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Majjhima Nikāya

MN108: Gopakamoggallānasutta - With Gopaka Moggallāna

1Thus have I heard. On one occasion the venerable Ānanda was living at Rājagaha in the Bamboo Grove, the Squirrels’ Sanctuary, not long after the Blessed One had attained to final Nibbāna.[n.1031] MA says that after the Buddha’s relics had been distributed, Ven. Ānanda had come to Rājagaha for the recitation of the Dhamma (at the first Great Council).

Now on that occasion King Ajātasattu Vedehiputta of Magadha, being suspicious of King Pajjota, was having Rājagaha fortified.[n.1032] King Pajjota was a friend of King Bimbisāra of Magadha, who had been killed by his son Ajātasattu. According to MA, Ajātasattu thought King Pajjota might seek to avenge his friend's murder.

Then, when it was morning, the venerable Ānanda dressed, and taking his bowl and outer robe, went into Rājagaha for alms. Then the venerable Ānanda thought: "It is still too early to wander for alms in Rājagaha. Suppose I went to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna at his workplace."


2So the venerable Ānanda went to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna at his workplace. The brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna saw the venerable Ānanda coming in the distance and said to him: "Let Master Ānanda come! Welcome to Master Ānanda! It is long since Master Ānanda found an opportunity to come here. Let Master Ānanda be seated; this seat is ready." The venerable Ānanda sat down on the seat made ready. The brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna took a low seat, sat down at one side, and asked the venerable Ānanda:


"Master Ānanda, is there any single bhikkhu who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened?"

"There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the producer of the unproduced path, the declarer of the undeclared path; he was the knower of the path, the finder of the path, the one skilled in the path. But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards."

But this discussion between the venerable Ānanda and the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna was interrupted;


3For then the brahmin Vassakāra, the chief minister of Magadha, [n.1033] See DN16. while supervising the work at Rājagaha, went to the venerable Ānanda at the workplace of the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna. He exchanged greetings with the venerable Ānanda, and when this courteous and amiable talk was finished, he sat down at one side and asked the venerable Ānanda: "For what discussion are you sitting together here now, Master Ānanda? And what was your discussion that was interrupted?"

"Brahmin, the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna asked me: ‘Master Ānanda, is there any single bhikkhu who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by Master Gotama, accomplished and fully enlightened?’ I replied to the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna: ‘There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path … But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards.’ This was our discussion that was interrupted when you arrived."


4"Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama thus: ‘He will be your refuge when I am gone,’ and whom you now have recourse to?"

"There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who was appointed by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, thus: ‘He will be your refuge when I am gone,’ and whom we now have recourse to."

"But is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Saṅgha and appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: ‘He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,’ and whom you now have recourse to?"

"There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who has been chosen by the Saṅgha and appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: ‘He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone,’ and whom we now have recourse to."

"But if you have no refuge, Master Ānanda, what is the cause for your concord?"

"We are not without a refuge, brahmin. We have a refuge; we have the Dhamma as our refuge."


5"But when you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama thus: "He will be your refuge when I am gone," and whom you now have recourse to?’ you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu … whom we now have recourse to.’ When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Saṅgha and appointed by a number of elder bhikkhus thus: "He will be our refuge after the Blessed One has gone," and whom you now have recourse to?’ you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu … … whom we now have recourse to.’ When you were asked: ‘But if you have no refuge, Master Ānanda, what is the cause for your concord?’ you answered: ‘We are not without a refuge, brahmin. We have a refuge; we have the Dhamma as our refuge.’ Now how should the meaning of these statements be regarded, Master Ānanda?"

6"Brahmin, the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened, has prescribed the course of training for bhikkhus and he has laid down the Pāṭimokkha. On the Uposatha day as many of us as live in dependence upon a single village district meet together in unison, and when we meet we ask one who knows the Pāṭimokkha to recite it. If a bhikkhu remembers an offence or a transgression while the Pāṭimokkha is being recited, we make him act in accordance with the Dhamma, in accordance with the instructions. It is not the worthy ones that make us act; it is the Dhamma that makes us act."[n.1034] The import of this statement is that the Saṅgha is not governed by the personal judgements of its members but by the Dhamma and disciplinary code laid down for it by the Buddha. In this the bhikkhus follow the Buddha’s final injunction: "What I have taught and explained to you as Dhamma and Discipline will, at my passing, be your teacher" (DN16).


