Light/Dark

Majjhima Nikāya

MN22: Alagaddūpama Sutta - The Simile of the Snake

Setting

1Thus have I heard.[n.248] This sutta with a fine introduction and detailed notes is available in a translation by Nyanaponika Thera, The Discourse on the Snake Simile. On one occasion the Blessed One was living at Sāvatthī in Jeta's Grove, Anāthapiṇḍika's Park.

Now on that occasion a pernicious view had arisen in a bhikkhu named Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, thus: "As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them.[n.249] In making this assertion he directly contradicts the third of the four intrepidities of the Tathāgata — see MN  .25. According to MA, while reflecting in seclusion he came to the conclusion that there would be no harm if bhikkhus were to engage in sexual relations with women and he maintained that this should not be prohibited by the monastic rules. Though his statement does not expressly mention the sexual issue, the similes about sensual pleasures brought forth by the bhikkhus lend credence to the commentary.

2Several bhikkhus, having heard about this, went to the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha and asked him: "Friend Ariṭṭha, is it true that such a pernicious view has arisen in you?"


"Exactly so, friends. As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them."


3–7Then these bhikkhus, desiring to detach him from that pernicious view, pressed and questioned and cross-questioned him thus: "Friend Ariṭṭha, do not say so. Do not misrepresent the Blessed One; it is not good to misrepresent the Blessed One. The Blessed One would not speak thus. For in many ways the Blessed One has stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them. The Blessed One has stated that sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering and despair, and that the danger in them is still more. [n.250] The first seven similes for sense pleasures are expanded upon at MN 54.14–35. With the simile of the skeleton … with the simile of the piece of meat … with the simile of the grass torch … with the simile of the pit of coals … with the simile of the dream … with the simile of the borrowed goods … with the simile of fruits on a tree … with the simile of the butcher's knife and block … with the simile of the sword stake … with the simile of the snake's head, the Blessed One has stated that sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering and despair, and that the danger in them is still more.ʺ


8Yet although pressed and questioned and cross-questioned by those bhikkhus in this way, the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, still obstinately adhered to that pernicious view and continued to insist upon it. Since the bhikkhus were unable to detach him from that pernicious view, they went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, they sat down at one side and told him all that had occurred, adding: "Venerable sir, since we could not detach the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, from this pernicious view, we have reported this matter to the Blessed One."


9Then the Blessed One addressed a certain bhikkhu thus: "Come, bhikkhu, tell the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, in my name that the Teacher calls him." — "Yes, venerable sir," he replied, and he went to the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha and told him: "The Teacher calls you, friend Ariṭṭha."

"Yes, friend," he replied, and he went to the Blessed One, and after paying homage to him, sat down at one side. The Blessed One then asked him: "Ariṭṭha, is it true that the following pernicious view has arisen in you: ‘As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them’?"


"Exactly so, venerable sir. As I understand the Dhamma taught by the Blessed One, those things called obstructions by the Blessed One are not able to obstruct one who engages in them."

10"Misguided man, to whom have you ever known me to teach the Dhamma in that way? Misguided man, have I not stated in many ways how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them? I have stated that sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering and despair, and that the danger in them is still more. With the simile of the skeleton … with the simile of the piece of meat … with the simile of the grass torch … with the simile of the pit of coals … with the simile of the dream … with the simile of the borrowed goods … with the simile of fruits on a tree … with the simile of the butcher's knife and block … with the simile of the sword stake … with the simile of the snake's head, I have stated that sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering and despair, and that the danger in them is still more. But you, misguided man, by your wrong grasp have misrepresented us, injured yourself, and stored up much demerit; for this will lead to your harm and suffering for a long time.ʺ[n.251] This first part of the Ariṭṭha episode occurs twice in the Vinaya Pịaka. At Vin ii.25 it leads to the Saṅgha announcing an act of suspension (ukkhepaniyakamma) against Ariṭṭha for refusing to give up his wrong view. At Vin iv.133–34 his refusal to give up his wrong view after repeated admonitions is defined as a monastic offence of the Pācittiya class.


11Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus, what do you think? Has this bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, kindled even a spark of wisdom in this Dhamma and Discipline?"


"How could he, venerable sir? No, venerable sir."

When this was said, the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, sat silent, dismayed, with shoulders drooping and head down, glum, and without response. Then, knowing this, the Blessed One told him: "Misguided man, you will be recognised by your own pernicious view. I shall question the bhikkhus on this matter."


12Then the Blessed One addressed the bhikkhus thus: "Bhikkhus, do you understand the Dhamma taught by me as this bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, does when by his wrong grasp he misrepresents us, injures himself and stores up much demerit?"

"No, venerable sir. For in many ways the Blessed One has stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them. The Blessed One has stated that sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering and despair, and that the danger in them is still more. With the simile of the skeleton … with the simile of the snake's head, the Blessed One has stated … that the danger in them is still more."

13" Good, bhikkhus. It is good that you understand the Dhamma taught by me thus. For in many ways I have stated how obstructive things are obstructions, and how they are able to obstruct one who engages in them.

14I have stated that sensual pleasures provide little gratification, much suffering and despair, and that the danger in them is still more. With the simile of the skeleton … with the simile of the snake's head, I have stated … that the danger in them is still more. But this bhikkhu Ariṭṭha, formerly of the vulture killers, by his wrong grasp misrepresents us, injures himself, and stores up much demerit; for this will lead to this misguided man's harm and suffering for a long time.

"Bhikkhus, that one can engage in sensual pleasures without sensual desires, without perceptions of sensual desire, without thoughts of sensual desire — that is impossible.[n.252] Though the Pali uses the one word kāma in all four cases, from the context the first phrase must be understood to refer to objective sensual pleasures, i.e., sensually enjoyable objects, the other phrases to refer to subjective defilements connected with sensuality, i.e ., sensual desire. MA glosses "that one can engage in sensual pleasures" with "that one can indulge in sexual intercourse." sures" with "that one can indulge in sexual intercourse." MṬ says that other physical acts expressive of sexual desire such as hugging and stroking should be included.

The Simile of the Snake

15"Here, bhikkhus, some misguided men learn the Dhamma — discourses, stanzas, expositions, verses, exclamations, sayings, birth stories, marvels, and answers to questions — but having learned the Dhamma, they do not examine the meaning of those teachings with wisdom. Not examining the meaning of those teachings with wisdom, they do not gain a reflective acceptance of them. Instead they learn the Dhamma only for the sake of criticising others and for winning in debates, and they do not experience the good for the sake of which they learned the Dhamma. Those teachings, being wrongly grasped by them, conduce to their harm and suffering for a long time.[n.253] MA explains that this passage is stated in order to show the fault in wrongly motivated acquisition of intellectual knowledge of the Dhamma — apparently the pitfall into which Ariṭṭha fell. The "good (attha) for the sake of which they learned the Dhamma" is the paths and fruits. Why is that? Because of the wrong grasp of those teachings.


16"Suppose a man needing a snake, seeking a snake, wandering in search of a snake, saw a large snake and grasped its coils or its tail. It would turn back on him and bite his hand or his arm or one of his limbs, and because of that he would come to death or deadly suffering. Why is that? Because of his wrong grasp of the snake. So too, here some misguided men learn the Dhamma … Why is that? Because of the wrong grasp of those teachings.


17"Here, bhikkhus, some clansmen learn the Dhamma — discourses … answers to questions — and having learned the Dhamma, they examine the meaning of those teachings with wisdom. Examining the meaning of those teachings with wisdom, they gain a reflective acceptance of them. They do not learn the Dhamma for the sake of criticising others and for winning in debates, and they experience the good for the sake of which they learned the Dhamma. Those teachings, being rightly grasped by them, conduce to their welfare and happiness for a long time. Why is that? Because of the right grasp of those teachings.

