I am giving attention to imperturbability, my mind does not enter into imperturbability or acquire confidence, steadiness, and decision.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.

8"Then that bhikkhu should steady his mind internally, quiet it, bring it to singleness, and concentrate it on that same sign of concentration as before.[n.1154] MA: This refers to the jhāna that was used as the basis for insight. If, after emerging from the basic jhāna, his mind does not enter into voidness through insight contemplation on his own aggregates or those of others, and he also cannot attain the imperturbable immaterial attainment, he should return to the same basic jhāna that he originally developed and attend to it again and again. Then he gives attention to voidness internally. While he is giving attention to voidness internally, his mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: ‘While I am giving attention to voidness internally, my mind enters into voidness internally and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.

"He gives attention to voidness externally … He gives attention to voidness internally and externally … He gives attention to imperturbability. While he is giving attention to imperturbability, his mind enters into imperturbability and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision. When that is so, he understands thus: ‘While I am giving attention to imperturbability, my mind enters into imperturbability and acquires confidence, steadiness, and decision.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.

9"When a bhikkhu abides thus, if his mind inclines to walking, he walks, thinking: ‘While I am walking thus, no evil unwholesome states of covetousness and grief will beset me.’ In this way he has full awareness of that. And when a bhikkhu abides thus, if his mind inclines to standing, he stands … If his mind inclines to sitting, he sits … If his mind inclines to lying down, he lies down, thinking: ‘While I am lying down thus, no evil unwholesome states will beset me.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.


10"When a bhikkhu abides thus, if his mind inclines to talking, he resolves: ‘Such talk as is low, vulgar, coarse, ignoble, unbeneficial, and which does not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbāna, that is, talk of kings, robbers, ministers, armies, dangers, battles, food, drink, clothing, beds, garlands, perfumes, relatives, vehicles, villages, towns, cities, countries, women, heroes, streets, wells, the dead, trivialities, the origin of the world, the origin of the sea, whether things are so or are not so: such talk I shall not utter.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.

"But he resolves: ‘Such talk as deals with effacement, as favours the mind's release, and which leads to complete disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbāna, that is, talk on wanting little, on contentment, seclusion, aloofness from society, arousing energy, virtue, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, knowledge and vision of deliverance: such talk I shall utter.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.


11"When a bhikkhu abides thus, if his mind inclines to thinking, he resolves: ‘Such thoughts as are low, vulgar, coarse, ignoble, unbeneficial, and which do not lead to disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbāna, that is, thoughts of sensual desire, thoughts of ill will, and thoughts of cruelty: such thoughts I shall not think.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.

"But he resolves: ‘Such thoughts as are noble and emancipating, and lead the one who practises in accordance with them to the complete destruction of suffering, that is, thoughts of renunciation, thoughts of non-ill will, and thoughts of non-cruelty: such thoughts I shall think.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.


12"Ānanda, there are these five cords of sensual pleasure.[n.1155] According to MA, up to this point the Buddha has shown the training for the attainment of the first two paths, those of stream-entry and once-returning. He now speaks the present passage (§12) to point out the insight needed to attain the path of non-returning, which culminates in the abandoning of sensual desire. What five? Forms cognizable by the eye that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. Sounds cognizable by the ear … Odours cognizable by the nose … Flavours cognizable by the tongue … Tangibles cognizable by the body that are wished for, desired, agreeable, and likeable, connected with sensual desire and provocative of lust. These are the five cords of sensual pleasure.


"Herein a bhikkhu should constantly review his own mind thus: ‘Does any mental excitement concerning any base among these five cords of sensual pleasure ever arise in me?’ If, on reviewing his mind, the bhikkhu understands: ‘Mental excitement concerning a certain base among these five cords of sensual pleasure does arise in me,’ then he understands: ‘Desire and lust for the five cords of sensual pleasure are unabandoned in me.’ In this way he has full awareness of that. But if, on reviewing his mind, the bhikkhu understands: ‘No mental excitement concerning any base among these five cords of sensual pleasure arises in me,’ then he understands: ‘Desire and lust for the five cords of sensual pleasure are abandoned in me.’ In this way he has full awareness of that.


