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Saṁyutta Nikāya — The Connected Discourses

SN24: Connected Discourses on Views

SN24:7 Cause

1At Sāvatthī. "Bhikkhus, when what exists, by clinging to what, by adhering to what, does such a view as this arise:[n.256] The doctrine of noncausality (ahetukavāda) is ascribed to Makkhali Gosāla at DN I 53,25–33, but at SN22.60 a portion of it is attributed to Pūraṇa Kassapa; see above n. 92. For the commentary, see Fruits of Recluseship, pp. 70–72. Strict determinism (niyativāda) is known to have been the main plank of Makkhali's Ājīvika philosophy, discussed in detail by Basham, History and Doctrines of the Ājīvikas, pp. 224–39. The sentence in brackets is brought in from DN I 53,28–29, but is not in the SN text or in the version at MN I 516,33–517,3. ‘There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings; beings are defiled without cause or condition. There is no cause or condition for the purification of beings; beings are purified without cause or condition. (There is no action by self, no action by others, no manly action.) There is no power, no energy, no manly strength, no manly exertion. All beings, all living beings, all creatures, all souls are without mastery, power, and energy; moulded by destiny, circumstance, and nature, they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes?"[n.257] The six classes (chaḷabhijātiyo)—the black, the blue, the red, the yellow, the white, and the ultimate white—represent stages along the Ājīvika road to perfection; see Fruits of Recluseship, pp. 73–75. At AN III 383,18–84,7 this scheme is ascribed to Pūraṇa Kassapa, which again shows the connection between the two systems (a point noted by Basham, pp. 23–24).

"Venerable sir, our teachings are rooted in the Blessed One … ."


2–3"When there is form, bhikkhus, when there is feeling … perception … volitional formations … consciousness, by clinging to consciousness, by adhering to consciousness, such a view as this arises: ‘There is no cause or condition for the defilement of beings … they experience pleasure and pain in the six classes.’ …


4"When, bhikkhus, a noble disciple has abandoned perplexity in these six cases … sn.iii.211 … he is then called a noble disciple who is a stream-enterer … with enlightenment as his destination."

1Sāvatthinidānaṁ. "Kismiṁ nu kho, bhikkhave, sati, kiṁ upādāya, kiṁ abhinivissa evaṁ diṭṭhi uppajjati: ‘Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṁ saṅkilesāya. Ahetū appaccayā sattā saṅkilissanti. Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo sattānaṁ visuddhiyā. Ahetū appaccayā sattā visujjhanti. Natthi balaṁ natthi vīriyaṁ natthi purisathāmo natthi purisaparakkamo. Sabbe sattā sabbe pāṇā sabbe bhūtā sabbe jīvā avasā abalā avīriyā niyatisaṅgatibhāvapariṇatā chasvevābhijātīsu sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’"ti? "Bhagavaṁmūlakā no, bhante, dhammā … pe …


2"Rūpe kho, bhikkhave, sati, rūpaṁ upādāya, rūpaṁ abhinivissa evaṁ diṭṭhi uppajjati: ‘Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo … pe … sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’ti. Vedanāya sati … pe … saññāya sati … saṅkhāresu sati … viññāṇe sati, viññāṇaṁ upādāya, viññāṇaṁ abhinivissa evaṁ diṭṭhi uppajjati: ‘Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo … pe … sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’ti.

3Taṁ kiṁ maññatha, bhikkhave, rūpaṁ niccaṁ vā aniccaṁ vā"ti? "Aniccaṁ, bhante … pe … vipariṇāmadhammaṁ, api nu taṁ anupādāya evaṁ diṭṭhi uppajjeyya: ‘Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo … pe … sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante". "Vedanā … saññā … saṅkhārā … viññāṇaṁ niccaṁ vā aniccaṁ vā"ti? "Aniccaṁ, bhante … pe … api nu taṁ anupādāya evaṁ diṭṭhi uppajjeyya: ‘Natthi hetu, natthi paccayo … pe … sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante". "Yampidaṁ diṭṭhaṁ sutaṁ mutaṁ viññātaṁ pattaṁ pariyesitaṁ anuvicaritaṁ manasā tampi niccaṁ vā aniccaṁ vā"ti? "Aniccaṁ, bhante … pe … api nu taṁ anupādāya evaṁ diṭṭhi uppajjeyya: ‘Natthi hetu natthi paccayo … pe … sukhadukkhaṁ paṭisaṁvedentī’"ti? "No hetaṁ, bhante".


4"Yato kho, bhikkhave, ariyasāvakassa imesu ca ṭhānesu kaṅkhā pahīnā hoti, dukkhepissa kaṅkhā pahīnā hoti … pe … dukkhanirodhagāminiyā paṭipadāyapissa kaṅkhā pahīnā hoti – ayaṁ vuccati, bhikkhave, ariyasāvako sotāpanno avinipātadhammo niyato sambodhiparāyano"ti.

Sattamaṁ.