18"Suppose a man needing a snake, seeking a snake, wandering in search of a snake, saw a large snake and caught it rightly with a cleft stick, and having done so, grasped it rightly by the neck. Then although the snake might wrap its coils round his hand or his arm or his limbs, still he would not come to death or deadly suffering because of that. Why is that? Because of his right grasp of the snake. So too, here some clansmen learn the Dhamma … Why is that? Because of the right grasp of those teachings.


"Therefore, bhikkhus, when you understand the meaning of my statements, remember it accordingly; and when you do not understand the meaning of my statements, then ask either me about it or those bhikkhus who are wise.

The Simile of the Raft

19"Bhikkhus, I shall show you how the Dhamma is similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not for the purpose of grasping.[n.254] This famous "simile of the raft" continues the same argument against misuse of learning introduced by the simile of the snake. One who is preoccupied with using the Dhamma to stir up controversy and win debates carries the Dhamma around on his head instead of using it to cross the flood. Listen and attend closely to what I shall say." — "Yes, venerable sir," the bhikkhus replied. The Blessed One said this:

20"Bhikkhus, suppose a man in the course of a journey saw a great expanse of water, whose near shore was dangerous and fearful and whose further shore was safe and free from fear, but there was no ferryboat or bridge for going to the far shore. Then he thought: ‘There is this great expanse of water, whose near shore is dangerous and fearful and whose further shore is safe and free from fear, but there is no ferryboat or bridge for going to the far shore. Suppose I collect grass, twigs, branches, and leaves and bind them together into a raft, and supported by the raft and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far shore.’ And then the man collected grass, twigs, branches, and leaves and bound them together into a raft, and supported by the raft and making an effort with his hands and feet, he got safely across to the far shore. Then, when he had got across and had arrived at the far shore, he might think thus: ‘This raft has been very helpful to me, since supported by it and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far shore. Suppose I were to hoist it on my head or load it on my shoulder, and then go wherever I want.’ Now, bhikkhus, what do you think? By doing so, would that man be doing what should be done with that raft?"


21"No, venerable sir."

"By doing what would that man be doing what should be done with that raft? Here, bhikkhus, when that man got across and had arrived at the far shore, he might think thus: ‘This raft has been very helpful to me, since supported by it and making an effort with my hands and feet, I got safely across to the far shore. Suppose I were to haul it onto the dry land or set it adrift in the water, and then go wherever I want.’ Now, bhikkhus, it is by so doing that that man would be doing what should be done with that raft. So I have shown you how the Dhamma is similar to a raft, being for the purpose of crossing over, not for the purpose of grasping.

"Bhikkhus, when you know the Dhamma to be similar to a raft, you should abandon even the teachings, how much more so things contrary to the teachings.[n.255] Dhammā pi vo pahātabbā pageva adhammā. The word dhammā is ambiguous here. MA interprets it as meaning good states, which it identifies with serenity and insight (samatha-vipassanā) thus in its paraphrase of the text: "I teach, bhikkhus, even the abandoning of desire and attachment to such peaceful and sublime states as serenity and insight, how much more so to that low, vulgar, contemptible, coarse, and impure thing that this foolish Ariṭṭha sees as harmless when he says that there is no obstruction in desire and lust for the five cords of sensual pleasure." The commentator cites MN 66.26–33 as an example of the Buddha teaching the abandonment of attachment to serenity, MN 38.14 as an example of his teaching the abandonment of attachment to insight. Note that in each case it is the attachment to the good states that should be abandoned, not the good states themselves.
Despite MA, it seems to me that dhammā here signifies, not good states themselves, but the teachings, the correct attitude to which was delineated just above in the simile of the snake. The simile of the raft thus intimates that even the teachings that are to be rightly grasped must finally be relinquished. This, however, is not an invitation to moral nihilism, but a warning that even attachment to the noble teachings is an obstacle to progress. What is contrary to the teachings, adhammā, would include the moral laxity that the bhikkhu Ariṭṭha advocated.

Standpoints for Views

22"Bhikkhus, there are these six standpoints for views.[n.256] This section evidently has the purpose of forestalling another type of misconception and misrepresentation of the Dhamma, i.e., the introduction of a view of self into the teaching. According to MA, standpoints for views (diṭṭhiṭṭhāna) are wrong views themselves as grounds for other more elaborate wrong views; the objects of views, i.e., the five aggregates; and the conditions for views, i.e., such factors as ignorance, perverted perception, and false thoughts, etc. What are the six? Here, bhikkhus, an untaught ordinary person, who has no regard for noble ones and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, who has no regard for true men and is unskilled and undisciplined in their Dhamma, regards material form thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.ʹ[n.257] MA states that the notion "this is mine" is induced by craving, the notion "this I am" by conceit, and the notion "this is my self" by wrong views. These three — craving, conceit, and views — are called the three obsessions (gāha). They are also the mainsprings behind conceiving (MN 1) and mental proliferation (MN 18). He regards feeling thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ He regards perception thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ He regards formations thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.’ He regards what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, encountered, sought, mentally pondered thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.ʹ[n.258] This series of terms shows the aggregate of consciousness indirectly, by way of its object. The "seen" points to eye-consciousness, the "heard" to ear-consciousness, the "sensed" to the other three kinds of sense consciousness, and the remaining terms to mind-consciousness. And this standpoint for views, namely, ‘That which is the self is the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as long as eternity’ — this too he regards thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self.ʹ[n.259] This is a full-fledged eternalist view arisen on the basis of one of the earlier, more rudimentary types of personality view; here it becomes itself an object of craving, conceit, and the false view of self. This view seems to reflect the philosophy of the Upanishads, which assert the identity of the individual self (ātman) with the universal spirit (brahman), though it is difficult to determine on the basis of the texts whether the Buddha was personally acquainted with the early Upanishads themselves.

23"Bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple who has regard for noble ones and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, who has regard for true men and is skilled and disciplined in their Dhamma, regards material form thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards feeling thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards perception thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards formations thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ He regards what is seen, heard, sensed, cognized, encountered, sought, mentally pondered thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ And this standpoint for views, namely, ‘That which is the self is the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as long as eternity’ — this too he regards thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’

"Since he regards them thus, he is not agitated about what is non-existent.ʺ[n.260] Asati na paritassati. The noun form paritassanā, according to MA, has the twofold connotation of fear and craving, thus "agitation" was chosen as comprehending both. Agitation about what is non-existent externally (verse 18) refers to the worldling's despair over the loss or non-acquisition of possessions; agitation about what is non-existent internally (verse 20) to the eternalist's despair when he misinterprets the Buddha’s teaching on Nibbāna as a doctrine of annihilation.

Agitation

24When this was said, a certain bhikkhu asked the Blessed One: "Venerable sir, can there be agitation about what is non-existent externally?"

ʺ There can be, bhikkhu, ʺ the Blessed One said. ʺHere, bhikkhu, someone thinks thus: ‘Alas, I had it! Alas, I have it no longer! Alas, may I have it! Alas, I do not get it!’ Then he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught. That is how there is agitation about what is non-existent externally."

25"Venerable sir, can there be no agitation about what is non-existent externally?"

"There can be, bhikkhu, " the Blessed One said. " Here, bhikkhu, someone does not think thus: ‘Alas I had it! Alas, I have it no longer! Alas, may I have it! Alas, I do not get it!’ Then he does not sorrow, grieve, and lament, he does not weep beating his breast and become distraught. That is how there is no agitation about what is non-existent externally."

26"Venerable sir, can there be agitation about what is non-existent internally?"