13"Ānanda, there are these five aggregates affected by clinging, [n.1156] This passage (§13) points out the insight needed to attain the path of arahantship, which culminates in the abandoning of the conceit "I am." in regard to which a bhikkhu should abide contemplating rise and fall thus: ‘Such is material form, such its arising, such its disappearance; such is feeling, such its arising, such its disappearance; such is perception, such its arising, such its disappearance; such are formations, such their arising, such their disappearance; such is consciousness, such its arising, such its disappearance.’

"When he abides contemplating rise and fall in these five aggregates affected by clinging, the conceit ‘I am’ based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is abandoned in him. When that is so, that bhikkhu understands: ‘The conceit "I am" based on these five aggregates affected by clinging is abandoned in me.’ In that way he has full awareness of that.

"These states are entirely wholesome and have a wholesome outcome; they are noble, supramundane, and inaccessible to the Evil One.

"What do you think, Ānanda? What good does a disciple see that he should seek the Teacher's company even if he is told to go away?"

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One, guided by the Blessed One, have the Blessed One as their resort. It would be good if the Blessed One would explain the meaning of these words. Having heard it from the Blessed One, the bhikkhus will remember it."


14"Ānanda, a disciple should not seek the Teacher's company for the sake of discourses, stanzas, and expositions. Why is that? For a long time, Ānanda, you have learned the teachings, remembered them, recited them verbally, examined them with the mind, and penetrated them well by view. But such talk as deals with effacement, as favours the mind's release, and which leads to complete disenchantment, dispassion, cessation, peace, direct knowledge, enlightenment, and Nibbāna, that is, talk on wanting little, on contentment, seclusion, aloofness from society, arousing energy, virtue, concentration, wisdom, deliverance, knowledge and vision of deliverance: for the sake of such talk a disciple should seek the Teacher's company even if he is told to go away.

15"Since this is so, Ānanda, a teacher's undoing may come about, a pupil's undoing may come about, and the undoing of one who lives the holy life may come about.[n.1157] Ācariyūpaddava, antevāsūpaddava, brahmacariyūpaddava. Upaddava may also be rendered as disaster, calamity. MA explains that the Buddha speaks the present passage to show the danger in solitude when one does not fulfil the proper purpose of solitary living. The "teacher" is a teacher outside the Buddha’s Dispensation.

16"And how does a teacher's undoing come about? Here some teacher resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest, the root of a tree, a mountain, a ravine, a hillside cave, a charnel ground, a jungle thicket, an open space, a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, and as a result he goes astray, becomes filled with desire, succumbs to craving, and reverts to luxury. This teacher is said to be undone by the teacher's undoing. He has been struck down by evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. This is how the teacher's undoing comes about.

17"And how does a pupil's undoing come about? A pupil of that teacher, emulating the teacher's seclusion, resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest … a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, and as a result he goes astray, becomes filled with desire, succumbs to craving, and reverts to luxury. This pupil is said to be undone by the pupil's undoing. He has been struck down by evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. This is how the pupil's undoing comes about.

18"And how does the undoing of one who lives the holy life come about? Here a Tathāgata appears in the world, accomplished and fully enlightened, perfect in true knowledge and conduct, sublime, knower of worlds, incomparable leader of persons to be tamed, teacher of gods and humans, enlightened, blessed. He resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest … a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, yet he does not go astray, or become filled with desire, succumb to craving, and revert to luxury. But a disciple of this teacher, emulating his teacher's seclusion, resorts to a secluded resting place: the forest … a heap of straw. While he lives thus withdrawn, brahmins and householders from town and country visit him, and as a result he goes astray, becomes filled with desire, succumbs to craving, and reverts to luxury. This one who lives the holy life is said to be undone by the undoing of one who lives the holy life. He has been struck down by evil unwholesome states that defile, bring renewal of being, give trouble, ripen in suffering, and lead to future birth, ageing, and death. Thus there comes to be the undoing of one who leads the holy life.