7"Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu whom you now honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom you live in dependence honouring and respecting him?"

… "There is a single bhikkhu, brahmin, whom we now honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom we live in dependence honouring and respecting him."

8"But when you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who was appointed by Master Gotama … ?’ you answered ‘There is no such single bhikkhu … ’ When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu who has been chosen by the Saṅgha … ?’ you answered: ‘There is no such single bhikkhu … ’ When you were asked: ‘Is there, Master Ānanda, any single bhikkhu whom you honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom you live in dependence honouring and respecting him?’ you answered: ‘There is such a single bhikkhu whom we now honour … and on whom we live in dependence honouring and respecting him.’ Now how should the meaning of these statements be regarded, Master Ānanda?"


9"There are, brahmin, ten qualities inspiring confidence that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened. When these qualities are found in anyone among us, we honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him honouring and respecting him. What are the ten?

10(1) "Here, brahmin, a bhikkhu is virtuous, he dwells restrained with the restraint of the Pāṭimokkha, he is perfect in conduct and resort, and seeing fear in the slightest faults, he trains himself by undertaking the training precepts.


11(2) "He has learned much, remembers what he has learned, and consolidates what he has learned. Such teachings as are good in the beginning, good in the middle, and good in the end, with the right meaning and phrasing, and which affirm a holy life that is utterly perfect and pure — such teachings as these he has learned much of, remembered, mastered verbally, investigated with the mind, and penetrated well by view.

12(3) "He is content with his robes, almsfood, resting place, and medicinal requisites.

13(4) "He obtains at will, without trouble or difficulty, the four jhānas that constitute the higher mind and provide a pleasant abiding here and now.


14(5) "He wields the various kinds of supernormal power: having been one, he becomes many; having been many, he becomes one; he appears and vanishes; he goes unhindered through a wall, through an enclosure, through a mountain as though through space; he dives in and out of the earth as though it were water; he walks on water without sinking as though it were earth; seated cross-legged, he travels in space like a bird; with his hand he touches and strokes the moon and sun so powerful and mighty; he wields bodily mastery even as far as the Brahma-world.

15(6) "With the divine ear element, which is purified and surpasses the human, he hears both kinds of sounds, the divine and the human, those that are far as well as near.

16(7) "He understands the minds of other beings, of other persons, having encompassed them with his own mind. He understands a mind affected by lust as affected by lust and a mind unaffected by lust as unaffected by lust; he understands a mind affected by hate as affected by hate and a mind unaffected by hate as unaffected by hate; he understands a mind affected by delusion as affected by delusion and a mind unaffected by delusion as unaffected by delusion; he understands a contracted mind as contracted and a distracted mind as distracted; he understands an exalted mind as exalted and an unexalted mind as unexalted; he understands a surpassed mind as surpassed and an unsurpassed mind as unsurpassed; he understands a concentrated mind as concentrated and an unconcentrated mind as unconcentrated; he understands a liberated mind as liberated and an unliberated mind as unliberated.

17(8) "He recollects his manifold past lives, that is, one birth, two births, three births, four births, five births, ten births, twenty births, thirty births, forty births, fifty births, a hundred births, a thousand births, a hundred thousand births, many aeons of world-contraction, many aeons of world-expansion, many aeons of world-contraction and expansion: ‘There I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared elsewhere; and there too I was so named, of such a clan, with such an appearance, such was my nutriment, such my experience of pleasure and pain, such my life-term; and passing away from there, I reappeared here.’ Thus with their aspects and particulars he recollects his manifold past lives.

18(9) "With the divine eye, which is purified and surpasses the human, he sees beings passing away and reappearing, inferior and superior, fair and ugly, fortunate and unfortunate, and he understands how beings pass on according to their actions.