"There can be, bhikkhu," the Blessed One said. " Here, bhikkhu, someone has the view: ‘That which is the self is the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as long as eternity.’ He hears the Tathāgata or a disciple of theTathāgata teaching the Dhamma for the elimination of all standpoints, decisions, obsessions, adherences, and underlying tendencies, for the stilling of all formations, for the relinquishing of all attachments, for the destruction of craving, for dispassion, for cessation, for Nibbāna. He thinks thus: ‘So I shall be annihilated! So I shall perish! So I shall be no more!’ Then he sorrows, grieves, and laments, he weeps beating his breast and becomes distraught. That is how there is agitation about what is non-existent internally."

27"Venerable sir, can there be no agitation about what is non-existent internally?"

"There can be, bhikkhu, " the Blessed One said. " Here, bhikkhu, someone does not have the view: ‘That which is the self is the world … I shall endure as long as eternity.’ He hears the Tathāgata or a disciple of the Tathāgata teaching the Dhamma for the elimination of all standpoints, decisions, obsessions, adherences, and underlying tendencies, for the stilling of all formations, for the relinquishing of all attachments, for the destruction of craving, for dispassion, for cessation, for Nibbāna. He does not think thus: ‘So I shall be annihilated! So I shall perish! So I shall be no more!’ Then he does not sorrow, grieve, and lament, he does not weep beating his breast and become distraught. That is how there is no agitation about what is non-existent internally.

Impermanence and not Self

28"Bhikkhus, you may well acquire that possession that is permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and that might endure as long as eternity.[n.261] Pariggahaṁ parigaṇheyyātha, lit. "you may possess that possession." This links up with verse 18 on agitation about external possessions, see n. 176. This passage links up with §20 on agitation arising from a view of self. But do you see any such possession, bhikkhus?" — "No, venerable sir." — "Good, bhikkhus. I too do not see any possession that is permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change, and that might endure as long as eternity.

29"Bhikkhus, you may well cling to that doctrine of self that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who clings to it.[n.262] Attavādupādānaṁ upādiyetha, lit. "you may cling to that clinging to a doctrine of self." On the problem this idiom involves for translation, see n.176. This passage links up with verse 20 on agitation arising from a view of self. But do you see any such doctrine of self, bhikkhus?" — "No, venerable sir." — "Good, bhikkhus. I too do not see any doctrine of self that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who clings to it.


30"Bhikkhus, you may well take as a support that view that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who takes it as a support.[n.263] The support of views (diṭṭhinissaya), according to MA, is the sixty-two views mentioned in the Brahmajāla Sutta (DN 1), which emerge from personality view or "doctrine of a self." It might also include the pernicious view adopted by Ariṭṭha at the beginning of the sutta. But do you see any such support of views, bhikkhus?" — "No, venerable sir." — "Good, bhikkhus. I too do not see any support of views that would not arouse sorrow, lamentation, pain, grief, and despair in one who takes it as a support.


31"Bhikkhus, there being a self, would there be for me what belongs to a self?"[n.264] The notion "what belongs to self" or "self's property" (attaniya) is ascribed to whichever among the five aggregates are not identified as self, as well as to all the individual's external possessions. This passage shows the mutual dependence, and thus the equal untenability, of the twin notions "I" and "mine."

32"Yes, venerable sir."

33"Or, there being what belongs to a self, would there be for me a self?" — "Yes, venerable sir."

34"Bhikkhus, since a self and what belongs to a self are not apprehended as true and established, then this standpoint for views, namely, ‘That which is the self is the world; after death I shall be permanent, everlasting, eternal, not subject to change; I shall endure as long as eternity’ — would it not be an utterly and completely foolish teaching?"

35"What else could it be, venerable sir, but an utterly and completely foolish teaching?"


36"Bhikkhus, what do you think? Is material form permanent or impermanent?"

37"Impermanent, venerable sir."

38"Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?"

39"Suffering, venerable sir."

40"Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, fit to be regarded thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self’?"

41"No, venerable sir."

42"Bhikkhus, what do you think? Is feeling … Is perception … Are formations … Is consciousness permanent or impermanent?"

43"Impermanent, venerable sir."

44"Is what is impermanent suffering or happiness?"

45"Suffering, venerable sir."

46"Is what is impermanent, suffering, and subject to change, fit to be regarded thus: ‘This is mine, this I am, this is my self’?"

47"No, venerable sir."


48"Therefore, bhikkhus, any kind of material form whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all material form should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’ Any kind of feeling whatever … Any kind of perception whatever … Any kind of formations whatever … Any kind of consciousness whatever, whether past, future, or present, internal or external, gross or subtle, inferior or superior, far or near, all consciousness should be seen as it actually is with proper wisdom thus: ‘This is not mine, this I am not, this is not my self.’


49"Seeing thus, bhikkhus, a well-taught noble disciple becomes disenchanted with material form, disenchanted with feeling, disenchanted with perception, disenchanted with formations, disenchanted with consciousness.

"Being disenchanted, he becomes dispassionate. Through dispassion his mind is liberated.[n.265] According to the commentaries, disenchantment (nibbidā, also rendered "revulsion" or "disgust") signifies the culminating stages of insight, dispassion (virāga) the attainment of the supramundane path, and liberation (vimutti) the fruit. The arahant's reviewing knowledge (paccavekkhaṇañāṇa) is shown by the phrase "there comes the knowledge" and "he understands: ‘Birth is destroyed … ’." When it is liberated there comes the knowledge: ‘It is liberated.’ He understands: ‘Birth is destroyed, the holy life has been lived, what had to be done has been done, there is no more coming to any state of being.’

The Arahant

"Bhikkhus, this bhikkhu is called one whose cross-bar has been lifted, whose trench has been filled in, whose pillar has been uprooted, one who has no bolt, a noble one whose banner is lowered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered.

50"And how is the bhikkhu one whose cross-bar has been lifted? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned ignorance, has cut it off at the root, made it like a palm stump, done away with it, so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one whose cross-bar has been lifted.

51"And how is the bhikkhu one whose trench has been filled in? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned the round of births that brings renewed being, has cut it off at the root … so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one whose trench has been filled in.

52"And how is the bhikkhu one whose pillar has been uprooted? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned craving, has cut it off at the root … so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one whose pillar has been uprooted.

53"And how is the bhikkhu one who has no bolt? Here the bhikkhu has abandoned the five lower fetters, has cut them off at the root … so that they are no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is one who has no bolt.

54"And how is the bhikkhu a noble one whose banner is lowered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered? Here a bhikkhu has abandoned the conceit ‘I am,’ has cut it off at the root … so that it is no longer subject to future arising. That is how the bhikkhu is a noble one whose banner is lowered, whose burden is lowered, who is unfettered.


55"Bhikkhus, when the gods with Indra, with Brahmā and with Pajāpati seek a bhikkhu who is thus liberated in mind, they do not find anything of which they could say: ‘The consciousness of one thus gone is supported by this.’ Why is that? One thus gone, I say, is untraceable here and now.[n.266] "Thus gone" is, in Pali, tathāgata, the usual epithet of the Buddha, but here applied more broadly to the arahant. MA interprets this passage in two alternative ways thus: (1) The arahant even while alive is here and now untraceable as a being or individual (in the sense of an abiding self) because in the ultimate sense there is no being (as self). (2) The arahant is untraceable here and now because it is impossible for the gods, etc., to find the support for his insight-mind, path-mind, or fruition-mind (vipassanācitta, maggacitta, phalacitta); that is, the object being Nibbāna, his mind cannot be known by the worldling.

Misrepresentation of the Tathāgata

55a"So saying, bhikkhus, so proclaiming, I have been baselessly, vainly, falsely, and wrongly misrepresented by some recluses and brahmins thus: ‘The recluse Gotama is one who leads astray; he teaches the annihilation, the destruction, the extermination of an existing being.’[n.267] This refers back to §20, where the eternalist misunderstands the Buddha’s teaching on Nibbāna, the cessation of being, to involve the annihilation of an existing being considered as self. As I am not, as I do not proclaim, so have I been baselessly, vainly, falsely, and wrongly misrepres ented by some recluses and brahmins thus: ‘The recluse Gotama is one who leads astray; he teaches the annihilation, the destruction, the extermination of an existing being.’