19And herein, Ānanda, the undoing of one who leads the holy life has a more painful result, a more bitter result, than the teacher's undoing or the pupil's undoing, and it even leads to perdition.[n.1158] MA: The going forth into homelessness outside the Dispensation brings small gain, so one who falls away from that falls away only from mundane attainment; he meets with no great suffering, as one who falls from the back of a donkey merely becomes covered with dust. But the going forth in the Buddha’s Dispensation brings great gain — the paths, fruits, and Nibbāna. Thus one who falls away from this meets great suffering, like one who falls from the back of an elephant.

20"Therefore, Ānanda, behave towards me with friendliness, not with hostility. That will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.

21And how do disciples behave towards the Teacher with hostility, not with friendliness? Here, Ānanda, compassionate and seeking their welfare, the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to the disciples out of compassion: ‘This is for your welfare, this is for your happiness.’ His disciples do not want to hear or give ear or exert their minds to understand; they err and turn aside from the Teacher's Dispensation. Thus do disciples behave towards the Teacher with hostility, not with friendliness.

22"And how do disciples behave towards the Teacher with friendliness, not with hostility? Here, Ānanda, compassionate and seeking their welfare, the Teacher teaches the Dhamma to the disciples out of compassion: ‘This is for your welfare, this is for your happiness.’ His disciples want to hear and give ear and exert their minds to understand; they do not err and turn aside from the Teacher's Dispensation. Thus do disciples behave towards the Teacher with friendliness, not with hostility.

23Therefore, Ānanda, behave towards me with friendliness, not with hostility. That will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.

"I shall not treat you as the potter treats the raw damp clay. Repeatedly restraining you, I shall speak to you, Ānanda. Repeatedly admonishing you, I shall speak to you, Ānanda. The sound core will stand the test."[n.1159] The contrast in this simile is between the way the potter treats the raw damp clay and the way he treats the baked pots produced from the clay. MA paraphrases: "After advising once I shall not be silent; I shall advise and instruct by repeatedly admonishing you. Just as the potter tests the baked pots, puts aside those that are cracked, split, or faulty, and keeps only those that pass the test, so I shall advise and instruct by repeatedly testing you. Those among you who are sound, having reached the paths and fruits, will stand the test." MA adds that the mundane virtuous qualities are also intended as a criterion of soundness.

24That is what the Blessed One said. The venerable Ānanda was satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words.


1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sakkesu viharati kapilavatthusmiṁ nigrodhārāme.

Atha kho bhagavā pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya kapilavatthuṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Kapilavatthusmiṁ piṇḍāya caritvā pacchābhattaṁ piṇḍapātapaṭikkanto yena kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāro tenupasaṅkami divāvihārāya. Tena kho pana samayena kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre sambahulāni senāsanāni paññattāni honti. Addasā kho bhagavā kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre sambahulāni senāsanāni paññattāni. Disvāna bhagavato etadahosi: "sambahulāni kho kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre senāsanāni paññattāni. Sambahulā nu kho idha bhikkhū viharantī"ti.

2Tena kho pana samayena āyasmā ānando sambahulehi bhikkhūhi saddhiṁ ghaṭāya sakkassa vihāre cīvarakammaṁ karoti. Atha kho bhagavā sāyanhasamayaṁ paṭisallānā vuṭṭhito yena ghaṭāya sakkassa vihāro tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā paññatte āsane nisīdi. Nisajja kho bhagavā āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ āmantesi:

"sambahulāni kho, ānanda, kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre senāsanāni paññattāni. Sambahulā nu kho ettha bhikkhū viharantī"ti? =

"Sambahulāni, bhante, kāḷakhemakassa sakkassa vihāre senāsanāni paññattāni. Sambahulā bhikkhū ettha viharanti. Cīvarakārasamayo no, bhante, vattatī"ti.