19(10) "By realising for himself with direct knowledge, he here and now enters upon and abides in the deliverance of mind and deliverance by wisdom that are taintless with the destruction of the taints.

20"These, brahmin, are the ten qualities inspiring confidence that have been declared by the Blessed One who knows and sees, accomplished and fully enlightened. When these qualities are found in anyone among us, we honour, respect, revere, and venerate him, and live in dependence on him honouring and respecting him."

21When this was said, the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, said to General Upananda: "What do you think, general? When these worthy ones honour one who should be honoured, respect one who should be respected, revere one who should be revered, and venerate one who should be venerated, surely they honour one who should be honoured … and venerate one who should be venerated. For if these worthy ones did not honour, respect, revere, and venerate such a person, then whom could they honour, respect, revere, and venerate, and on whom could they live in dependence honouring and respecting?"


22Then the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, said to the venerable Ānanda: "Where is Master Ānanda living now?"

"Now I am living in the Bamboo Grove, brahmin."

"I hope, Master Ānanda, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant, quiet and undisturbed by voices, with an atmosphere of seclusion, remote from people, favourable for retreat."

"Indeed, brahmin, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant … favourable for retreat is because of such guardian protectors as yourself."

23"Indeed, Master Ānanda, that the Bamboo Grove is pleasant … favourable for retreat is because of the worthy ones who are meditators and cultivate meditation. The worthy ones are meditators and cultivate meditation.

24On one occasion, Master Ānanda, Master Gotama was living at Vesālī in the Hall with the Peaked Roof in the Great Wood. Then I went there and approached Master Gotama, and in many ways he gave a talk about meditation. Master Gotama was a meditator and cultivated meditation, and he praised every type of meditation."

25"The Blessed One, brahmin, did not praise every type of meditation, nor did he condemn every type of meditation. What kind of meditation did the Blessed One not praise? Here, brahmin, someone abides with his mind obsessed by sensual lust, a prey to sensual lust, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen sensual lust. While he harbours sensual lust within, he meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates.[n.1035] Jhāyanti pajjhāyanti nijjhāyanti apajjhāyanti. Though the verbs individually do not have an established pejorative sense, the string is obviously intended as a denigration. At MN 108.26 the four verbs are used to describe the meditation of one whose mind is obsessed by the five hindrances. He abides with his mind obsessed by ill will, a prey to ill will … with his mind obsessed by sloth and torpor, a prey to sloth and torpor … with his mind obsessed by restlessness and remorse, a prey to restlessness and remorse … with his mind obsessed by doubt, a prey to doubt, and he does not understand as it actually is the escape from arisen doubt. While he harbours doubt within, he meditates, premeditates, out-meditates, and mismeditates. The Blessed One did not praise that kind of meditation.


26"And what kind of meditation did the Blessed One praise? Here, brahmin, quite secluded from sensual pleasures, secluded from unwholesome states, a bhikkhu enters upon and abides in the first jhāna … With the stilling of applied and sustained thought, he enters upon and abides in the second jhāna … With the fading away as well of rapture … he enters upon and abides in the third jhāna … With the abandoning of pleasure and pain … he enters upon and abides in the fourth jhāna … The Blessed One praised that kind of meditation."

27"It seems, Master Ānanda, that Master Gotama censured that kind of meditation that should be censured and praised that kind of meditation that should be praised. And now, Master Ānanda, we depart. We are busy and have much to do."

"You may go, brahmin, at your own convenience."

Then the brahmin Vassakāra, the minister of Magadha, having delighted and rejoiced in the venerable Ānanda's words, rose from his seat and departed.


28Then, soon after he had left, the brahmin Gopaka Moggallāna said to the venerable Ānanda: "Master Ānanda has not yet answered what we asked him."

"Did we not tell you, brahmin: ‘There is no single bhikkhu, brahmin, who possesses in each and every way all those qualities that were possessed by the Blessed One, accomplished and fully enlightened. For the Blessed One was the arouser of the unarisen path, the producer of the unproduced path, the declarer of the undeclared path; he was the knower of the path, the finder of the path, the one skilled in the path. But his disciples now abide following that path and become possessed of it afterwards’?"