56"Bhikkhus, both formerly and now what I teach is suffering and the cessation of suffering.[n.268] The import of this statement is deeper than appears on the surface. In the context of the false accusations of §55a, the Buddha is stating that he teaches that a living being is not a self but a mere conglomeration of factors, material and mental events, linked together in a process that is inherently dukkha, and that Nibbāna, the cessation of suffering, is not the annihilation of a being but the termination of that same unsatisfactory process. This statement should be read in conjunction with SN 12:15/ii.17, where the Buddha says that one with right view, who has discarded all doctrines of a self, sees that whatever arises is only dukkha arising, and whatever ceases is only dukkha ceasing. If others abuse, revile, scold, and harass the Tathāgata for that, the Tathāgata on that account feels no annoyance, bitterness, or dejection of the heart. And if others honour, respect, revere, and venerate the Tathāgata for that, the Tathāgata on that account feels no delight, joy, or elation of the heart. If others honour, respect, revere, and venerate the Tathāgata for that, the Tathāgata on that account thinks thus: ‘They perform such services as these for me in regard to this which earlier was fully understood.ʹ[n.269] "What earlier was fully understood" (pubbe pariññātaṁ) are the five aggregates. Since it is only these to which honour and abuse are shown, not an "I" or self, there is no reason for elation or dejection.

"Therefore, bhikkhus, if others abuse, revile, scold, and harass you, on that account you should not entertain any annoyance, bitterness, or dejection of the heart. And if others honour, respect, revere, and venerate you, on that account you should not entertain any delight, joy, or elation of the heart. If others honour, respect, revere, and venerate you, on that account you should think thus: ‘They perform such services as these for us in regard to this which earlier was fully understood.’

Not Yours

57"Therefore, bhikkhus, whatever is not yours, abandon it; when you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. What is it that is not yours? Material form is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. Feeling is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. Perception is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. Formations are not yours. Abandon them. When you have abandoned them, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. Consciousness is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.[n.270] MA points out that it is the attachment to the five aggregates that should be abandoned; the aggregates themselves cannot be torn apart or pulled out.

"Bhikkhus, what do you think? If people carried off the grass, sticks, branches, and leaves in this Jeta Grove, or burned them, or did what they liked with them, would you think: ‘People are carrying us off or burning us or doing what they like with us’?" — "No, venerable sir. Why not? Because that is neither our self nor what belongs to our self." — "So too, bhikkhus, whatever is not yours, abandon it; when you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time. What is it that is not yours? Material form is not yours … Feeling is not yours … Perception is not yours … Formations are not yours … Consciousness is not yours. Abandon it. When you have abandoned it, that will lead to your welfare and happiness for a long time.

In This Dhamma

58"Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork.[n.271] MA: "Chinna-pilotika: pilotikā is a torn and worn-out rag stitched and knotted here and there; there is nothing (in the Dhamma) like this — torn, worn-out, stitched and knotted by way of hypocrisy and other deceptions." In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork, there is no future round for manifestation in the case of thosebhikkhus who are arahants with taints destroyed, who have lived the holy life, done what had to be done, laid down the burden, reached their own goal, destroyed the fetters of being, and are completely liberated through final knowledge. [n.272] That is, as the arahants have achieved deliverance from the entire round of existence, it is impossible to point to any plane within the round where they might be reborn.

59"Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear … free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear … free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who have abandoned the five lower fetters are all due to reappear spontaneously in the Pure Abodes and there attain final Nibbāna, without ever returning from that world.

60"Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear … free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear … free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who have abandoned three fetters and attenuated lust, hate, and delusion are all once-returners, returning once to this world to make an end of suffering.

61"Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear … free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear … free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who have abandoned three fetters are all stream-enterers, no longer subject to perdition, bound for deliverance and headed for enlightenment.

62"Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear … free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear … free of patchwork, those bhikkhus who are Dhamma-followers or faith-followers are all headed for enlightenment. [n.273] These are two classes of individuals standing on the path of stream-entry. "Dhamma-followers" (dhammānusārin) are disciples in whom the faculty of wisdom (paññindriya) is predominant and who develop the noble path with wisdom in the lead; when they attain the fruit they are called "attained-to-view" (diṭṭi). "Faith-followers" (saddhānusārin) are disciples in whom the faculty of faith (saddhindriya) is predominant and who develop the noble path with faith in the lead; when they attain the fruit they are called "liberated-by-faith" (saddhāvimutta). See MN 70.20, 21; also Pug 1:35–36/15 and Vsm XXI, 75.

63"Bhikkhus, the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork. In the Dhamma well proclaimed by me thus, which is clear, open, evident, and free of patchwork, those who have sufficient faith in me, sufficient love for me, are all headed for heaven."[n.274] MA says that this refers to persons devoted to the practice of insight meditation who have not reached any supramundane attainment. Note that they are headed only for heaven, not for enlightenment, though if their practice matures they can attain the path of stream-entry and thus gain assurance of enlightenment. The expression saddhāmattaṁ pemamattaṁ might be rendered "simply faith, simply love" or "mere faith, mere love" (as it sometimes is), but this could not explain the guarantee of rebirth in heaven. It therefore seems obligatory to take the suffix matta here as implying a requisite amount of faith and love, not simple possession of these qualities.

64That is what the Blessed One said. The bhikkhus were satisfied and delighted in the Blessed One's words.

 

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ekaṁ samayaṁ bhagavā sāvatthiyaṁ viharati jetavane anāthapiṇḍikassa ārāme.

Tena kho pana samayena ariṭṭhassa nāma bhikkhuno gaddhabādhipubbassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ hoti: "Tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā"ti. Assosuṁ kho sambahulā bhikkhū: "ariṭṭhassa kira nāma bhikkhuno gaddhabādhipubbassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’"ti.

2Atha kho te bhikkhū yena ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etadavocuṁ: "Saccaṁ kira te, āvuso ariṭṭha, evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’"ti.


"Evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā"ti.


3Atha kho tepi bhikkhū ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetukāmā samanuyuñjanti samanugāhanti samanubhāsanti: "mā hevaṁ, āvuso ariṭṭha, avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi; na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Anekapariyāyenāvuso ariṭṭha, antarāyikā dhammā antarāyikā vuttā bhagavatā, alañca pana te paṭisevato antarāyāya. Appassādā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo. Aṭṭhikankalūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … maṁsapesūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … tiṇukkūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … aṅgārakāsūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … supinakūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … yācitakūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … rukkhaphalūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … asisūnūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … sattisūlūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … sappasirūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo"ti.

4Evampi kho ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo tehi bhikkhūhi samanuyuñjiyamāno samanugāhiyamāno samanubhāsiyamāno tadeva pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ thāmasā parāmāsā abhinivissa voharati: "evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā"ti.

5Yato kho te bhikkhū nāsakkhiṁsu ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetuṁ, atha kho te bhikkhū yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkamiṁsu; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdiṁsu. Ekamantaṁ nisinnā kho te bhikkhū bhagavantaṁ etadavocuṁ: "ariṭṭhassa nāma, bhante, bhikkhuno gaddhabādhipubbassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’ti. Assumha kho mayaṁ, bhante: ‘ariṭṭhassa kira nāma bhikkhuno gaddhabādhipubbassa evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ — tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’ti.

6Atha kho mayaṁ, bhante, yena ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo tenupasaṅkamimha; upasaṅkamitvā ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etadavocumha: ‘saccaṁ kira te, āvuso ariṭṭha, evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ — tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’ti?