3"Na kho, ānanda, bhikkhu sobhati saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikarato saṅgaṇikārāmataṁ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito. So vatānanda, bhikkhu saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikarato saṅgaṇikārāmataṁ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito yaṁ taṁ nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhisukhaṁ tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti — netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Yo ca kho so, ānanda, bhikkhu eko gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho viharati tassetaṁ bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ yaṁ taṁ nekkhammasukhaṁ pavivekasukhaṁ upasamasukhaṁ sambodhisukhaṁ tassa sukhassa nikāmalābhī bhavissati akicchalābhī akasiralābhīti — ṭhānametaṁ vijjati.

4So vatānanda, bhikkhu saṅgaṇikārāmo saṅgaṇikarato saṅgaṇikārāmataṁ anuyutto gaṇārāmo gaṇarato gaṇasammudito sāmāyikaṁ vā kantaṁ cetovimuttiṁ upasampajja viharissati asāmāyikaṁ vā akuppanti — netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati. Yo ca kho so, ānanda, bhikkhu eko gaṇasmā vūpakaṭṭho viharati tassetaṁ bhikkhuno pāṭikaṅkhaṁ sāmāyikaṁ vā kantaṁ cetovimuttiṁ upasampajja viharissati asāmāyikaṁ vā akuppanti — ṭhānametaṁ vijjati.

5Nāhaṁ, ānanda, ekaṁ rūpampi samanupassāmi yattha rattassa yathābhiratassa rūpassa vipariṇāmaññathābhāvā na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassūpāyāsā.

6Ayaṁ kho panānanda, vihāro tathāgatena abhisambuddho yadidaṁ — sabbanimittānaṁ amanasikārā ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ upasampajja viharituṁ. Tatra ce, ānanda, tathāgataṁ iminā vihārena viharantaṁ bhavanti upasaṅkamitāro bhikkhū bhikkhuniyo upāsakā upāsikāyo rājāno rājamahāmattā titthiyā titthiyasāvakā. Tatrānanda, tathāgato vivekaninneneva cittena vivekapoṇena vivekapabbhārena vūpakaṭṭhena nekkhammābhiratena byantībhūtena sabbaso āsavaṭṭhānīyehi dhammehi aññadatthu uyyojanikapaṭisaṁyuttaṁyeva kathaṁ kattā hoti.

Tasmātihānanda, bhikkhu cepi ākaṅkheyya: ‘ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ upasampajja vihareyyan’ti, tenānanda, bhikkhunā ajjhattameva cittaṁ saṇṭhapetabbaṁ sannisādetabbaṁ ekodi kātabbaṁ samādahātabbaṁ.

7Kathañcānanda, bhikkhu ajjhattameva cittaṁ saṇṭhapeti sannisādeti ekodiṁ karoti samādahati?

Idhānanda, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi … pe … paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati … pe … dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Evaṁ kho, ānanda, bhikkhu ajjhattameva cittaṁ saṇṭhapeti sannisādeti ekodiṁ karoti samādahati.

So ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ manasi karoti. Tassa ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ manasikaroto suññatāya cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Evaṁ santametaṁ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti: ‘ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ kho me manasikaroto ajjhattaṁ suññatāya cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

So bahiddhā suññataṁ manasi karoti … pe … so ajjhattabahiddhā suññataṁ manasi karoti … pe … so āneñjaṁ manasi karoti. Tassa āneñjaṁ manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccati. Evaṁ santametaṁ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti: ‘āneñjaṁ kho me manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṁ na pakkhandati nappasīdati na santiṭṭhati na vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