1Evaṁ me sutaṁ — ​ ekaṁ samayaṁ āyasmā ānando rājagahe viharati veḷuvane kalandakanivāpe aciraparinibbute bhagavati.

Tena kho pana samayena rājā māgadho ajātasattu vedehiputto rājagahaṁ paṭisaṅkhārāpeti rañño pajjotassa āsaṅkamāno.

Atha kho āyasmā ānando pubbaṇhasamayaṁ nivāsetvā pattacīvaramādāya rājagahaṁ piṇḍāya pāvisi. Atha kho āyasmato ānandassa etadahosi: "atippago kho tāva rājagahe piṇḍāya carituṁ. Yannūnāhaṁ yena gopakamoggallānassa brāhmaṇassa kammanto, yena gopakamoggallāno brāhmaṇo tenupasaṅkameyyan"ti.


2Atha kho āyasmā ānando yena gopakamoggallānassa brāhmaṇassa kammanto, yena gopakamoggallāno brāhmaṇo tenupasaṅkami. Addasā kho gopakamoggallāno brāhmaṇo āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ dūratova āgacchantaṁ. Disvāna āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "etu kho bhavaṁ ānando. Svāgataṁ bhoto ānandassa. Cirassaṁ kho bhavaṁ ānando imaṁ pariyāyamakāsi yadidaṁ idhāgamanāya. Nisīdatu bhavaṁ ānando, idamāsanaṁ paññattan"ti. Nisīdi kho āyasmā ānando paññatte āsane. Gopakamoggallānopi kho brāhmaṇo aññataraṁ nīcaṁ āsanaṁ gahetvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho gopakamoggallāno brāhmaṇo āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca:


"atthi nu kho, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi tehi dhammehi sabbenasabbaṁ sabbathāsabbaṁ samannāgato yehi dhammehi samannāgato so bhavaṁ gotamo ahosi arahaṁ sammāsambuddho"ti?

"Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi tehi dhammehi sabbenasabbaṁ sabbathāsabbaṁ samannāgato yehi dhammehi samannāgato so bhagavā ahosi arahaṁ sammāsambuddho. So hi, brāhmaṇa, bhagavā anuppannassa maggassa uppādetā, asañjātassa maggassa sañjanetā, anakkhātassa maggassa akkhātā, maggaññū, maggavidū, maggakovido; maggānugā ca pana etarahi sāvakā viharanti pacchā samannāgatā"ti.

Ayañca hidaṁ āyasmato ānandassa gopakamoggallānena brāhmaṇena saddhiṁ antarākathā vippakatā ahosi.


3Atha kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto rājagahe kammante anusaññāyamāno yena gopakamoggallānassa brāhmaṇassa kammanto, yenāyasmā ānando tenupasaṅkami; upasaṅkamitvā āyasmatā ānandena saddhiṁ sammodi. Sammodanīyaṁ kathaṁ sāraṇīyaṁ vītisāretvā ekamantaṁ nisīdi. Ekamantaṁ nisinno kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "kāya nuttha, bho ānanda, etarahi kathāya sannisinnā, kā ca pana vo antarākathā vippakatā"ti?

"Idha maṁ, brāhmaṇa, gopakamoggallāno brāhmaṇo evamāha: ‘atthi nu kho, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi tehi dhammehi sabbenasabbaṁ sabbathāsabbaṁ samannāgato yehi dhammehi samannāgato so bhavaṁ gotamo ahosi arahaṁ sammāsambuddho’ti. Evaṁ vutte, ahaṁ, brāhmaṇa, gopakamoggallānaṁ brāhmaṇaṁ etadavocaṁ: ‘Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi tehi dhammehi sabbenasabbaṁ sabbathāsabbaṁ samannāgato yehi dhammehi samannāgato so bhagavā ahosi arahaṁ sammāsambuddho. So hi, brāhmaṇa, bhagavā anuppannassa maggassa uppādetā, asañjātassa maggassa sañjanetā, anakkhātassa maggassa akkhātā, maggaññū, maggavidū, maggakovido; maggānugā ca pana etarahi sāvakā viharanti pacchā samannāgatā’ti. Ayaṁ kho no, brāhmaṇa, gopakamoggallānena brāhmaṇena saddhiṁ antarākathā vippakatā. Atha tvaṁ anuppatto"ti.