7Evaṁ vutte, bhante, ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo amhe etadavoca: ‘evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’ti. Atha kho mayaṁ, bhante, ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetukāmā samanuyuñjimha samanugāhimha samanubhāsimha: ‘mā hevaṁ, āvuso ariṭṭha, avaca, mā bhagavantaṁ abbhācikkhi; na hi sādhu bhagavato abbhakkhānaṁ, na hi bhagavā evaṁ vadeyya. Anekapariyāyenāvuso ariṭṭha, antarāyikā dhammā antarāyikā vuttā bhagavatā, alañca pana te paṭisevato antarāyāya. Appassādā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo. Aṭṭhikankalūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … pe … sappasirūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo’ti.


8Evampi kho, bhante, ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo amhehi samanuyuñjiyamāno samanugāhiyamāno samanubhāsiyamāno tadeva pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ thāmasā parāmāsā abhinivissa voharati: ‘evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, āvuso, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’ti. Yato kho mayaṁ, bhante, nāsakkhimha ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etasmā pāpakā diṭṭhigatā vivecetuṁ, atha mayaṁ etamatthaṁ bhagavato ārocemā"ti.


9Atha kho bhagavā aññataraṁ bhikkhuṁ āmantesi: "ehi tvaṁ, bhikkhu, mama vacanena ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ āmantehi: ‘satthā taṁ, āvuso ariṭṭha, āmantetī’"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho so bhikkhu bhagavato paṭissutvā, yena ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etadavoca:

"satthā taṁ, āvuso ariṭṭha, āmantetī"ti. "Evamāvuso"ti kho ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo tassa bhikkhuno paṭissutvā yena bhagavā tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā bhagavantaṁ abhivādetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinnaṁ kho ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ bhagavā etadavoca: "Saccaṁ kira te, ariṭṭha, evarūpaṁ pāpakaṁ diṭṭhigataṁ uppannaṁ: ‘tathāhaṁ bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’"ti?


"Evaṁ byā kho ahaṁ, bhante, bhagavatā dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāmi: ‘yathā yeme antarāyikā dhammā vuttā bhagavatā te paṭisevato nālaṁ antarāyāyā’"ti.

10"Kassa kho nāma tvaṁ, moghapurisa, mayā evaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānāsi? Nanu mayā, moghapurisa, anekapariyāyena antarāyikā dhammā antarāyikā vuttā? Alañca pana te paṭisevato antarāyāya. Appassādā kāmā vuttā mayā, bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo. Aṭṭhikankalūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … maṁsapesūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … tiṇukkūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … aṅgārakāsūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … supinakūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … yācitakūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … rukkhaphalūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … asisūnūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … sattisūlūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … sappasirūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā, bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo. Atha ca pana tvaṁ, moghapurisa, attanā duggahitena amhe ceva abbhācikkhasi, attānañca khanasi, bahuñca apuññaṁ pasavasi. Tañhi te, moghapurisa, bhavissati dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāyā"ti.


11Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "taṁ kiṁ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nāyaṁ ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo usmīkatopi imasmiṁ dhammavinaye"ti?


"Kiñhi siyā, bhante; no hetaṁ, bhante"ti.

Evaṁ vutte, ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo tuṇhībhūto maṅkubhūto pattakkhandho adhomukho pajjhāyanto appaṭibhāno nisīdi. Atha kho bhagavā ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ tuṇhībhūtaṁ maṅkubhūtaṁ pattakkhandhaṁ adhomukhaṁ pajjhāyantaṁ appaṭibhānaṁ viditvā ariṭṭhaṁ bhikkhuṁ gaddhabādhipubbaṁ etadavoca: "paññāyissasi kho tvaṁ, moghapurisa, etena sakena pāpakena diṭṭhigatena. Idhāhaṁ bhikkhū paṭipucchissāmī"ti.


12Atha kho bhagavā bhikkhū āmantesi: "tumhepi me, bhikkhave, evaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānātha yathāyaṁ ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo attanā duggahitena amhe ceva abbhācikkhati, attānañca khanati, bahuñca apuññaṁ pasavatī"ti?

"No hetaṁ, bhante. Anekapariyāyena hi no, bhante, antarāyikā dhammā antarāyikā vuttā bhagavatā; alañca pana te paṭisevato antarāyāya. Appassādā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo. Aṭṭhikankalūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā … pe … sappasirūpamā kāmā vuttā bhagavatā bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo"ti.

13"Sādhu sādhu, bhikkhave, sādhu, kho me tumhe, bhikkhave, evaṁ dhammaṁ desitaṁ ājānātha. Anekapariyāyena hi kho, bhikkhave, antarāyikā dhammā vuttā mayā, alañca pana te paṭisevato antarāyāya.

14Appassādā kāmā vuttā mayā, bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo. Aṭṭhikankalūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā … pe … sappasirūpamā kāmā vuttā mayā, bahudukkhā bahupāyāsā, ādīnavo ettha bhiyyo. Atha ca panāyaṁ ariṭṭho bhikkhu gaddhabādhipubbo attanā duggahitena amhe ceva abbhācikkhati, attānañca khanati, bahuñca apuññaṁ pasavati. Tañhi tassa moghapurisassa bhavissati dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāya.

So vata, bhikkhave, aññatreva kāmehi aññatra kāmasaññāya aññatra kāmavitakkehi kāme paṭisevissatīti — netaṁ ṭhānaṁ vijjati.

 

15Idha, bhikkhave, ekacce moghapurisā dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti — suttaṁ, geyyaṁ, veyyākaraṇaṁ, gāthaṁ, udānaṁ, itivuttakaṁ, jātakaṁ, abbhutadhammaṁ, vedallaṁ. Te taṁ dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇitvā tesaṁ dhammānaṁ paññāya atthaṁ na upaparikkhanti. Tesaṁ te dhammā paññāya atthaṁ anupaparikkhataṁ na nijjhānaṁ khamanti. Te upārambhānisaṁsā ceva dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti itivādappamokkhānisaṁsā ca. Yassa catthāya dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti tañcassa atthaṁ nānubhonti. Tesaṁ te dhammā duggahitā dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāya saṁvattanti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Duggahitattā, bhikkhave, dhammānaṁ.


16Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso alagaddatthiko alagaddagavesī alagaddapariyesanaṁ caramāno. So passeyya mahantaṁ alagaddaṁ. Tamenaṁ bhoge vā naṅguṭṭhe vā gaṇheyya. Tassa so alagaddo paṭiparivattitvā hatthe vā bāhāya vā aññatarasmiṁ vā aṅgapaccaṅge ḍaṁseyya. So tatonidānaṁ maraṇaṁ vā nigaccheyya maraṇamattaṁ vā dukkhaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Duggahitattā, bhikkhave, alagaddassa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, idhekacce moghapurisā dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti — suttaṁ, geyyaṁ, veyyākaraṇaṁ, gāthaṁ, udānaṁ, itivuttakaṁ, jātakaṁ, abbhutadhammaṁ, vedallaṁ. Te taṁ dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇitvā tesaṁ dhammānaṁ paññāya atthaṁ na upaparikkhanti. Tesaṁ te dhammā paññāya atthaṁ anupaparikkhataṁ na nijjhānaṁ khamanti. Te upārambhānisaṁsā ceva dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti itivādappamokkhānisaṁsā ca. Yassa catthāya dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti tañcassa atthaṁ nānubhonti. Tesaṁ te dhammā duggahitā dīgharattaṁ ahitāya dukkhāya saṁvattanti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Duggahitattā, bhikkhave, dhammānaṁ.