8Tenānanda, bhikkhunā tasmiṁyeva purimasmiṁ samādhinimitte ajjhattameva cittaṁ saṇṭhapetabbaṁ sannisādetabbaṁ ekodi kātabbaṁ samādahātabbaṁ. So ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ manasi karoti. Tassa ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ manasikaroto ajjhattaṁ suññatāya cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Evaṁ santametaṁ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti: ‘ajjhattaṁ suññataṁ kho me manasikaroto ajjhattaṁ suññatāya cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

So bahiddhā suññataṁ manasi karoti … pe … so ajjhattabahiddhā suññataṁ manasi karoti … pe … so āneñjaṁ manasi karoti. Tassa āneñjaṁ manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccati. Evaṁ santametaṁ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti: ‘āneñjaṁ kho me manasikaroto āneñjāya cittaṁ pakkhandati pasīdati santiṭṭhati vimuccatī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

9Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato caṅkamāya cittaṁ namati, so caṅkamati: ‘evaṁ maṁ caṅkamantaṁ nābhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato ṭhānāya cittaṁ namati, so tiṭṭhati: ‘evaṁ maṁ ṭhitaṁ nābhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato nisajjāya cittaṁ namati, so nisīdati: ‘evaṁ maṁ nisinnaṁ nābhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato sayanāya cittaṁ namati, so sayati: ‘evaṁ maṁ sayantaṁ nābhijjhādomanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssavissantī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.


10Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato kathāya cittaṁ namati, so: ‘yāyaṁ kathā hīnā gammā pothujjanikā anariyā anatthasaṁhitā na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattati, seyyathidaṁ — rājakathā corakathā mahāmattakathā senākathā bhayakathā yuddhakathā annakathā pānakathā vatthakathā sayanakathā mālākathā gandhakathā ñātikathā yānakathā gāmakathā nigamakathā nagarakathā janapadakathā itthikathā surākathā visikhākathā kumbhaṭṭhānakathā pubbapetakathā nānattakathā lokakkhāyikā samuddakkhāyikā itibhavābhavakathā iti vā iti — evarūpiṁ kathaṁ na kathessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Yā ca kho ayaṁ, ānanda, kathā abhisallekhikā cetovinīvaraṇasappāyā ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati, seyyathidaṁ — appicchakathā santuṭṭhikathā pavivekakathā asaṁsaggakathā vīriyārambhakathā sīlakathā samādhikathā paññākathā vimuttikathā vimuttiñāṇadassanakathā iti: ‘evarūpiṁ kathaṁ kathessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.


11Tassa ce, ānanda, bhikkhuno iminā vihārena viharato vitakkāya cittaṁ namati, so: ‘ye te vitakkā hīnā gammā pothujjanikā anariyā anatthasaṁhitā na nibbidāya na virāgāya na nirodhāya na upasamāya na abhiññāya na sambodhāya na nibbānāya saṁvattanti, seyyathidaṁ — kāmavitakko byāpādavitakko vihiṁsāvitakko iti evarūpe vitakke na vitakkessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Ye ca kho ime, ānanda, vitakkā ariyā niyyānikā niyyanti takkarassa sammādukkhakkhayāya, seyyathidaṁ — nekkhammavitakko abyāpādavitakko avihiṁsāvitakko iti: ‘evarūpe vitakke vitakkessāmī’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.


12Pañca kho ime, ānanda, kāmaguṇā. Katame pañca? Cakkhuviññeyyā rūpā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā, sotaviññeyyā saddā … ghānaviññeyyā gandhā … jivhāviññeyyā rasā … kāyaviññeyyā phoṭṭhabbā iṭṭhā kantā manāpā piyarūpā kāmūpasaṁhitā rajanīyā — ime kho, ānanda, pañca kāmaguṇā.