4"Atthi nu kho, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi tena bhotā gotamena ṭhapito: ‘Ayaṁ vo mamaccayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatī’ti, yaṁ tumhe etarahi paṭipādeyyāthā"ti?

"Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ṭhapito: ‘Ayaṁ vo mamaccayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatī’ti, yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi paṭipādeyyāmā"ti.

"Atthi pana, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi saṁghena sammato, sambahulehi therehi bhikkhūhi ṭhapito: ‘Ayaṁ no bhagavato accayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatī’ti, yaṁ tumhe etarahi paṭipādeyyāthā"ti?

"Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi saṁghena sammato, sambahulehi therehi bhikkhūhi ṭhapito: ‘Ayaṁ no bhagavato accayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatī’ti, yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi paṭipādeyyāmā"ti.

"Evaṁ appaṭisaraṇe ca pana, bho ānanda, ko hetu sāmaggiyā"ti?

"Na kho mayaṁ, brāhmaṇa, appaṭisaraṇā; sappaṭisaraṇā mayaṁ, brāhmaṇa; dhammappaṭisaraṇā"ti.


5"‘Atthi nu kho, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi tena bhotā gotamena ṭhapito — ayaṁ vo mamaccayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti, yaṁ tumhe etarahi paṭipādeyyāthā’ti — iti puṭṭho samāno ‘Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ṭhapito — ayaṁ vo mamaccayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti, yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi paṭipādeyyāmā’ti vadesi; ‘atthi pana, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi saṅghena sammato, sambahulehi therehi bhikkhūhi ṭhapito –  ayaṁ no bhagavato accayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti, yaṁ tumhe etarahi paṭipādeyyāthā’ti — iti puṭṭho samāno ‘Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi saṅghena sammato, sambahulehi therehi bhikkhūhi ṭhapito — ayaṁ no bhagavato accayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti, yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi paṭipādeyyāmā’ti — vadesi; ‘evaṁ appaṭisaraṇe ca pana, bho ānanda, ko hetu sāmaggiyā’ti iti puṭṭho samāno ‘Na kho mayaṁ, brāhmaṇa, appaṭisaraṇā; sappaṭisaraṇā mayaṁ, brāhmaṇa; dhammappaṭisaraṇā’ti vadesi. Imassa pana, bho ānanda, bhāsitassa kathaṁ attho daṭṭhabbo"ti?

6"Atthi kho, brāhmaṇa, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena bhikkhūnaṁ sikkhāpadaṁ paññattaṁ, pātimokkhaṁ uddiṭṭhaṁ. Te mayaṁ tadahuposathe yāvatikā ekaṁ gāmakhettaṁ upanissāya viharāma te sabbe ekajjhaṁ sannipatāma; sannipatitvā yassa taṁ pavattati taṁ ajjhesāma. Tasmiñce bhaññamāne hoti bhikkhussa āpatti hoti vītikkamo taṁ mayaṁ yathādhammaṁ yathānusiṭṭhaṁ kāremāti. Na kira no bhavanto kārenti; dhammo no kāreti".


7"Atthi nu kho, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi yaṁ tumhe etarahi sakkarotha garuṁ karotha mānetha pūjetha; sakkatvā garuṁ katvā upanissāya viharathā"ti?

"Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi sakkaroma garuṁ karoma mānema pūjema; sakkatvā garuṁ katvā upanissāya viharāmā"ti.