17Idha pana, bhikkhave, ekacce kulaputtā dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti — suttaṁ, geyyaṁ, veyyākaraṇaṁ, gāthaṁ, udānaṁ, itivuttakaṁ, jātakaṁ, abbhutadhammaṁ, vedallaṁ. Te taṁ dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇitvā tesaṁ dhammānaṁ paññāya atthaṁ upaparikkhanti. Tesaṁ te dhammā paññāya atthaṁ upaparikkhataṁ nijjhānaṁ khamanti. Te na ceva upārambhānisaṁsā dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti na itivādappamokkhānisaṁsā ca. Yassa catthāya dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti tañcassa atthaṁ anubhonti. Tesaṁ te dhammā suggahitā dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya saṁvattanti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Suggahitattā bhikkhave dhammānaṁ.

18Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso alagaddatthiko alagaddagavesī alagaddapariyesanaṁ caramāno. So passeyya mahantaṁ alagaddaṁ. Tamenaṁ ajapadena daṇḍena suniggahitaṁ niggaṇheyya. Ajapadena daṇḍena suniggahitaṁ niggahitvā, gīvāya suggahitaṁ gaṇheyya. Kiñcāpi so, bhikkhave, alagaddo tassa purisassa hatthaṁ vā bāhaṁ vā aññataraṁ vā angapaccaṅgaṁ bhogehi paliveṭheyya, atha kho so neva tatonidānaṁ maraṇaṁ vā nigaccheyya maraṇamattaṁ vā dukkhaṁ. Taṁ kissa hetu? Suggahitattā, bhikkhave, alagaddassa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, idhekacce kulaputtā dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti — suttaṁ, geyyaṁ, veyyākaraṇaṁ, gāthaṁ, udānaṁ, itivuttakaṁ, jātakaṁ, abbhutadhammaṁ, vedallaṁ. Te taṁ dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇitvā tesaṁ dhammānaṁ paññāya atthaṁ upaparikkhanti. Tesaṁ te dhammā paññāya atthaṁ upaparikkhataṁ nijjhānaṁ khamanti. Te na ceva upārambhānisaṁsā dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti, na itivādappamokkhānisaṁsā ca. Yassa catthāya dhammaṁ pariyāpuṇanti, tañcassa atthaṁ anubhonti. Tesaṁ te dhammā suggahitā dīgharattaṁ atthāya hitāya sukhāya saṁvattanti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Suggahitattā, bhikkhave, dhammānaṁ.


Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, yassa me bhāsitassa atthaṁ ājāneyyātha, tathā naṁ dhāreyyātha. Yassa ca pana me bhāsitassa atthaṁ na ājāneyyātha, ahaṁ vo tattha paṭipucchitabbo, ye vā panāssu viyattā bhikkhū.

 

19Kullūpamaṁ vo, bhikkhave, dhammaṁ desessāmi nittharaṇatthāya, no gahaṇatthāya. Taṁ suṇātha, sādhukaṁ manasikarotha, bhāsissāmī"ti. "Evaṁ, bhante"ti kho te bhikkhū bhagavato paccassosuṁ. Bhagavā etadavoca: 

20"Seyyathāpi, bhikkhave, puriso addhānamaggappaṭipanno. So passeyya mahantaṁ udakaṇṇavaṁ, orimaṁ tīraṁ sāsaṅkaṁ sappaṭibhayaṁ, pārimaṁ tīraṁ khemaṁ appaṭibhayaṁ; na cassa nāvā santāraṇī uttarasetu vā apārā pāraṁ gamanāya. Tassa evamassa: ‘Ayaṁ kho mahāudakaṇṇavo, orimaṁ tīraṁ sāsaṅkaṁ sappaṭibhayaṁ, pārimaṁ tīraṁ khemaṁ appaṭibhayaṁ; natthi ca nāvā santāraṇī uttarasetu vā apārā pāraṁ gamanāya. Yannūnāhaṁ tiṇakaṭṭhasākhāpalāsaṁ saṅkaḍḍhitvā, kullaṁ bandhitvā, taṁ kullaṁ nissāya hatthehi ca pādehi ca vāyamamāno sotthinā pāraṁ uttareyyan’ti. Atha kho so, bhikkhave, puriso tiṇakaṭṭhasākhāpalāsaṁ saṅkaḍḍhitvā, kullaṁ bandhitvā taṁ kullaṁ nissāya hatthehi ca pādehi ca vāyamamāno sotthinā pāraṁ uttareyya. Tassa purisassa uttiṇṇassa pāraṅgatassa evamassa: ‘bahukāro kho me ayaṁ kullo; imāhaṁ kullaṁ nissāya hatthehi ca pādehi ca vāyamamāno sotthinā pāraṁ uttiṇṇo. Yannūnāhaṁ imaṁ kullaṁ sīse vā āropetvā khandhe vā uccāretvā yena kāmaṁ pakkameyyan’ti. Taṁ kiṁ maññatha, bhikkhave, api nu so puriso evaṁkārī tasmiṁ kulle kiccakārī assā"ti?


21"No hetaṁ, bhante".

"Kathaṁkārī ca so, bhikkhave, puriso tasmiṁ kulle kiccakārī assa? Idha, bhikkhave, tassa purisassa uttiṇṇassa pāraṅgatassa evamassa: ‘bahukāro kho me ayaṁ kullo; imāhaṁ kullaṁ nissāya hatthehi ca pādehi ca vāyamamāno sotthinā pāraṁ uttiṇṇo. Yannūnāhaṁ imaṁ kullaṁ thale vā ussādetvā udake vā opilāpetvā yena kāmaṁ pakkameyyan’ti. Evaṁkārī kho so, bhikkhave, puriso tasmiṁ kulle kiccakārī assa. Evameva kho, bhikkhave, kullūpamo mayā dhammo desito nittharaṇatthāya, no gahaṇatthāya.

Kullūpamaṁ vo, bhikkhave, dhammaṁ desitaṁ, ājānantehi dhammāpi vo pahātabbā pageva adhammā.

 

22Chayimāni, bhikkhave, diṭṭhiṭṭhānāni. Katamāni cha? Idha, bhikkhave, assutavā puthujjano ariyānaṁ adassāvī ariyadhammassa akovido ariyadhamme avinīto, sappurisānaṁ adassāvī sappurisadhammassa akovido sappurisadhamme avinīto, rūpaṁ ‘etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; vedanaṁ ‘etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; saññaṁ ‘etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; saṅkhāre ‘etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; yampi taṁ diṭṭhaṁ sutaṁ mutaṁ viññātaṁ pattaṁ pariyesitaṁ, anuvicaritaṁ manasā tampi ‘etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati; yampi taṁ diṭṭhiṭṭhānaṁ — so loko so attā, so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassāmīti — tampi ‘etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā’ti samanupassati.

23Sutavā ca kho, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako ariyānaṁ dassāvī ariyadhammassa kovido ariyadhamme suvinīto, sappurisānaṁ dassāvī sappurisadhammassa kovido sappurisadhamme suvinīto, rūpaṁ ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati; vedanaṁ ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati; saññaṁ ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati; saṅkhāre ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati; yampi taṁ diṭṭhaṁ sutaṁ mutaṁ viññātaṁ pattaṁ pariyesitaṁ, anuvicaritaṁ manasā, tampi ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati; yampi taṁ diṭṭhiṭṭhānaṁ — so loko so attā, so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassāmīti — tampi ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti samanupassati.

So evaṁ samanupassanto asati na paritassatī"ti.

 

24Evaṁ vutte, aññataro bhikkhu bhagavantaṁ etadavoca: "siyā nu kho, bhante, bahiddhā asati paritassanā"ti?

"Siyā, bhikkhū"ti — bhagavā avoca. "Idha bhikkhu ekaccassa evaṁ hoti: ‘ahu vata me, taṁ vata me natthi; siyā vata me, taṁ vatāhaṁ na labhāmī’ti. So socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṁ kandati sammohaṁ āpajjati. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhu, bahiddhā asati paritassanā hotī"ti.