Yattha bhikkhunā abhikkhaṇaṁ sakaṁ cittaṁ paccavekkhitabbaṁ: ‘atthi nu kho me imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu aññatarasmiṁ vā aññatarasmiṁ vā āyatane uppajjati cetaso samudācāro’ti? Sace, ānanda, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno evaṁ pajānāti: ‘atthi kho me imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu aññatarasmiṁ vā aññatarasmiṁ vā āyatane uppajjati cetaso samudācāro’ti, evaṁ santametaṁ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti: ‘yo kho imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu chandarāgo so me nappahīno’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti. Sace panānanda, bhikkhu paccavekkhamāno evaṁ pajānāti: ‘Natthi kho me imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu aññatarasmiṁ vā aññatarasmiṁ vā āyatane uppajjati cetaso samudācāro’ti, evaṁ santametaṁ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti: ‘yo kho imesu pañcasu kāmaguṇesu chandarāgo so me pahīno’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.


13Pañca kho ime, ānanda, upādānakkhandhā yattha bhikkhunā udayabbayānupassinā vihātabbaṁ: ‘iti rūpaṁ iti rūpassa samudayo iti rūpassa atthaṅgamo, iti vedanā … iti saññā … iti saṅkhārā … iti viññāṇaṁ iti viññāṇassa samudayo iti viññāṇassa atthaṅgamo’ti.

Tassa imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu udayabbayānupassino viharato yo pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu asmimāno so pahīyati. Evaṁ santametaṁ, ānanda, bhikkhu evaṁ pajānāti: ‘yo kho imesu pañcasu upādānakkhandhesu asmimāno so me pahīno’ti. Itiha tattha sampajāno hoti.

Ime kho te, ānanda, dhammā ekantakusalā kusalāyātikā ariyā lokuttarā anavakkantā pāpimatā.

Taṁ kiṁ maññasi, ānanda, kaṁ atthavasaṁ sampassamāno arahati sāvako satthāraṁ anubandhituṁ api paṇujjamāno"ti?

"Bhagavaṁmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā bhagavaṁnettikā bhagavaṁpaṭisaraṇā. Sādhu vata, bhante, bhagavantaṁyeva paṭibhātu etassa bhāsitassa attho. Bhagavato sutvā bhikkhū dhāressantī"ti.


14"Na kho, ānanda, arahati sāvako satthāraṁ anubandhituṁ, yadidaṁ suttaṁ geyyaṁ veyyākaraṇaṁ tassa hetu. Taṁ kissa hetu? Dīgharattassa hi te, ānanda, dhammā sutā dhātā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. Yā ca kho ayaṁ, ānanda, kathā abhisallekhikā cetovinīvaraṇasappāyā ekantanibbidāya virāgāya nirodhāya upasamāya abhiññāya sambodhāya nibbānāya saṁvattati, seyyathidaṁ — appicchakathā santuṭṭhikathā pavivekakathā asaṁsaggakathā vīriyārambhakathā sīlakathā samādhikathā paññākathā vimuttikathā vimuttiñāṇadassanakathā — evarūpiyā kho, ānanda, kathāya hetu arahati sāvako satthāraṁ anubandhituṁ api paṇujjamāno.

15Evaṁ sante kho, ānanda, ācariyūpaddavo hoti, evaṁ sante antevāsūpaddavo hoti, evaṁ sante brahmacārūpaddavo hoti.

16Kathañcānanda, ācariyūpaddavo hoti? Idhānanda, ekacco satthā vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ. Tassa tathāvūpakaṭṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhmaṇagahapatikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhmaṇagahapatikesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchaṁ nikāmayati, gedhaṁ āpajjati, āvattati bāhullāya. Ayaṁ vuccatānanda, upaddavo ācariyo. Ācariyūpaddavena avadhiṁsu naṁ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṁkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, ānanda, ācariyūpaddavo hoti.

17Kathañcānanda, antevāsūpaddavo hoti? Tasseva kho panānanda, satthu sāvako tassa satthu vivekamanubrūhayamāno vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ. Tassa tathāvūpakaṭṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhmaṇagahapatikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhmaṇagahapatikesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchaṁ nikāmayati, gedhaṁ āpajjati, āvattati bāhullāya. Ayaṁ vuccatānanda, upaddavo antevāsī. Antevāsūpaddavena avadhiṁsu naṁ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, ānanda, antevāsūpaddavo hoti.