8"‘Atthi nu kho, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi tena bhotā gotamena ṭhapito — ayaṁ vo mamaccayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti yaṁ tumhe etarahi paṭipādeyyāthā’ti — iti puṭṭho samāno ‘Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena ṭhapito — ayaṁ vo mamaccayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi paṭipādeyyāmā’ti vadesi; ‘atthi pana, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi saṅghena sammato, sambahulehi therehi bhikkhūhi ṭhapito — ayaṁ no bhagavato accayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti yaṁ tumhe etarahi paṭipādeyyāthā’ti — iti puṭṭho samāno ‘Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi saṅghena sammato, sambahulehi therehi bhikkhūhi ṭhapito — ayaṁ no bhagavato accayena paṭisaraṇaṁ bhavissatīti yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi paṭipādeyyāmā’ti vadesi; ‘atthi nu kho, bho ānanda, ekabhikkhupi yaṁ tumhe etarahi sakkarotha garuṁ karotha mānetha pūjetha; sakkatvā garuṁ katvā upanissāya viharathā’ti — iti puṭṭho samāno ‘Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi yaṁ mayaṁ etarahi sakkaroma garuṁ karoma mānema pūjema; sakkatvā garuṁ katvā upanissāya viharāmā’ti vadesi. Imassa pana, bho ānanda, bhāsitassa kathaṁ attho daṭṭhabbo"ti?


9"Atthi kho, brāhmaṇa, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dasa pasādanīyā dhammā akkhātā. Yasmiṁ no ime dhammā saṁvijjanti taṁ mayaṁ etarahi sakkaroma garuṁ karoma mānema pūjema; sakkatvā garuṁ katvā upanissāya viharāma. Katame dasa?

10Idha, brāhmaṇa, bhikkhu sīlavā hoti, pātimokkhasaṁvarasaṁvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno, aṇumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī, samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu. (1)


11Bahussuto hoti sutadharo sutasannicayo. Ye te dhammā ādikalyāṇā, majjhekalyāṇā, pariyosānakalyāṇā, sātthaṁ, sabyañjanaṁ, kevalaparipuṇṇaṁ parisuddhaṁ brahmacariyaṁ abhivadanti tathārūpāssa dhammā bahussutā honti dhātā vacasā paricitā manasānupekkhitā diṭṭhiyā suppaṭividdhā. (2)

12Santuṭṭho hoti cīvarapiṇḍapātasenāsanagilānappaccayabhesajjaparikkhārehi. (3)

13Catunnaṁ jhānānaṁ ābhicetasikānaṁ diṭṭhadhammasukhavihārānaṁ nikāmalābhī hoti akicchalābhī akasiralābhī. (4)


14Anekavihitaṁ iddhividhaṁ paccanubhoti — ekopi hutvā bahudhā hoti, bahudhāpi hutvā eko hoti; āvibhāvaṁ tirobhāvaṁ; tirokuṭṭaṁ tiropākāraṁ tiropabbataṁ asajjamāno gacchati, seyyathāpi ākāse; pathaviyāpi ummujjanimujjaṁ karoti, seyyathāpi udake; udakepi abhijjamāne gacchati, seyyathāpi pathaviyaṁ; ākāsepi pallankena kamati, seyyathāpi pakkhī sakuṇo; imepi candimasūriye evaṁmahiddhike evaṁmahānubhāve pāṇinā parimasati parimajjati, yāva brahmalokāpi kāyena vasaṁ vatteti. (5)

15Dibbāya sotadhātuyā visuddhāya atikkantamānusikāya ubho sadde suṇāti — dibbe ca mānuse ca, ye dūre santike ca. (6)

16Parasattānaṁ parapuggalānaṁ cetasā ceto paricca pajānāti. Sarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘sarāgaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, vītarāgaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘vītarāgaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, sadosaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘sadosaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, vītadosaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘vītadosaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, samohaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘samohaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, vītamohaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘vītamohaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, saṅkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘saṅkhittaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, vikkhittaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘vikkhittaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, mahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ ‘mahaggataṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, amahaggataṁ vā cittaṁ ‘amahaggataṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, sauttaraṁ vā cittaṁ ‘sauttaraṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, anuttaraṁ vā cittaṁ ‘anuttaraṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, samāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘samāhitaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, asamāhitaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘asamāhitaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, vimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘vimuttaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti, avimuttaṁ vā cittaṁ ‘avimuttaṁ cittan’ti pajānāti. (7)

17Anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati, seyyathidaṁ — ekampi jātiṁ dvepi jātiyo tissopi jātiyo catassopi jātiyo pañcapi jātiyo dasapi jātiyo vīsampi jātiyo tiṁsampi jātiyo cattārīsampi jātiyo paññāsampi jātiyo jātisatampi jātisahassampi jātisatasahassampi anekepi saṁvaṭṭakappe anekepi vivaṭṭakappe anekepi saṁvaṭṭavivaṭṭakappe: ‘amutrāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto amutra udapādiṁ; tatrāpāsiṁ evaṁnāmo evaṅgotto evaṁvaṇṇo evamāhāro evaṁsukhadukkhappaṭisaṁvedī evamāyupariyanto, so tato cuto idhūpapanno’ti. Iti sākāraṁ sauddesaṁ anekavihitaṁ pubbenivāsaṁ anussarati. (8)

18Dibbena cakkhunā visuddhena atikkantamānusakena satte passati cavamāne upapajjamāne hīne paṇīte suvaṇṇe dubbaṇṇe, sugate duggate yathākammūpage satte pajānāti. (9)


19Āsavānaṁ khayā anāsavaṁ cetovimuttiṁ paññāvimuttiṁ diṭṭheva dhamme sayaṁ abhiññā sacchikatvā upasampajja viharati. (10)

20Ime kho, brāhmaṇa, tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammāsambuddhena dasa pasādanīyā dhammā akkhātā. Yasmiṁ no ime dhammā saṁvijjanti taṁ mayaṁ etarahi sakkaroma garuṁ karoma mānema pūjema; sakkatvā garuṁ katvā upanissāya viharāmā"ti.

21Evaṁ vutte, vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto upanandaṁ senāpatiṁ āmantesi: "taṁ kiṁ maññati bhavaṁ senāpati yadime bhonto sakkātabbaṁ sakkaronti, garuṁ kātabbaṁ garuṁ karonti, mānetabbaṁ mānenti, pūjetabbaṁ pūjenti"? "Tagghime bhonto sakkātabbaṁ sakkaronti, garuṁ kātabbaṁ garuṁ karonti, mānetabbaṁ mānenti, pūjetabbaṁ pūjenti. Imañca hi te bhonto na sakkareyyuṁ na garuṁ kareyyuṁ na māneyyuṁ na pūjeyyuṁ; atha kiñcarahi te bhonto sakkareyyuṁ garuṁ kareyyuṁ māneyyuṁ pūjeyyuṁ, sakkatvā garuṁ katvā mānetvā pūjetvā upanissāya vihareyyun"ti?


22Atha kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "kahaṁ pana bhavaṁ ānando etarahi viharatī"ti?

"Veḷuvane khohaṁ, brāhmaṇa, etarahi viharāmī"ti.

"Kacci pana, bho ānanda, veḷuvanaṁ ramaṇīyañceva appasaddañca appanigghosañca vijanavātaṁ manussarāhasseyyakaṁ paṭisallānasāruppan"ti?

"Taggha, brāhmaṇa, veḷuvanaṁ ramaṇīyañceva appasaddañca appanigghosañca vijanavātaṁ manussarāhasseyyakaṁ paṭisallānasāruppaṁ, yathā taṁ tumhādisehi rakkhakehi gopakehī"ti.

23"Taggha, bho ānanda, veḷuvanaṁ ramaṇīyañceva appasaddañca appanigghosañca vijanavātaṁ manussarāhasseyyakaṁ paṭisallānasāruppaṁ, yathā taṁ bhavantehi jhāyīhi jhānasīlīhi. Jhāyino ceva bhavanto jhānasīlino ca.

24Ekamidāhaṁ, bho ānanda, samayaṁ so bhavaṁ gotamo vesāliyaṁ viharati mahāvane kūṭāgārasālāyaṁ. Atha khvāhaṁ, bho ānanda, yena mahāvanaṁ kūṭāgārasālā yena so bhavaṁ gotamo tenupasaṅkamiṁ. Tatra ca pana so bhavaṁ gotamo anekapariyāyena jhānakathaṁ kathesi. Jhāyī ceva so bhavaṁ gotamo ahosi jhānasīlī ca. Sabbañca pana so bhavaṁ gotamo jhānaṁ vaṇṇesī"ti.