25"Siyā pana, bhante, bahiddhā asati aparitassanā"ti?

"Siyā, bhikkhū"ti — bhagavā avoca. "Idha bhikkhu ekaccassa na evaṁ hoti: ‘ahu vata me, taṁ vata me natthi; siyā vata me, taṁ vatāhaṁ na labhāmī’ti. So na socati na kilamati na paridevati na urattāḷiṁ kandati na sammohaṁ āpajjati. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhu, bahiddhā asati aparitassanā hotī"ti.

26"Siyā nu kho, bhante, ajjhattaṁ asati paritassanā"ti?

"Siyā, bhikkhū"ti –  bhagavā avoca. "Idha, bhikkhu, ekaccassa evaṁ diṭṭhi hoti: ‘so loko so attā, so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassāmī’ti. So suṇāti tathāgatassa vā tathāgatasāvakassa vā sabbesaṁ diṭṭhiṭṭhānādhiṭṭhānapariyuṭṭhānābhinivesānusayānaṁ samugghātāya sabbasaṅkhārasamathāya sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggāya taṇhākkhayāya virāgāya nirodhāya nibbānāya dhammaṁ desentassa. Tassa evaṁ hoti: ‘ucchijjissāmi nāmassu, vinassissāmi nāmassu, nassu nāma bhavissāmī’ti. So socati kilamati paridevati urattāḷiṁ kandati sammohaṁ āpajjati. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhu, ajjhattaṁ asati paritassanā hotī"ti.

27"Siyā pana, bhante, ajjhattaṁ asati aparitassanā"ti?

"Siyā, bhikkhū"ti bhagavā avoca. "Idha, bhikkhu, ekaccassa na evaṁ diṭṭhi hoti: ‘so loko so attā, so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassāmī’ti. So suṇāti tathāgatassa vā tathāgatasāvakassa vā sabbesaṁ diṭṭhiṭṭhānādhiṭṭhānapariyuṭṭhānābhinivesānusayānaṁ samugghātāya sabbasaṅkhārasamathāya sabbūpadhipaṭinissaggāya taṇhākkhayāya virāgāya nirodhāya nibbānāya dhammaṁ desentassa. Tassa na evaṁ hoti: ‘ucchijjissāmi nāmassu, vinassissāmi nāmassu, nassu nāma bhavissāmī’ti. So na socati na kilamati na paridevati na urattāḷiṁ kandati na sammohaṁ āpajjati. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhu, ajjhattaṁ asati aparitassanā hoti.

 

28Taṁ, bhikkhave, pariggahaṁ pariggaṇheyyātha, yvāssa pariggaho nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṁ tatheva tiṭṭheyya. Passatha no tumhe, bhikkhave, taṁ pariggahaṁ yvāssa pariggaho nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṁ tatheva tiṭṭheyyā"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante". "Sādhu, bhikkhave. Ahampi kho taṁ, bhikkhave, pariggahaṁ na samanupassāmi yvāssa pariggaho nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo sassatisamaṁ tatheva tiṭṭheyya.

29Taṁ, bhikkhave, attavādupādānaṁ upādiyetha, yaṁsa attavādupādānaṁ upādiyato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. Passatha no tumhe, bhikkhave, taṁ attavādupādānaṁ yaṁsa attavādupādānaṁ upādiyato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante". "Sādhu, bhikkhave. Ahampi kho taṁ, bhikkhave, attavādupādānaṁ na samanupassāmi yaṁsa attavādupādānaṁ upādiyato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā.


30Taṁ, bhikkhave, diṭṭhinissayaṁ nissayetha yaṁsa diṭṭhinissayaṁ nissayato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā. Passatha no tumhe, bhikkhave, taṁ diṭṭhinissayaṁ yaṁsa diṭṭhinissayaṁ nissayato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante". "Sādhu, bhikkhave. Ahampi kho taṁ, bhikkhave, diṭṭhinissayaṁ na samanupassāmi yaṁsa diṭṭhinissayaṁ nissayato na uppajjeyyuṁ sokaparidevadukkhadomanassupāyāsā".


31"Attani vā, bhikkhave, sati ‘attaniyaṁ me’ti assā"ti?

32"Evaṁ, bhante".

33"Attaniye vā, bhikkhave, sati ‘attā me’ti assā"ti? "Evaṁ, bhante".

34"Attani ca, bhikkhave, attaniye ca saccato thetato anupalabbhamāne, yampi taṁ diṭṭhiṭṭhānaṁ: ‘so loko so attā, so pecca bhavissāmi nicco dhuvo sassato avipariṇāmadhammo, sassatisamaṁ tatheva ṭhassāmī’ti — nanāyaṁ, bhikkhave, kevalo paripūro bāladhammo"ti?

35"Kiñhi no siyā, bhante, kevalo hi, bhante, paripūro bāladhammo"ti.


36"Taṁ kiṁ maññatha, bhikkhave, rūpaṁ niccaṁ vā aniccaṁ vā"ti?

37"Aniccaṁ, bhante".

38"Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vā taṁ sukhaṁ vā"ti?

39"Dukkhaṁ, bhante".

40"Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, kallaṁ nu taṁ samanupassituṁ — etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā"ti?

41"No hetaṁ, bhante".

42"Taṁ kiṁ maññatha, bhikkhave, vedanā … pe … saññā … saṅkhārā … viññāṇaṁ niccaṁ vā aniccaṁ vā"ti?

43"Aniccaṁ, bhante".

44"Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vā taṁ sukhaṁ vā"ti?

45"Dukkhaṁ, bhante".

46"Yaṁ panāniccaṁ dukkhaṁ vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, kallaṁ nu taṁ samanupassituṁ — etaṁ mama, esohamasmi, eso me attā"ti?

47"No hetaṁ, bhante".


48"Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, yaṁ kiñci rūpaṁ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṁ, ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā, oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā, hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā, yaṁ dūre santike vā, sabbaṁ rūpaṁ ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti — evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ. Yā kāci vedanā … pe … yā kāci saññā … ye keci saṅkhārā … yaṁ kiñci viññāṇaṁ atītānāgatapaccuppannaṁ, ajjhattaṁ vā bahiddhā vā, oḷārikaṁ vā sukhumaṁ vā, hīnaṁ vā paṇītaṁ vā, yaṁ dūre santike vā, sabbaṁ viññāṇaṁ ‘netaṁ mama, nesohamasmi, na meso attā’ti — evametaṁ yathābhūtaṁ sammappaññāya daṭṭhabbaṁ.


49Evaṁ passaṁ, bhikkhave, sutavā ariyasāvako rūpasmiṁ nibbindati, vedanāya nibbindati, saññāya nibbindati, saṅkhāresu nibbindati, viññāṇasmiṁ nibbindati, nibbidā virajjati, virāgā vimuccati, vimuttasmiṁ vimuttamiti ñāṇaṁ hoti.

 

‘Khīṇā jāti, vusitaṁ brahmacariyaṁ, kataṁ karaṇīyaṁ, nāparaṁ itthattāyā’ti pajānāti. Ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ukkhittapaligho itipi, saṁkiṇṇaparikkho itipi, abbūḷhesiko itipi, niraggaḷo itipi, ariyo pannaddhajo pannabhāro visaṁyutto itipi.

50Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ukkhittapaligho hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno avijjā pahīnā hoti, ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā, āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ukkhittapaligho hoti.

51Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu saṅkiṇṇaparikkho hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno ponobbhaviko jātisaṁsāro pahīno hoti, ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato, āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu saṅkiṇṇaparikkho hoti.

52Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abbūḷhesiko hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno taṇhā pahīnā hoti, ucchinnamūlā tālāvatthukatā anabhāvaṅkatā, āyatiṁ anuppādadhammā. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu abbūḷhesiko hoti.

53Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu niraggaḷo hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno pañca orambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni pahīnāni honti, ucchinnamūlāni tālāvatthukatāni anabhāvaṅkatāni, āyatiṁ anuppādadhammāni. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu niraggaḷo hoti.

54Kathañca, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo pannaddhajo pannabhāro visaṁyutto hoti? Idha, bhikkhave, bhikkhuno asmimāno pahīno hoti, ucchinnamūlo tālāvatthukato anabhāvaṅkato, āyatiṁ anuppādadhammo. Evaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhu ariyo pannaddhajo pannabhāro visaṁyutto hoti.


55Evaṁ vimuttacittaṁ kho, bhikkhave, bhikkhuṁ saindā devā sabrahmakā sapajāpatikā anvesaṁ nādhigacchanti: ‘idaṁ nissitaṁ tathāgatassa viññāṇan’ti. Taṁ kissa hetu? Diṭṭhevāhaṁ, bhikkhave, dhamme tathāgataṁ ananuvijjoti vadāmi. Evaṁvādiṁ kho maṁ, bhikkhave, evamakkhāyiṁ eke samaṇabrāhmaṇā asatā tucchā musā abhūtena abbhācikkhanti: ‘venayiko samaṇo gotamo, sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññāpetī’ti.

 

Yathā cāhaṁ na, bhikkhave, yathā cāhaṁ na vadāmi, tathā maṁ te bhonto samaṇabrāhmaṇā asatā tucchā musā abhūtena abbhācikkhanti: ‘venayiko samaṇo gotamo, sato sattassa ucchedaṁ vināsaṁ vibhavaṁ paññāpetī’ti. Pubbe cāhaṁ, bhikkhave, etarahi ca dukkhañceva paññāpemi, dukkhassa ca nirodhaṁ. Tatra ce, bhikkhave, pare tathāgataṁ akkosanti paribhāsanti rosenti vihesenti, tatra, bhikkhave, tathāgatassa na hoti āghāto na appaccayo na cetaso anabhiraddhi.

56Tatra ce, bhikkhave, pare tathāgataṁ sakkaronti garuṁ karonti mānenti pūjenti, tatra, bhikkhave, tathāgatassa na hoti ānando na somanassaṁ na cetaso uppilāvitattaṁ. Tatra ce, bhikkhave, pare vā tathāgataṁ sakkaronti garuṁ karonti mānenti pūjenti, tatra, bhikkhave, tathāgatassa evaṁ hoti: ‘Yaṁ kho idaṁ pubbe pariññātaṁ tattha me evarūpā kārā karīyantī’ti. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, tumhe cepi pare akkoseyyuṁ paribhāseyyuṁ roseyyuṁ viheseyyuṁ, tatra tumhe hi na āghāto na appaccayo na cetaso anabhiraddhi karaṇīyā.

Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, tumhe cepi pare sakkareyyuṁ garuṁ kareyyuṁ māneyyuṁ pūjeyyuṁ, tatra tumhehi na ānando na somanassaṁ na cetaso uppilāvitattaṁ karaṇīyaṁ. Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, tumhe cepi pare sakkareyyuṁ garuṁ kareyyuṁ māneyyuṁ pūjeyyuṁ, tatra tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘Yaṁ kho idaṁ pubbe pariññātaṁ, tatthame evarūpā kārā karīyantī’ti.

 

57Tasmātiha, bhikkhave, yaṁ na tumhākaṁ taṁ pajahatha; taṁ vo pahīnaṁ dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati. Kiñca, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ? Rūpaṁ, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ, taṁ pajahatha; taṁ vo pahīnaṁ dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati. Vedanā, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ, taṁ pajahatha; sā vo pahīnā dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati. Saññā, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ, taṁ pajahatha; sā vo pahīnā dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati. Sankhārā, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ, te pajahatha; te vo pahīnā dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissanti. Viññāṇaṁ, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ, taṁ pajahatha; taṁ vo pahīnaṁ dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati.

Taṁ kiṁ maññatha, bhikkhave, yaṁ imasmiṁ jetavane tiṇakaṭṭhasākhāpalāsaṁ, taṁ jano hareyya vā daheyya vā yathāpaccayaṁ vā kareyya. Api nu tumhākaṁ evamassa: ‘amhe jano harati vā dahati vā yathāpaccayaṁ vā karotī’"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante". "Taṁ kissa hetu"? "Na hi no etaṁ, bhante, attā vā attaniyaṁ vā"ti. "Evameva kho, bhikkhave, yaṁ na tumhākaṁ taṁ pajahatha; taṁ vo pahīnaṁ dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati. Kiñca, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ? Rūpaṁ, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ, taṁ pajahatha; taṁ vo pahīnaṁ dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati. Vedanā, bhikkhave … pe … saññā, bhikkhave … saṅkhārā, bhikkhave … pe … viññāṇaṁ, bhikkhave, na tumhākaṁ, taṁ pajahatha; taṁ vo pahīnaṁ dīgharattaṁ hitāya sukhāya bhavissati.

 

58Evaṁ svākkhāto, bhikkhave, mayā dhammo uttāno vivaṭo pakāsito chinnapilotiko. Evaṁ svākkhāte, bhikkhave, mayā dhamme uttāne vivaṭe pakāsite chinnapilotike ye te bhikkhū arahanto khīṇāsavā vusitavanto katakaraṇīyā ohitabhārā anuppattasadatthā parikkhīṇabhavasaṁyojanā sammadaññāvimuttā, vaṭṭaṁ tesaṁ natthi paññāpanāya.

59Evaṁ svākkhāto, bhikkhave, mayā dhammo uttāno vivaṭo pakāsito chinnapilotiko. Evaṁ svākkhāte, bhikkhave, mayā dhamme uttāne vivaṭe pakāsite chinnapilotike yesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ pañcorambhāgiyāni saṁyojanāni pahīnāni, sabbe te opapātikā, tattha parinibbāyino, anāvattidhammā tasmā lokā.

60Evaṁ svākkhāto, bhikkhave, mayā dhammo uttāno vivaṭo pakāsito chinnapilotiko. Evaṁ svākkhāte, bhikkhave, mayā dhamme uttāne vivaṭe pakāsite chinnapilotike yesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ tīṇi saṁyojanāni pahīnāni, rāgadosamohā tanubhūtā, sabbe te sakadāgāmino, sakideva imaṁ lokaṁ āgantvā dukkhassantaṁ karissanti.

61Evaṁ svākkhāto, bhikkhave, mayā dhammo uttāno vivaṭo pakāsito chinnapilotiko. Evaṁ svākkhāte, bhikkhave, mayā dhamme uttāne vivaṭe pakāsite chinnapilotike yesaṁ bhikkhūnaṁ tīṇi saṁyojanāni pahīnāni, sabbe te sotāpannā, avinipātadhammā, niyatā sambodhiparāyanā.

62Evaṁ svākkhāto, bhikkhave, mayā dhammo uttāno vivaṭo pakāsito chinnapilotiko. Evaṁ svākkhāte, bhikkhave, mayā dhamme uttāne vivaṭe pakāsite chinnapilotike ye te bhikkhū dhammānusārino saddhānusārino sabbe te sambodhiparāyanā.

63Evaṁ svākkhāto, bhikkhave, mayā dhammo uttāno vivaṭo pakāsito chinnapilotiko. Evaṁ svākkhāte, bhikkhave, mayā dhamme uttāne vivaṭe pakāsite chinnapilotike yesaṁ mayi saddhāmattaṁ pemamattaṁ sabbe te saggaparāyanā"ti.

64Idamavoca bhagavā. Attamanā te bhikkhū bhagavato bhāsitaṁ abhinandunti.

Alagaddūpamasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ dutiyaṁ.