18Kathañcānanda, brahmacārūpaddavo hoti? Idhānanda, tathāgato loke uppajjati arahaṁ sammāsambuddho vijjācaraṇasampanno sugato lokavidū anuttaro purisadammasārathi satthā devamanussānaṁ buddho bhagavā. So vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ. Tassa tathāvūpakaṭṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhmaṇagahapatikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhmaṇagahapatikesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca na mucchaṁ nikāmayati, na gedhaṁ āpajjati, na āvattati bāhullāya. Tasseva kho panānanda, satthu sāvako tassa satthu vivekamanubrūhayamāno vivittaṁ senāsanaṁ bhajati araññaṁ rukkhamūlaṁ pabbataṁ kandaraṁ giriguhaṁ susānaṁ vanapatthaṁ abbhokāsaṁ palālapuñjaṁ. Tassa tathāvūpakaṭṭhassa viharato anvāvattanti brāhmaṇagahapatikā negamā ceva jānapadā ca. So anvāvattantesu brāhmaṇagahapatikesu negamesu ceva jānapadesu ca mucchaṁ nikāmayati, gedhaṁ āpajjati, āvattati bāhullāya. Ayaṁ vuccatānanda, upaddavo brahmacārī. Brahmacārūpaddavena avadhiṁsu naṁ pāpakā akusalā dhammā saṅkilesikā ponobbhavikā sadarā dukkhavipākā āyatiṁ jātijarāmaraṇiyā. Evaṁ kho, ānanda, brahmacārūpaddavo hoti.


19Tatrānanda, yo cevāyaṁ ācariyūpaddavo, yo ca antevāsūpaddavo ayaṁ tehi brahmacārūpaddavo dukkhavipākataro ceva kaṭukavipākataro ca, api ca vinipātāya saṁvattati.

20Tasmātiha maṁ, ānanda, mittavatāya samudācaratha, mā sapattavatāya. Taṁ vo bhavissati dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya.

21Kathañcānanda, satthāraṁ sāvakā sapattavatāya samudācaranti, no mittavatāya? Idhānanda, satthā sāvakānaṁ dhammaṁ deseti anukampako hitesī anukampaṁ upādāya: ‘idaṁ vo hitāya, idaṁ vo sukhāyā’ti. Tassa sāvakā na sussūsanti, na sotaṁ odahanti, na aññā cittaṁ upaṭṭhapenti, vokkamma ca satthusāsanā vattanti. Evaṁ kho, ānanda, satthāraṁ sāvakā sapattavatāya samudācaranti, no mittavatāya.

22Kathañcānanda, satthāraṁ sāvakā mittavatāya samudācaranti, no sapattavatāya? Idhānanda, satthā sāvakānaṁ dhammaṁ deseti anukampako hitesī anukampaṁ upādāya: ‘idaṁ vo hitāya, idaṁ vo sukhāyā’ti. Tassa sāvakā sussūsanti, sotaṁ odahanti, aññā cittaṁ upaṭṭhapenti, na ca vokkamma satthusāsanā vattanti. Evaṁ kho, ānanda, satthāraṁ sāvakā mittavatāya samudācaranti, no sapattavatāya.

23Tasmātiha maṁ, ānanda, mittavatāya samudācaratha, mā sapattavatāya. Taṁ vo bhavissati dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya.

Na vo ahaṁ, ānanda, tathā parakkamissāmi yathā kumbhakāro āmake āmakamatte. Niggayha niggayhāhaṁ, ānanda, vakkhāmi; pavayha pavayha, ānanda, vakkhāmi. Yo sāro so ṭhassatī"ti.

24Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamano āyasmā ānando bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandīti.


Mahāsuññatasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dutiyaṁ.