25"Na ca kho, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā sabbaṁ jhānaṁ vaṇṇesi, napi so bhagavā sabbaṁ jhānaṁ na vaṇṇesīti. Kathaṁ rūpañca, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā jhānaṁ na vaṇṇesi? Idha, brāhmaṇa, ekacco kāmarāgapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati kāmarāgaparetena, uppannassa ca kāmarāgassa nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti; so kāmarāgaṁyeva antaraṁ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. Byāpādapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati byāpādaparetena, uppannassa ca byāpādassa nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti; so byāpādaṁyeva antaraṁ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. Thinamiddhapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati thinamiddhaparetena, uppannassa ca thinamiddhassa nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti; so thinamiddhaṁyeva antaraṁ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. Uddhaccakukkuccapariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati uddhaccakukkuccaparetena, uppannassa ca uddhaccakukkuccassa nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti; so uddhaccakukkuccaṁyeva antaraṁ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. Vicikicchāpariyuṭṭhitena cetasā viharati vicikicchāparetena, uppannāya ca vicikicchāya nissaraṇaṁ yathābhūtaṁ nappajānāti; so vicikicchaṁyeva antaraṁ karitvā jhāyati pajjhāyati nijjhāyati apajjhāyati. Evarūpaṁ kho, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā jhānaṁ na vaṇṇesi.


26Kathaṁ rūpañca, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā jhānaṁ vaṇṇesi? Idha, brāhmaṇa, bhikkhu vivicceva kāmehi vivicca akusalehi dhammehi savitakkaṁ savicāraṁ vivekajaṁ pītisukhaṁ paṭhamaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Vitakkavicārānaṁ vūpasamā ajjhattaṁ sampasādanaṁ cetaso ekodibhāvaṁ avitakkaṁ avicāraṁ samādhijaṁ pītisukhaṁ dutiyaṁ jhānaṁ … tatiyaṁ jhānaṁ … catutthaṁ jhānaṁ upasampajja viharati. Evarūpaṁ kho, brāhmaṇa, so bhagavā jhānaṁ vaṇṇesī"ti.

27"Gārayhaṁ kira, bho ānanda, so bhavaṁ gotamo jhānaṁ garahi, pāsaṁsaṁ pasaṁsi. Handa ca dāni mayaṁ, bho ānanda, gacchāma; bahukiccā mayaṁ bahukaraṇīyā"ti.

"Yassadāni tvaṁ, brāhmaṇa, kālaṁ maññasī"ti.

Atha kho vassakāro brāhmaṇo magadhamahāmatto āyasmato ānandassa bhāsitaṁ abhinanditvā anumoditvā uṭṭhāyāsanā pakkāmi.


28Atha kho gopakamoggallāno brāhmaṇo acirapakkante vassakāre brāhmaṇe magadhamahāmatte āyasmantaṁ ānandaṁ etadavoca: "yaṁ no mayaṁ bhavantaṁ ānandaṁ apucchimhā taṁ no bhavaṁ ānando na byākāsī"ti.

"Nanu te, brāhmaṇa, avocumhā: ‘Natthi kho, brāhmaṇa, ekabhikkhupi tehi dhammehi sabbenasabbaṁ sabbathāsabbaṁ samannāgato yehi dhammehi samannāgato so bhagavā ahosi arahaṁ sammāsambuddho. So hi, brāhmaṇa, bhagavā anuppannassa maggassa uppādetā, asañjātassa maggassa sañjanetā, anakkhātassa maggassa akkhātā, maggaññū, maggavidū, maggakovido. Maggānugā ca pana etarahi sāvakā viharanti pacchā samannāgatā’"ti.

Gopakamoggallānasuttaṁ niṭṭhitaṁ aṭṭhamaṁ.